AP Psychology Chapter 6 Perception

Selective Attention
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in the cocktail party effect

Inattentional Blindness
failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere

Visual Capture
the tendency for vision to dominate the other senses

Gestalt
a configuration or pattern of elements so unified as a whole that it cannot be described merely as a sum of its parts

Figure-ground
the organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground).

Grouping
any number of entities (members) considered as a unit

Depth Perception
the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance

Visual Cliff
a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals

Binocular Cues
depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on the use of two eyes

Retinal Disparity
a binocular cue for perceiving depth; by comparing images from the two eyeballs, the brain computes distance – the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the close the object

Convergence
the occurrence of two or more things coming together

Monocular Cues
depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone

Phi Phenomenon
an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession

Perceptual Constancy
perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent lightness, color, shape, and size) even as illumination and retinal images change

Perceptual Adaptation
in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field

Perceptual Set
a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another

Human Factors Psychology
the study of how people and machines interact and the design of safe and easily used machines and environments

Extrasensory Perception
apparent power to perceive things that are not present to the senses

Parapsychology
phenomena that appear to contradict physical laws and suggest the possibility of causation by mental processes

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