Anthropology 4.06

Linguistic anthropology
the study of the development of language and how people use language to communicate

larynx
Voice (or vocalization) is the sound produced by humans and other vertebrates using the lungs and the vocal folds in the larynx, or voice box.

unique
Your voice is as unique as your fingerprint. It helps define your personality, mood, and health.

Pitch
the highness or lowness of a sound based on the frequency of the sound waves.

Loudness
the perceived volume (or amplitude) of the sound, while quality refers to the character or distinctive attributes of a sound

fluency
However, by the first grade, roughly 5 percent of children have noticeable speech disorders; the majority of these speech disorders have no known cause. One category of speech disorder is fluency disorder, or stuttering, which is characterized by a disruption in the flow of speech. It includes repetitions of speech sounds, hesitations before and during speaking, and the prolonged emphasis of speech sounds. More than 15 million individuals in the world stutter, most of whom began stuttering at a very early age. The majority of speech sound disorders in the preschool years occur in children who are developing normally in all other areas. Speech disorders also may occur in children who have developmental disabilities.

American Sign Language
Many children who are deaf in the United States use a natural sign language known as American Sign Language (ASL). ASL shares an underlying organization with spoken language and has its own syntax and grammar. Many adults acquire disorders of language because of stroke, head injury, dementia, or brain tumors

Comparative linguistics
the study of how linguistics vary from one place to the next and one speaker to the next.

Derivation
the formation of a new word from the stem of another word using prefixes and suffixes.

Dialect
a type of speech spoken by a specific group of people in a specific location, district, or region.

Discourse analysis
the study of the organization of sentences into texts.

Ethnolinguistics
the study of the language of a specific ethnic group within a culture.

Etymology
the study of the origin of words.

Grammatical structure
refers to the rules of how words are combined to form a sentence

Historical linguistics
the study of how languages are related to each other or change over an extended period of time.

Inflection
how a word varies in form to show voice, person, tense, number, and case.

Language
can be described as anything spoken, written, or presented in a symbol form that communicates information to people.

lexicon
the vocabulary of a person, group, subject, or language.

Linguistic typology
the creation of statements concerning language change and structure that are universally true and can be applied to the study of any language.

morpheme
the smallest part of a word or unit in the grammar of a language.

Morphology
the study of the internal structure of words in a language.

Philology
the study of ancient languages and written texts.

phoneme
the smallest unit in the system of sounds in a language.

Phonetics
the study of the speech sounds in a human language.

Phonology
the study of the patterns of sounds and how they are organized and used in languages.

Pragmatics
the study of what speakers say (utterances) and the meaning of the language they use.

Semantics
the study of the meaning or interpretation of words, parts of words, phrases, or sentences.

Sociolinguistics
the study of how the use of language affects any or all parts of a culture or a society.

Sound patterns
include how words are grouped into sounds.

Stylistics
the study of the way a language is written or used.

Synchronic linguistics
the study of dialects including morphology, syntax, semantics, grammar, and phonology.

Syntax
refers to the organization and arrangement of words and phrases that form the structure of a sentence.

Words
are sound patterns that have meaning.