Anthropology chapter 14

It’s a detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on first-hand observation and interaction

Is the study and Analysis of different cultures from a comparative or historical point of view utilizing ethnographic accounts for developing Anthropologie bull theories that explain why certain human differences or similarities among groups

When Anthropologist make it a point of going to certain places in person to observe and experience peoples and their cultures firsthand do field work at a wide range of places including Global corporations and non-governmental organizations

History of ethnographic research and its uses
Enterprise emerged as formal discipline during colonialism when they focused on the study of traditional peoples and their cultures in the colonies overseas Anthropologist in North America Focus primarily on their own countries
At one point in time it was common practice to compare people in traditional Lifestyles based off of hunting fishing Gathering farming hurting with ancient prehistoric ancestors of Europeans two categories cultures as primitive however that doesn’t happen anymore

Salvage ethnography or urgent anthropology
Salvage and the grassy is the practice of documenting endangered cultures however later became known as urgent anthropology it’s now defined as ethnic graphic research the documents endangered cultures also known as Salvage ethnography first generation Anthropologist begin their work and careers in museums researchers also collected oral histories Traditions myths Legends and other information and old artifacts for public display and preservation

Acculturation studies
Starting the 1930s cultural contact which is studying help traditional cultures change when coming in contact with expanding capitalist societies Anthropologist began researching this contacts primarily for several centuries was in the European colonialism which has a system by which society claims and controls a foreign territory for purposes of economic exploitation surviving on reservation surrounded by a dominant mainstream Society needs indigenous people or tribal nations are bureaucratically controlled as internal colonies government-sponsored programs try to get tribal communities to abandon their ancestral language and traditions 2 Go with the social Norm of the controlling Society in the United States this asymmetrical culture contact became known as acculturation Margaret mead was the first Anthropologist to study
Acculturation in 1932 of the Omaha Indians in Nebraska

Applied anthropology
And apologize for not the only ones interested in a corporations government agencies would also be interested for practical purposes these governments impose a colonial system of indirect rule in which they depend on the tribal Chief princes Kings Sutton’s whatever they’re titles they will give us Authority under customary law acculturation studies gave birth to applied anthropology which is the use of anthropological knowledge and methods to solve practical problems and communities confronting new challenges 1937 British government set up in their logical Research Institute in Zimbia studying International markets in Central African traditional societies North America us Bureau of Indian Affairs set up and implied an apology branch in the mid-1930s in 1941 the international Society for Applied anthropology was founded promoting scientific investigation of principles controlling human relationships and practical application
Anthropologie implying it’s addressed the negative effects of culture contact of indigenous people

Studying cultures at a distance
During World War II some Anthropologist shifting their attention from small-scale traditional communities to modern State societies and state societies
Anthropologist especially us and British Anthropologist became involved in Wartime government program the national character studies believe these studies would help better understand your enemy states of Japan and Germany and later Russia and others ethnographic fieldwork was impossible so Margaret Mead and Ruth Benedict develop techniques for studying culture at a distance is my food included analysis of newspapers literature photographs and popular films and their interviews with immigrants refugees as well as foreigners from other countries who is used for propaganda and psychological warfare after the war some info insight we found his phone temporary governing occupied territories dealing with newly liberal population

Studying contemporary State societies
Sitting cultures a distance research on contemporary State societies were more than just war-related endeavor the recognized General understanding of human relations behaviour depends on knowledge of all cultures peoples those in complex large-scale societies as well
Hortense powdermaker: earlier and apologize who did research on the homefront born in Philadelphia went to London to study under Malinowski indeed her first major ethnographic fieldwork among the Melanesians Southern Pacific
Return to the US in 1933 search segregation Mississippi became aware of the importance of mass media shaping people’s worldviews Ruth Benedict and Margaret Mead did a comparative research on contemporary culture is based at Columbia University in New York
1950s swiss Anthropologist Alfred métraux Canada national team of us French and Brazilian to study contemporary race relations in Brazil sponsored by the UNESCO Brazil abolish slavery 25 years later than the United States but have made more progress in terms of race relations Brazil was an ideal example of harmonious tolerant positive cross-racial relations in 1956 and 1957 and apologists Julian Steward left us supervising anthropological research in Kenya and Nigeria crude Mexico Japan and Myanmar Malaya and Indonesia goal was to study comparative impact of industrialization and urbanization and then these people

Peasant studies
Peasants represented an important social category midway between modern industrial society and traditional subsistence foragers herders farmers their communities existed worldwide and number many hundreds of Millions represents the largest social category of species today president studies may offer insights into how to deal with peasants resisting challenges in traditional way of life this could be useful in promoting social justice by solving managing innovating social conflicts and political violence

Advocacy anthropology
Buy 1960s European Colonial powers turning their attention to newly independent countries in Africa and Asia focused on the South and Central America some of the projects have gone beyond studying such groups to playing a role in helping them adjust to new circumstances like applied anthropology others became advocates for peasant communities religious minorities indigenous groups struggling to hold their ancestral land anthropologists have privately companion the rights of indigenous people and other cultural groups Under Siege one of the first anthropology research projects explicitly and publicly addressed the Quest for social justice and cultural survival took place among them the Meskwaki or Fox Indians he live in Iowa Soul tax challenge government-sponsored applied anthropology research post proposed instead researchers work directly with disadvantages exploited communities and help them solve their own problems advocacy anthropology is research that it that is community-based and politically involved Robert Hitchcock practice this type of anthropology for three decades specialized development issues primarily only in rights of indigenous people in southern Africa especially Bushman groups in Botswana help ensure their rights to land for all types of purposes Health Care legislation for hunting in Botswana making it the only country in Africa allowed broad base hunting rights for indigenous people who forage for their livelihood
Colegio de Mexico since 1965 founder and first president of Mexican Academy of Human Rights
Stavenhagen investigations on human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous people

studying up
Laura Nader cleaning the term standing up she has caught up on his apologies to focus on the western Elites government bureaucracies Global corporations philanthropy foundations Business Clubs in much more this term is easier said than done because it’s a challenge to do participation observation and such well guarded circles

Globalization and multi-sited ethnography
Humanity not exist in what we refer to as globalscape a worldwide interconnected landscape with intertwining and overlapping people’s cultures on the move
Consequence of globalization is formation of diasporic population which is living and working far from their original Homeland some people feel bad about this and others feel like it’s a good thing and stay in touch with family via communication Technologies it enables people who are far away to be informed and maintain their social networks handheld sense of their ethnic identity globalization also starting multi-sited ethnography machines investigation and documentation of peoples and cultures embedded in the larger structures of a globalizing world you know is seen your range of methods and various locations of time and space
Refugee communities around the world also fall into this category and Han Chinese studied by Andrea Louie
digital ethnography also called cyberthnography, netnography, study of social networks communicative practices and other cultural expressions in cyberspace by means of digital visual or audio Technologies

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