Anthropology 2511

Linguistic anthropologists are well known for studying material culture
False

The scientific method is an empirical research method in which data are gathered from observations of phenomena, hypotheses are formulated and tested, and conclusions are drawn that validate or modify the original hypothesis
True

Artifacts are material objects from past cultures
True

Terrestrial refers to organisms that live in water, not on land.
False

The word hominin refers to humans and human-like ancestors
True

Culture is defined as learned behavior that is genetically transmitted from person to person
False

Morphology refers to physical shape and appearance
True

In the first 50 minutes of The Genius of Charles Darwin video, according to Richard Dawkins it took Darwin 20 years (or and off) to fully develop his ideas on Natural Selection.
True

In the first 50 minutes of The Genius of Charles Darwin video, Richard Dawkins takes a group of students to the beach and has them comb through rocks. What was he having these students look for?
Fossils

In the first 50 minutes of The Genius of Charles Darwin video, Richard Dawkins notes that Darwin couldn’t explain how variation wasn’t lost through interbreeding. This is because Darwin didn’t have an understanding of which of the following?
Genetics

Bipedalism refers to walking for four feet
False

The human genome includes an estimated 20,000 – 25,000 genes.
True

Science is a self-correcting approach to knowledge acquisition.
True

Social learning refers to the capacity to learn from other humans, enabling the accumulation of knowledge across many generations
True

Culture is defined as learned behavior that is transmitted from person to person
True

In the first 50 minutes of The Genius of Charles Darwin video, according to Richard Dawkins it took Darwin 20 years (or and off) to fully develop his ideas on Natural Selection.
True

In the first 50 minutes of The Genius of Charles Darwin video, Richard Dawkins notes that Darwin studies the details of how different animals shared similarities in skeletal structure. Many organisms have the same bones, in the same order, which have been reshaped and resized based on their different ways of life.
True

In the first 50 minutes of The Genius of Charles Darwin video, Richard Dawkins interviews prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya who possess genetic variation making them immune to which of the following sexually transmitted diseases:
HIV

Chromosomes do not contain genes
False

Natural selection is the process by which some organisms, with features that enable them to adapt to the environment, preferentially survive and reproduce, thereby increasing the frequency of those features in the population
True

Habitat refers to the specific area of the natural environment in which an organism lives
True

A species is a group of unrelated organisms that can interbreed and produce non-fertile, non-viable offspring
False

The gene is the basic unit of inheritance
True

Genotype refers to the phenotype of an organism (i.e., the combination of alleles for a given gene)
False

Zoonosis is the transfer of a pathogen from other animals to humans
True

In the second 50 minutes of The Genius of Charles Darwin video, a minister asks Richard Dawkins what the goal of evolution is. What was Dawkin’s response?
There is no goal of evolution

In the second 50 minutes of The Genius of Charles Darwin video, how does Richard Dawkins describe reciprocal altruism?
You scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours.

In the second 50 minutes of The Genius of Charles Darwin video, Richard Dawkins describes acts of altruism that occur in nature. How does Dawkins define altruism?
Altruism is when an individual gives something to another, at a cost to themselves.

An allele is one or more alternative forms of a gene
True

The evolutionary synthesis is a unified theory of evolution that combines genetics with natural selection
True

In the second 50 minutes of The Genius of Charles Darwin video, Richard Dawkins indicates that the brightly colored plumage of the peacock is a product of which of the following factors?
Sexual selection

Non-sex chromosomes are called autosomes
True

Mitosis is the process of cellular and nuclear division that creates four identical haploid daughter cells
False

Mitochondria possess their own independent DNA
True

Human males normally have an X and a Y chromosome
True

Mitochondria do not possess their own independent DNA
False

Recombination refers to the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes, resulting from a cross-over event
True

Human males normally have two X chromosomes
False

In the final 50 minutes of The Genius of Charles Darwin video, Dawkins argues that since all life on Earth is built from the same DNA building blocks, this is evidence of our shared evolutionary history.
True

In the final 50 minutes of The Genius of Charles Darwin video, Darwin’s tree of life is described. What does this tree of life mean?
It means we are related to every living thing on the planet.

In the final 50 minutes of The Genius of Charles Darwin video, Darwin’s tree of life is described. Dawkins argues that the tree of life has been verified as fact by what?
Our decoded DNA

Human females normally have an X and a Y chromosome
False

Homologous refers to each set of paired chromosomes in the genome
True

Autosomes refers to all chromosomes, except the sex chromosomes, that occur in pairs in all somatic cells (not the gametes)
True

Mitochondria are energy-producing organelles found in eukaryotic cells
True

Locus is the location on a chromosome of a specific gene
True

Sex chromosomes do not determine the organism’s biological sex
False

Charles Darwin developed the theory of Natural Selection
True

Morphology refers to philosophical views on sociability
False

Archaeology is:
the study of the behavior and material culture of past human societies.

