A&P Chapter 1 – Topic 2: T The Body’s Levels of Organization: Recognize anatomical and physiological terms

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Objective 1: List the characteristics common to all living things
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Organization – exhibition of complex structure and order. Metabolism – the sum of all chemical reactions that occur within a given body. A. anabolism – small molecules join to form larger ones. B. catabolism – large molecules and broken down from larger to smaller Growth and Development – assimilation of environmental materials, increased size(growth) and adaptation via specialization. Responsiveness – the ability to sense and reac to to stimuli. Regulation – ability to adjust function to cope with the environment. A. Homeostasis – ability to maintain constant internal environment. Reproduction – Production of new cell growth for maintenance and repair. A. Mitosis – cell division. B. Meiosis – have ability to develop into new organism.
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Objective 2: Describe the levels of organization in the human body
Objective 2: Describe the levels of organization in the human body
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In order from simplest to most complex — Chemical level – Simplest level. Involving atoms and molecules. Atoms combine to create molecules. Sugar , water, vitamins are examples of molecules. Macromolecules = complex molecules like proteins and DNA. Macromolecules form special microscopic units called organelles(microscopic structures in a cell) Cellular level – Cells(smallest living structured and basic unit of function in an organism. Formed from atoms and molecules from chemical level. Structured vary depending on the specialization ..ie..skeletal muscle cell may be long but red blood cell may be small and round. Tissue level – Tissues= groups of similar cells that perform common function. 4 types — 1. Epithelial tissue covers exposed surfaces and limes body cavities. 2. Connective tissue protects supports and binds structures and organs. 3. Muscle tissue provides movement. 4. Nervous tissue conducts nerve impulses for communication. Organ level – Organs contain 2 or more tissue types that work to perform specific functions. Organ System level – Organs that work together to complete tasks and provide a common function. Example = digestive system. Organismal Level – All body system working independently in an organism( a living being)
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Objective 3: Compare the organ systems of the human body
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Integumentary system – Hair, Skin &related glands, toe/fingernails. Protects, regulates body temp, cutaneous receptors,synthesizes Vitamin D, prevents water loss. Skeletal System – Supports and protects organ systems. Where blood cell production happens, stores calcium and phosphorus. Provides for muscle attachment. Muscular System – Allows body movement and generated heat when muscles contract. Nervous System – regulatory system controlling body movement by initiating responses to muscles and sensory stimuli. Also associated with consciousness, intelligence, and memory. Endocrine system – Glands and cell clusters that create hormones which regulate development, growth, metabolism, maintenance of homeostasis, controls digestive and reproductive processes. Lymphatic System – transports and filters lymph fluid and assists the immune response when needed. Cardiovascular System – heart and blood vessels. moves blood through vessels to carry hormones, gasses, wastes, and nutrients. Respiratory System – Exchange of gasses between blood and air in the lungs. Urinary System – Filters blood and removes waste. Concentrates wastes in the form of urine and eliminates waste from body. Digestive System – Mechanically and chemically digests food, absorbs nutrients and expels wastes. Male Reproductive system – produces male sex cells and hormones and transfers them(sperm) to the female. Female reproductive system – Produces female sex cells and hormones. Receives sperm, fertilization of oocycte, embryonic growth and development. Breast milk creation for newborn.

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