AP Psych Intelligence
Psychologists ___ agree on a definition of intelligence
To regard an abstract concept as a concrete entity is to commit the error known as ___. By doing this, we are viewing inteligence as something a person has, rather than a score obtained on an ___
Intelligence is a ___ constructed concept.
In any context, intelligence can be defined as…
The ability to learn from experience, solve problems,anduse knowledge.
One controversy regarding the nature of intelligence centers on whether inteligence is one ___ ability or several ___ abilities.
The statistical procedure used to identify groups of items that appear to measure a common ability is called ___.
Charles Spearman, one of the developers of this technique, believed that a factor called “g”, or ___, runs through the more specific aspects of intelligence.
Oppsong Spearman, ___ identified seven clusters of ___.
Primary mental abilities
Primary mental abilities
One psychologist believes that general intelligence evolved as a
means of helping people solve ___.
People with ___ score at the low end of intelligence tests but possess extarordinary specific skills.
Howard Gardner proposes that there are ___, each independent of the others. However, critics point out that the world is not so just: General intelligence scores ___ predict performance on various complex tasks and in various jobs.
Sternberg’s ___ theory distinguishes three thoes of intelligence: ___ intelligence, ___ intelligence, and ___ intelligence.
A critical part of social intelligence is ___ —the ability to ___, ___, ___, and ___ emotions.
More specifically, the four components of emotional intelligence are as follows: the ability to ___ emotions in faces, the ability to ___ them and how they change and blend, the ability to ___ them correctly in varied situations, and the ability to use them to wnable ___ or creative thinking.
Earlier studies ___ reveal a clear cut correlation between head size (relative to body size) and intelligence score.
Newer studies that measure brain ___ using ___ scans reveal a ___ significant correlation between brain size (adjusted for body size) and intelligence score. The cause of this could be differing ___, nutrition, ___, or some combination of these.
A study of Einstein’s brain revealed that it was 15 percent larger in the lower ___ lobe—known to be an important neural center for processing ___ and ___ information
Postmortem analyses reveal that the brains of highly educated people have more ___ than do those of people with less education. Other evidence suggests that highly intelligent people differ in their neural ___. Higher intelligence scores have also been linked with more ___ in brain areas known to be involved in ___, ___, and ___.
When people ponder intelligence test questions, for example, an area in the brain’s ___ becomes especially active in the ___ brain for verbal questions and ___ for spatial questions. People who are able to more quickly retrieve information from memory tend to score high in ___ ability.
On both sides of the brain
On both sides of the brain
Studies looking at a range of tasks have found that people with high intelligence scores tend to take in perceptual information ___ than people with low intelligence.
Other studies have found that the brain waves of highly intelligent people register simple stimuli more ___ and with greater ___.
Other studies have found that the brain waves of highly intelligent people register stimuli more ___ and with greater ___
The early Greek philosopher ___ concluded that individuals differed in their natural endowments.
Although Francis Galton’s search for a simple intelligence measure failed, he gave us some ___ techniques that we still use, as well as the terms ___ and ___
The French psychologist who devised a test to predict the success of children in school was ___. Predictions were made by comparing children’s chronological ages with their ___ ages, which were determined by he test. This test ___ designed to measure inborn intelligence; Binet leaned toward an ___ explanation of intelligence.
Lewis Terman’s revision of Binet’s test is referred to as the ___. This test enables one to derive a(n) ___ for an individual.
Today’s tests compute ___ by comparing the individual’s performance to the average performance of people of ___ age(s). These tests are designed so that a score of ___ is considered average.
An intelligence test
The misguided movement called ___ proposed measuring human traits and using the results to determine who should be allowed to reproduce.
When given intelligence tests in the early 1900s, immigrants arriving in the United States often scored ___ average. This is because the tests were based on a particular ___ background.
Tests designed to measure what you have already learned are called ___ tests. Tests designed to predict your ability to learn something new are called ___ tests.
The most widely used intelligence test is the ___. Consisting of 11 subtests, it provides not only a general intelligence score but also separate scores for ___, ___, ___, and ___.
One requirement of a good test is the process of defining meaningful scores relative to a pretested comparison group, called ___.
When scores on a test are compiled, they generally result Ina bell-shaped pattern, or ___ distribution.
The Stanford-Binet and the Wechsler Scales ___ periodically restandardized, thereby keeping the average score near ___.
During the 1960s and 1970s, college entrance aptitude scores showed a steady ___. At the same time, intelligence test performance ___. This phenomenon is called the ___.
Although the actual cause of this effect is unknown, one explanation is that it is due to improved ___. The recent performance gains on the WAIS are greatest among people at the lowest ___ levels.
If a test yields consistent results, it is said to be ___.
When a test is administered more than once to the same people, the psychologist is determining it’s ___ reliability.
When a person’s scores for the odd- and even-numbered questions on a test are compared, ___ reliability is being assessed.
The Stanford-Binet, WAIS, and WISC have reliabilities of about ___.
The degree to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to is referred to as the test’s ___.
The degree to which a test measures the behavior it was designed to measure is referred to as the test’s ___.
The degree to which a test predicts future performance of a particular behavior, called the test’s ___ , is referred to as the test’s ___
Generally speaking, the predictive validity of general aptitude tests ___ as high as their reliability. The predictive validity of these tests ___ as individuals move up the educational ladder.
Some studies have found that infants who quickly become bored when looking at a picture score ___ on tests of brain speed an intelligence tests before age ___ predict future aptitude only modestly.
During childhood, the stability of intelligence scores ___ with age. After about age ___, intelligence scores stabilize. A longtime-term study of mental ability in Scottish children revealed that this ___through late childhood.
Individuals whose intelligence scores fall below 70 and who have difficulty a dating to life may be labeled ___. This label applies to approximately ___ percent of the population.
Intellectual disability sometimes has a physical basis, such as ___, a genetic disorder caused by an extra chromosome.