AP Psych Unit 1

Developmental Psychology
-studying our changing abilities from womb to tomb
-scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

Educational Psychology
Study of influences on teaching and learning

Personality Psychology
Scientific study of an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

Social Psychology
Exploring how we view and affect one another

Industrial-Organizational Psychology
Application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces

Human Factors Psychology
Study of how people and machines interact and the design of safe and easily used machines and environments

Empiricism
The view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation

Experimental Psychology
The study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method

Psychometrics
Branch of psychology devoted to studying the measurement of our abilities, attitudes, and traits

Applied Research
-Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems

-studies aimed at solving problems

Clinical Psychology
-Assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavior disorders

-studying, assessing, and treating people with psychological disorders

Psychology
-the science of behavior and mental processes

-study of the functions of the brain linked with behavior

Cognitive Neuroscience
-the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)

-studying the cognitive functions of the brain

Nature-Nurture Issue
-the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today’s science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture

-debate of how genes and experience affect our traits and behaviors

Natural Selection
-the principal that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

-those better adapted to the environment will most likely survive and reproduce

Levels of Analysis
-the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon

-different views of psychology

Basic Research
-pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base

-science that helps increase knowledge

Social-Cultural Approach
-the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking

-how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures

-it focuses on how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures

Cognitive Approach
-the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

-how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information

-approach that focuses on how we think, with the belief that such thought processes affect the way in which we behave

-we focus on the understanding of information and concepts

-encompasses memory, thinking, learning, comprehension, motivation, and perception; determines how one feels and behaves

Behavioral Approach
-the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning

-how we learn observable responses

Psychodynamic Approach
-a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders

-how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts

Evolutionary Approach
-the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection

-how the natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes

-science that seeks to explain through universal mechanisms of behavior why humans act the way they do

Biological Approach
-a branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes

-how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences; how genes combine with environment to influence individual differences

-physical point of view. Focuses on how genes combine with the environment to influence individual differences, and how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences

Structuralism
-When someone examines their own thoughts and feeling

-an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind

Functionalism
-Study of how our mind is able to adapt

-a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function – how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish

Behaviorism
-study of behavior

-the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)

Humanistic Psychology
-study of someone’s potential for growth

-historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual’s potential for personal growth

Biopsy hospital Approach
-includes social-cultural, psychological, and biological levels of analysis

-an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis

Counseling Psychology
-to help people through their problems so they can become better

-a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being

Psychiatry
-medical and psychological therapy for those with psychological disorders

-a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who often provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy

In its earliest days, psychology was defined as the
Science of mental life

Who would be most likely to agree with the statement, “Psychology should investigate only behaviors that can be observed”?
John B. Watson

Today, psychology is defined as the
Science of behavior and mental processes

Who introduced the early schools of structuralism?
Edward Titchener

Who wrote the early textbook Principles of Psychology?
William James

Psychologists who study the degree to which our personality are working from the _____ perspective.
Behavior genetics

Which of the following exemplifies the issue of the relative importance of nature and nurture on our behavior?
The issue of the relative influence of biology and experience on behavior

The seventeenth-century philosopher who believed that the mind is a blank slate at birth and that most knowledge comes through sensory experience is
Locke

Which seventeenth-century philosopher believed that some ideas are innate?
Descartes

Which psychological perspective emphasizes the enter action of the brain and body in behavior?
Neuroscience

A psychologist who explores how Asian and North American definitions of attraction differ is working from the _____ perspective.
Social-cultural

A psychologist who conducts experiments solely intended to build psychology’s knowledge base is engaged in
Basic research

Psychologists who study, assess, and treat troubled people are called
Clinical psychologists

Today, psychology is a discipline that
Connects with a diversity of other fields

In order, the sequence of steps in the SQ3R method is
Survey, question, read, review, reflect

Psychologists who study how brain activity is linked to memory, perception, and other thought processes are called
Cognitive neuroscientists

The first psychology laboratory was established by _____ in the year _____ .
Wundt; 1879

Who would be most likely to agree with the statement, “Psychology is the science of mental life”?
Wilhelm Wundt

In psychology, behavior is defined as
Any action we can observe and record

Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are most closely associated with
Humanistic psychology

In defining psychology, the text notes that psychology is most accurately described as a
Way of asking and answering questions

The historical roots of psychology are the disciplines of
Philosophy and biology

The Greek philosopher who believed that intelligence was inherited was
Plato

The way we encode, process, store, and retrieve information is the primary concern of the _____ perspective.
Cognitive

Which of the following individuals is also a physician?
Psychiatrist

Dr. Jones’ research centers on the relationship between changes in our thinking over the life span and changes in moral reasoning. Dr. Jones is most likely a
Developmental psychologist

Which subfield is most directly concerned with studying human behavior in the workplace?
Industrial / organizational psychology

Dr. Ernest explains behavior in terms of different situations. Dr. Ernest is working from the _____ perspective.
Social-cultural

Which perspective emphasizes the learning of observable responses?
Behavioral

A psychologist who studies how worker productivity might be increased by changing office layout is engaged in _____ research.
Applied

A major principle underlying the SQ3R study method is that
People learn and remember material best when they actively process it

The biopsychosocial approach emphasizes the importance of
Different levels of analysis

Psychology is defined as the “science of behavior and mental processes.” Wilhelm Wundt would have omitted which of the following words from this definition?
Behavior and

Jawan believes that psychologists should go back to using introspection as a research tool. This technique is based on
Self-examination and mental processes

Dharma’s term paper on the history of American psychology notes that
-psychology began as the science of mental life
-from the 1920s into the 1960s, psychology was defined as the scientific study of observable behavior
-contemporary psychologists study both overt behavior and covert thoughts

Terrence wants to talk to a professional to help him cope with some academic challenges he’s facing. You recommend that he contact a(n)
Counseling psychologist

Professor Gutierrez, who believes that human emotions are best understood as being jointly determined by heredity, learning, and the individual’s social and cultural contexts, is evidently a proponent of the
Biopsychosocial perspective

The philosophical view of John Locke are to those of René Desacrtes as _____ is to _____.
Nurture; nature

During his presentation on the history of psychology, Sanjay notes that Darwin’s theory led mostly to the development of the school of
Functionalism

In concluding her report on the “nature-nurture debate in contemporary psychology,” Karen notes that
Nurture works on what nature endows

Dr. Waung investigates how a person’s interpretation of a situation affects his or her reaction. Evidently, Dr. Waung is working from the _____ perspective.
Cognitive

Dr. Aswad is studying people’s enduring inner traits. Dr. Aswad is most likely a(n)
Personality psychologist

The psychological perspective that places the most emphasis on how observable responses are learned is the _____ perspective.
Behavioral

During a dinner conversation, a friend says that the cognitive and behavioral perspectives are quite similar. You disagree and point out that the cognitive perspective emphasizes _____, whereas the behavioral perspective emphasizes _____.
Conscious processes; observable responses

Concerning the major psychological perspectives on behavior, the text author suggests that
The different perspectives often complement one another; together, they provide a fuller understanding of behavior than provided by any single perspective

Your roommate announces that her schedule permits her to devote three hours to studying for an upcoming quiz. You advise her to
Space study time over several short sessions

A fraternity brother rationalizes the fact that he spends very little time studying by saying that he “doesn’t want to peak too soon and have the test material become stale.” You tell him that
-he is probably overestimating his knowledge of the material
-if he devotes extra time to studying, his retention of the material will be improved
-the more often students review material, the better their exam scores

The psychological views of William James are to those of Edward Titchener as _____ is to _____.
Functionalism; structuralism