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AP Psych Social Psychology

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social psychology
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the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
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attribution theory
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the theory that we tend to give a causal explanation for someone’s behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition
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fundamental attribution error
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the tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
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foot in the door phenomenon
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the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
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boomerang effect
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In theories of attitude persuasion, it is an attitude change in the opposite direction of the persuader’s message.
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sleeper effect
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a delayed impact of a message that occurs when an initially discounted message becomes effective, as we remember the message but forget the reason for discounting it.
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inoculation effect
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Approach to convincing people to change their minds about something by first introducing reasons why the perspective might be correct and then debunking it.
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hawthorne effect
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a change in a subject’s behavior caused simply by the awareness of being studied
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cognitive dissonance
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state of internal tension brought about by conflicting attitudes and behavior
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normative social influence
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influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
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informational social influence
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follow the opinions of those we believe have accurate knowledge and believe they are doing right
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social facilitation
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improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered
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social inhibition
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The tendency to perform complex or difficult tasks more poorly in the presence of others.
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social loafing
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the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
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deindividuation
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the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
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group polarization
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the enhancement of a group’s prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group
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groupthink
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the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
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social roots of prejudice
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Social inequalities, social divisions, emotional scapegoating
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social inequalities
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discrepancies in income, social status, etc that may cause discrimination
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social divisions
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When people in a group are divided, usually according to the type of work that they do, also sometimes by race or religion
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emotional scapegoating
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prejudice provides an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame. exaple: after 9/11 many people lashed out against innocent arab-americans
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just-world phenomenon
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the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
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ingroup
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People with whom one shares a common identity
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outgroup
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“them”—those perceived as different or apart from one’s ingroup.
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ingroup bias
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the tendency to favor one’s own group
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agression causes (biochemical)
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testosterone,increased alcohol levels, low blood sugar levels
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catharsis hypothesis
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In psychology, this hypothesis maintains that “releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.
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mere exposure effect
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the tendency for liking to increase with the frequency of exposure
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equity
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a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
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social exchange theory
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the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
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reciprocity
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idea that if you do something for someone, they owe you something in return
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social-responsibility norm
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an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them
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social trap
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a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
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altruism
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unselfish regard for the welfare of others