Anxiety Disorders

Specific Phobia Disorder, Subtypes, Treatment
Symptoms involve significant interference with normal
functioning or cause clinically significant distress. Subtypes: Animal, Situational, Environmental, Blood-Injection-Injury, Other(vomiting/choking). Treatment: medication not good, systematic desensitization-exposure with relaxation of learned response. BII- need to arouse person to lift blood pressure. Most common w/women, mostly childhood w/situational early adolescence/adulthood.
vasovagal response
Drop in blood pressure.
Specific Phobia Disorder Etiology
Biological: temperament plays biggest role, stronger genetic link for BII. Psychological: Classical conditioning-true/false alarm, vicarious learning, information transmission, preparedness/individual experience.
Social Anxiety Disorder, Prevalence, Treatment
Fear of social situation, afraid of giving speeches/eating/using bathroom in front of others. Person is fine alone. Prevalence: most common w/women, early/middle adolescence. Treatment: Antidepressants (SSRIs), Cognitive behavioral group therapy.
Social Anxiety Disorder Etiology
Biological: modest genetic contribution, inherited temperament. Psychological: Behavioral-acquired through classical conditioning or vicarious learning. Cognitive- cognitive biases; expect to behave in socially awkward fashion.
Agoraphobia, Prevalence, Treatment
Intense fear or anxiety of being alone, requires presence of a companion. Prevalence: Most common women, late adolescence/early adulthood, comorbid w/panic disorder, wax and wane. Treatment: SSRIs, behavior therapy-prolonged exposure to feared situations.
Agoraphobia Etiology
Strong heritability, operant conditioning-maintained/reinforced by avoidance/safety behaviors.
Panic Disorder, Prevalence, Treatment
Panic Disorder/Agoraphobia both avoid significantly, recurrent UNEXPECTED panic attacks, persistent concern of panic attacks or significant maladaptive change in behavior related to attacks. Prevalence: more common women, often in 20s; though common w/women in 30s or 40s, wax and wane, high comorbidity with MDD. Treatment: Benzodiazepines(enhance calmness, fast acting, bad; high relapse rates when discontinued, physiological dependence. SSRIs(no physiological dependence, bad;takes long time, depressive sxs. Behavior, Cognitive therapy usually more effective than meds.
Panic Disorder Etiology
Biological: moderately heritable, views anxiety attacks as very deep and harmful, overly sensitive brain structures. Psychological: Behavioral-classical conditioning-interoceptive & exteroceptive conditioning. Cognitive-catastrophizing about bodily sensations (fear-of-fear model)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder(GAD), Prevalence, Treatment
Excessive anxiety and worry occurring MORE DAYS THAN NOT about a # of events, person can’t control worry. Prevalence: more common women, onset is later than most disorders(30s), wax and wane. Treatment: person likely to seek medial care, cognitive-behavioral therapy;muscle relaxation, cognitive restructuring.
General Anxiety Disorder(GAD) Etiology
Biological: modest heritability, deficient GABA(can’t be calm), autonomic restriction(tells us worries are verbal in nature).
Separation Anxiety Disorder, Prevalence, Treatment
inappropriate anxiety concerning separation of whom person is attached, persistent lasting 4+ weeks in children/6+ months in adolescence & adults, attachment figure for adults is typically spouse/kids. Prevalence: most common children under 12, more women. Treatment: often remits on own, behavior therapy-systematic desensitization, prolonged exposure, modeling.
Separation Anxiety Disorder Etiology
Often a stressor can be identified(loss of home/family/pet), family history of anxiety, rejecting parents.
Selective Mutism, Prevalence, Treatment
consistent failure to speak in social situations when expected to speak, duration at least 1 month, typically young children(preschool). Treatment: behavioral-reinforcing communication in different ways.
Selective Mutism Etiology
Not a lot of good etiology for disorder, very rare, no gender difference.

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