AP Biology Chapter 13 Key Terms and Rooots

alternation of generations
life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sphorophyte, and a multi cellulare haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants
asexual reproduction
a type of reproduction involving only one parent that produces genetically identical offspring by budding or by the division of a single cell or the entire organism into two or more pairs
autosome
a chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex, as opposed to a sex chromosome
chiasmata
the x shaped, microscopically visible region representing homologous chromatids that have exchanged genetic material through crossing over during mitosis
clone
(1) a lineage of genetically identical individuals or cells; (2) In popular usage, a single individual organism that is genetically identical to another individual; (3) As a verb, to make one or more genetic replicas of an individual or cell.
crossing over
the reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during synapsis of meiosis I
diploid cell
a cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent
fertilization
the union of haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote
gamete
a haploid cell such as an egg or sperm. gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
gametophyte
the multicellular haploid form in organisms undergoing alternation of generations that mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation
gene
discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA in some viruses)
genetics
the scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation
haploid cell
a cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n)
heredity
the transmission of traits from one generation to the next
homologous chromosome
chromosome pairs of the same lenght, centromere position, and staining pattern that possess genes for the same characters at corresponding loci. One comes from the mother, the other from the father.
Karyotype
a method of organizing the chromosomes of a cell in relation to number, size, and type
life cycle
the generation-to-generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism
locus
a particular place along the length of a certain chromosome where a given gene is located
meiosis
a two stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the chromosome number of the original cell
meiosis I
the first division of a two stage process of cell division
meiosis II
the second division of a two stage process of cell division
recombinant chromosomes
chromosomes created when crossing over combines the DNA from two parents into a single chromosome
sex chromosomes
one of the pair of chromosomes responsible for determining the sex of an individual
sexual reproduction
a type of reproduction in which two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the gametes of the two parents
somatic cell
any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm cell or an egg cell
spore
in the life cycle of a plant or alga undergoing alternation of generations, a meiotically produced haploid cell that divides mitotically, generating a multicellular individual, the gametophyte, without fusing with another cell
sporophyte
the multicellular diploid form in organisms undergoing alternation of generations that results from a union of gametes and that meiotically produces haploid spores that grow into the gametophyte generation
synapsis
the pairing of replicated homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis
syngamy
the process of cellular union during fertilization
tetrad
a paired set of homologous chromosomes, each composed of two sister chromatids. form during prophase I of meiosis
variation
differences between members of the same species
zygote
the diploid product of the union of haploid gametes in conception; a fertilized egg
-apsis
juncture
a-
not or without
auto-
self
chiasm-
marked crosswise
di-
two
fertil-
fruitful
haplo-
single
homo-
like