AP Bio Chapter 5 Reading Guide Answers

The large molecules of all living things fall into just four main categories:
Carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids

Circle the three classes that are called macromolecules:
Carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids

What is a polymer?
Chain-like molecules consisting of many similar building blocks linked by covalent bonds.

What is a monomer?
The repeating units that serve as building blocks for polymers.

Monomers are connected in what type of reaction?
Dehydration synthesis–a bond forms between two monomers, each contributes part of a water molecule to be released.

Large molecules are converted to monomers in what type of reaction?
Hydrolysis–bond broken between monomers by addition of water.

Hydro-
water

-lysis
break

Is C6H12O6 (Glucose) a monomer, or a polymer?
Monomer

How are two monomers joined?
H2O released

What are the monomers of all carbohydrates?
Monosaccharides

What is the formula for a hexose sugar?
C6H12O6

C=O
Carbonyl

-OH
Hydroxyl

What two things do all sugars have?
Two functional groups (carbonyl and hydroxyl)

What is the difference between an aldehyde sugar and a ketone sugar?
The location of the carbonyl group is different.

What is the term for compounds that have the same molecular formulas but different structural formulas?
Isomers

Where are all the carbons in the ring structure?
Each unlabeled corner represents a carbon.

Maltose
Disaccharide — Glucose + Glucose

Sucrose
Disaccharide — Glucose + Fructose

Lactose
Disaccharide — Glucose + Galactose

What is a glycosidic linkage?
A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by dehydration synthesis.

What is a 1-4 glycosidic linkage?
The 1-carbon of a monosaccharide is joined to the 4-carbon on another monosaccharide.

What are the two types of polysaccharides? Give examples
Storage: Starch, Glycogen….Structural: Cellulose

Why can you not digest cellulose? What organisms can?
Enzymes are unable to hydrolyze the beta linkages due to its different shape. Some microorganisms can.

Has 1-4 Beta linkages
Cellulose

Is a storage polysaccharide produced by vertebrates, stored in your liver.
Glycogen

Two monomers of this form maltose.
Glucose

Glucose + Fructose = ?
Sucrose

Monosaccharide commonly called “fruit sugar”
Fructose

“Milk sugar”
Lactose

Structural polysaccharide that gives cockroaches their crunch
Chitin

Malt sugar; used to brew beer
Maltose

Structural polysaccharide that comprises plant cell walls
Cellulose

What characteristic do all lipids share?
Hydrophobia

What are the building blocks of fats?
Glycerol and fatty acids

If a fat is composed of 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol molecule, how many water molecules will be removed to form it? What is this process called?
3–dehydration reaction

What does unsaturated mean?
A carbon is double bonded to another carbon and therefore the fatty acid has fewer hydrogens.

Name two saturated fats.
Lard, Butter

Name two unsaturated fats.
Olive Oil, Vegetable Oil

Why are many unsaturated fats liquid at room temperature?
The kinks where cis-double bonds are located prevent the molecules from packing tightly together.

List four important functions of fats.
Energy storage, heat, cushions vital organs, more efficient energy.

Why is the “tail” hydrophobic?
Hydrocarbons

What are other examples of steroids?
Sex hormones

Structural Protein
Function: Support, Ex.: Collagen

Storage Protein
Function: Amino Acid Storage, Ex.: Casein

Transport Protein
Function: Transportation, Ex.: Hemoglobin

Contractile Protein
Function: Movement, Ex. Actin

Enzymatic
Function: Acceleration of reactions, Ex.: Digestive enzymes

What is represented by an R-group? How many are there?
Side chains; there are 20.

Define dipeptide
A peptide of two amino acids and residues

Define polypeptide
Polymers of amino acids

Define Peptide bond
Covalent bond between two amino acids

Primary Protein Structure
Unique sequence of amino acids. Determined by DNA. Transthyretin is an example.

Secondary Protein Structure
Polypeptide chains repeatedly coiled that contribute to the protein’s overall shape. Alpha helix is an example.

Tertiary Protein Structure
Overall shape of a polypeptide. Hydrophobic interaction is an example.

Quaternary Protein Structure
Overall protein structure resulting from the oxygenation of the polypeptide. Collagen is an example.

Explain sickle-cell disease.
Caused by the substitution of one amino acid for the normal one. This changes the three-dimensional shape.

Define denaturation, and give three ways a protein may become denaturated.
The changing of a protein during which the protein loses its native shape because weak bonds have been destroyed. Alteration of pH, salt concentration, temperature.

Explain the flow of genetic information.
mRNA molecule interacts with the cell’s protein-synthesizing machinery to direct production of polypeptide, which folds into all or part of a protein. The sites of protein synthesis are tiny structures called ribosomes. Messenger RNA conveys genetic instructions for building proteins from nucleus to cytoplasm.

What are the components of a nucleic acid?
Sugar, nitrogenous base, phosphate group

Which four nitrogen bases are found in DNA?
Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine

Which four are found in RNA?
Adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil

How do ribose and deoxyribose sugars differ?
Deoxyribose sugar lacks an oxygen atom on the second carbon in the ring.

What is the shape of DNA called?
Double helix

Why are the strands of DNA said to be antiparallel?
They run in opposite 5′-3′ directions from each other.

What two molecules make up the “uprights”?
Sugar and phosphate

What molecules make up the rungs?
Base pairs joined by hydrogen bonds

How are the bases paired?
A-T, C-G