AP Psychology: Chapter 6

selective attention, Necker
Our tendency to focus at any moment on only a limited aspect of all that we are capable of experiencing is called … This is illustrated using a figure called a … cube.

cocktail party effect
An example of this limited focus is the …. – the ability at attended selectively to only one voice among many.

inattentional blindness, visual, change blindness, change deafness, choice blindness
One example of our lack of awareness of happenings around us is to, in which – after a brief … interrupter – we fail to notice a change in the environment. Two fours of this phenomenon that involve vision and hearing, respective, are … and … Another example is: …

organize, interpret
Illusions reveal the ways we normally … and … our sensations.

visual capture
The tendency of vision to dominate the other senses is referred to as …

In a contest between hearing and touch, … dominates.

Gestalt, whole
According to the … school of psychology, we tend to organize a cluster of sensations in a …, or form.

bottom-up, top-down, experiences, expectations, fuzzy
Our tendency to perceive complete forms involves sensory analysis, or … processing of stimuli, as well as … processing that uses our …. and … to interpret our sensations. The distinction between sensation and perception in terms of these two types of information processing is (clear cut/fuzzy)

figure, ground
When we view a scene, we see the central object or …, as distinct from our surrounding stimuli, or the …

Proximity, similarity, closure, continuity, and connectedness are examples of Gestalt rules of …

The principle that we organize stimuli into smooth, continuous patterns is called ….

The principle that we fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object is …

The grouping of items that are close to each other is the principle of …

The grouping of items that look alike is the principle of …

The tendency to perceive uniform or attached items as a single unit is the principle of …

depth perception, distance
The ability to see objects in three dimensions despite their two-dimensional representations on our retinas is called … It enables us to estimate …

visual cliff, 3 months
Gibson and Walk developed the … to test depth perception in infants. By (what age?) infants demonstrate they are using Gestalt perception principles.

Any cue that requires both eyes:

retinal disparity, perceptions, brains
The greater the difference between images received by the two eyes, the nearer the object: … 3-D movies simulate this cue by photographing each scene with two cameras. This chapter’s fundamental lesson in that our … are the construction of our …

The more our eyes focus inward when we view an object, the nearer the object:

Any cue that requires either eye alone:

relative size
If two objects are presumed to be the same size, the one that casts a smaller retinal image is perceived as farther away: …

An object partially covered by another is seen as farther away:

relative clarity
Objects that appear hazy are seen as farther away:

texture gradient
As an object becomes increasingly distant, it appears progressively less distinct:

relative height
Objects lower in the visual field are seen as nearer:

relative motion
As we move, objects at different distances appear to move at different rates:

linear perspective
Parallel lines appear to converge in the distance:

light and shadow
Dimmer, or shaded, objects seem farther away.

very good, more slowly
In general, we are (very good/not very good) at quickly detecting the speed of moving objects. Sometimes, we are fooled because larger objects seem to move (faster/more slowly) than smaller objects.

movement, stroboscopic movement
The brain interprets a rapid series of slightly varying images as … This phenomenon is called …

phi phenomenon
The illusion of movement that results when two adjacent stationary spots of light blink on and off in quick succession is called the …

perceptual constancy
Our tendency to see objects as unchanging while the stimuli from them change in size, shape, and lightness is called …

top-down, angle, distance, illumination
This (bottom-up/top-down) processing enables us to identify things regardless of …, …, or … by which we view them.

do not, retinal
Due to shape and size constancy, familiar objects (do/do not) appear to change shape or size despite changes in our .. images of them.

Moon, Ponzo, Muller-Lyer, size, distance, diminished
Several illusions, including the .., …, and … illusions, are explained by the interplay between perceived .. and perceived … When distance cues are removed, these illusions are (diminished/strengthened)l

People who have lived their lives in uncarpentered rural environments are (more/less) susceptible to the Muller-Lyer illusion.

relative to
The brain computes an object’s brightness (relative to/independent of) surrounding objects.

relative luminance
The amount of light an object reflects relative to its surroundings is called …

color constancy
Thanks to … we see objects as having a constant hue relative to surrounding objects.

The idea that knowledge comes from inborn ways of organizing sensory experiences was proposed by the philosopher …

One the other side were philosophers who maintained that we learn to perceive the world by experiencing it. One philosopher of this school was …

Studies of cases in which vision has been restored to a person who was blind from birth show that upon SEEING tactilely familiar objects for the first time, the person (can/cannot) recognize them.

infancy, critical period, cataract
Studies of sensory deprivation demonstrate the visual experiences during … are crucial for perceptual development. Such experiences suggest that there is a … for normal sensory and perceptual development. For this reason, human infants born with an opaque lens, called a …, typically have corrective surgery right away.

will, perceptual adaptation
Humans given glasses that shift or invert the visual field (will/will not) adapt to the distorted perception. This is called …

do not adapt
Animals such as chicks (adapt/do not adapt) to distorting lenses.

When distorting goggles are first removed, most people experience a brief perceptual …, as their perceptual systems continue to compensate for the shifted visual input.

perceptual set
A mental predisposition that influences perception is called a …

schemas, caricatures
Through experience, people acquire perceptual …, as reflected in children’s drawings at different ages. This explains why we more accurately recognize … of famous faces that these people’s actual faces.

eyes, mouth
Our face recognition is especially attuned to the expressive areas of the … and …

context, stereotypes
How a stimulus is perceived depends on our perceptual schemas and the … in which it is experienced.

top-down, bottom-up
The context of a stimulus creates a (top-down/bottom-up) expectation that influences our perception as we match our (top-down/bottom-up) signal against it.

stereotypes, emotional
Our perception is also influenced by … about gender and the … context of our experiences.

human factors
Psychologists who study the importance of considering perceptual principles in the design of machines, appliances, and work settings are called … psychologists.

Victims of the “curse of knowledge,” technology developers who assume that others share their …, may create designs that are unclear to others.

assistive listening
Another example of failure to consider the human factor in design is the “….” technology that provides embarrassing headsets that amplify sound for people with hearing loss.

extrasensory perception
Perception outside the range of normal sensation is called …

Psychologists who study ESP are called …

telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition, psychokinesis
The form of ESP in which people claim to be capable of reading others’ minds is called … A person who “senses” that a friend is in danger might claim to have the ESP ability of … An ability to “see” into the future is called … A person who claims to be able to levitate and move objects is claiming the power of …

chance-level, interpreted; reconstruct
Analyses of psychic visions and premonitions reveal (high/chance-level) accuracy. Nevertheless, some people continue to believe in their accuracy because vague predictions often are later … to match events that have already occurred. In addition, people are more likely to recall or … dreams that seem to have come true.

Critics point out that a major difficult for parapsychology is that ESP phenomena are not consistently …

beat, failed to replicate the results
Researchers who tried to reduce external distractions between a “sender” and a “receiver” in an ESP experiment, reported performance levels that (beat/did not beat) chance levels. More recent studies (failed to replicate the results/found equally high levels of performance).

The philosopher … first proposed that we perceive objects through the senses, with the mind.

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