AP Psych Unit 6

little albert
subject in John Watson’s experiment, proved classical conditioning principles, especially the generalization of fear
albert bandura
researcher famous for work in observational or social learning including the famous Bobo doll experiment
john garcia
Researched taste aversion. Showed that when rats ate a novel substance before being nauseated by a drug or radiation, they developed a conditioned taste aversion for the substance.
ivan pavlov
Russian physiologist who observed conditioned salivary responses in dogs (1849-1936)
rosalie rayner
graduate student of Watson and co-researcher for the famous Little Albert demonstration of classically conditioned emotion
martin seligman
researcher known for work on learned helplessness and learned optimism as well as positive psychology
bf skinner
1904-1990; Field: behavioral; Contributions: created techniques to manipulate the consequences of an organism’s behavior in order to observe the effects of subsequent behavior; Studies: Skinner box
edward thorndike
behaviorism; Law of Effect-relationship between behavior and consequence *cat puzzle box
allan wagner
-showed that an animal can learn the predictability of an event
john watson
behaviorism; emphasis on external behaviors of people and their reactions on a given situation; famous for Little Albert study in which baby was taught to fear a white rat
learning
the cognitive process of acquiring skill or knowledge
habituation
being abnormally tolerant to and dependent on something that is psychologically or physically habit-forming (especially alcohol or narcotic drugs)
associative learning
learning that certain events occur together. the events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning).
classical conditioning
conditioning that pairs a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that evokes a reflex
behaviorism
an approach to psychology that emphasizes observable measurable behavior
unconditioned response
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
unconditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers a response.
conditioned response
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus
conditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
acquisition
the initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
Higher-order conditioning
a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. For example, an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone. (Also called second-order conditioning.)
extinction
a conditioning process in which the reinforcer is removed and a conditioned response becomes independent of the conditioned stimulus
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
generalization
(psychology) transfer of a response learned to one stimulus to a similar stimulus
discrimination
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
learned helplessness
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
observational learning
learning by observing others
modeling
the process of observing and imitating a behavior
mirror neurons
Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain’s mirroring of another’s action may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy.
prosocial behavior
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior
respondent behavior
Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
operant conditioning
conditioning in which an operant response is brought under stimulus control by virtue of presenting reinforcement contingent upon the occurrence of the operant response
operant behavior
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
law of effect
Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
operant chamber
a chamber also known as a Skinner box, containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal’s rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant conditioning research.
shaping
An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
discriminative stimulus
in operant conditioning, a stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement (in contrast to related stimuli not associated with reinforcement)
reinforce
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
positive reinforcement
Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
negative reinforcement
increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs
primary reinforcement
something that is naturally reinforcing, such as food (if you are hungary), warmth (if you are cold), and water (if you are thirsty)
conditioned reinforce
a stimulus that gains reinforcing power through association with primary reinforcer
conditioned reinforcement
operant procedure of reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
partial reinfocement
only occasional reinforcement of a behavior, resulting in slower extinction than if the behavior has been reinforced continually
fixed ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
variable ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
fixed interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
variable interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
punishment
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
cognitive map
A mental representation of the layout of one’s environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.
latent learining
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
insight
grasping the inner nature of things intuitively- the OH thats how you do it feeling
intristic motivation
desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
extrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
biofeedback
a training program in which a person is given information about physiological processes (heart rate or blood pressure) that is not normally available with the goal of gaining conscious control of them