Human production of stone or lithic tools is an example of:
material culture.

The results of a disadvantaged social environment include:
poor health, reduced height, and shortened life expectancy.

Bipedalism is considered one of the hallmarks of hominid evolution because:
it was the first evolutionary development that distinguished humans from other animals.

Forensic anthropologists who were called in to help with the 9/11 tragedy had to have a very good understanding of:
human osteology.

Bipedalism in primates means:
walking on two feet.

Franz Boas:
united the study of culture, language, and biology within American anthropology.

How is a theory different from a hypothesis?
A theory is an explanation relying on careful examination and has been tested.

Genotype refers to the genetic makeup of an organism (i.e., the combination of alleles for a given gene)
True

What are the three observations of natural selection?
Organisms produce more offspring than survive, populations vary, and traits are inherited.

The presence of iridium in geologic deposits around the world supported the theory that:
the impact of a giant meteor that struck the Earth produced mass extinctions of dinosaur species across the planet.

Why is the work of Alfred Russell Wallace considered when discussing the theory of evolution?
He was an English naturalist who had arrived at many of the same conclusions as Darwin through his own research.

Traits that have a range of phenotypic expressions and show a continuum of variation are termed
polymorphic.

The term evolution refers to:
all answers listed are correct:

-The process of speciation
-Changes in the genetic make‐up of a population from one generation to the next.
-Ongoing biological processes, including genetic changes within populations and the appearance of new species.

The English scientist who independently codiscovered the theory of natural selection was:
Alfred Russell Wallace.

The individual genotypes in a breeding population, taken as a whole, are the:
gene pool.

Science is considered self‐correcting because:
all answers listed are correct:

-hypothesis‐testing can result in rejection of previous hypotheses
-theories can be modified or replaced subject to new findings
-hypotheses are built on meticulous observation

Eukaryotes are multi-celled organisms that have a membrane-bound nucleus containing both the genetic material and specialized organelles.
True

Gametes can unite with a gamete of the opposite type to form a fertilized egg
True

Gametes have a haploid number of chromosomes
True

Individuals whose blood type is A and who carry both dominant and recessive genes at this locus have a genotype of:
AO.

Somatic cells include all of the following except:
gametes.

Nucleotide bases in nuclear DNA include all of the following EXCEPT:
uracil.

Transcription:
occurs in the nucleus.

Homologous chromosomes:
carry genetic information that influences the same trait.

DNA is important for protein synthesis because:
all answers listed are correct:
-it serves as a template for protein production.
-it provides the code to produce structural proteins.
-it is biological code for the production of hormones and enzymes.

Gametes are
sexual reproductive cells

A trait’s heritability:
is the proportion of its variation that is genetic.

Microevolution is small-scale evolution, such as changes in allele frequency, that occurs from one generation to the next
True

Macroevolution is small-scale evolution, such as changes in allele frequency, that occurs from one generation to the next
False

A point mutation refers to the replacement of a single nitrogen base with another base, which may or mat not affect the amino acid for which the triplet codes.
True

Sickle-cell anemia is a genetic blood disease in which the red blood cells become deformed and sickle-shaped, decreasing their ability to carry oxygen to tissues.
True

Evolution can best be defined as:
a change in allele frequencies in a breeding population over time.

The physical location of a gene within the genome is called the:
locus.

Mutations to which cells are most likely to have significant evolutionary consequences?
sex cells (gametes)

Transposable elements are DNA sequences that:
insert themselves into other parts of the genome.

When individuals of the same species are reproductively isolated, genetic differences may accumulate in sufficient number so that new species could emerge. Such an event would be an example of:
macroevolution.

The type of selection that favored progressively larger brain size in human evolution is:
directional selection.

A random change in allele frequencies over time is known as:
genetic drift.

Franz Boas (1858-1942) was a German-American anthropologist pioneer and is considered the “Father of American Anthropology”
True

Melanin acts as built-in sunscreen
True

Sexual dimorphism refers to similarities in physical attributes of males and females of a species
False

Natural selection has favored darker skin near equator where sunrays are most direct, and UV exposure is higher
True

Stressors have been shown to increase likelihood of a premature birth or a stillborn infant.
True

Melanin is a granular substance produced by specialized cells in the epidermis
True

Life history refers to the timing and details of growth events and developmental events from conception through senescence and death.
True

A cline:
is continuous variation that follows a continuum.

Natural selection favored alleles for light skin in:
Europe.

Cultural adaptation:
involves using material culture to make living possible in certain settings.

Spina bifida is a condition where the arch of one or more vertebrae fails to fuse and form a protective barrier around spinal cord
True

Bergman’s rule states that heat-adapted mammals will have long limbs, which maximize the body’s surface area.
False

Epiphysis refers to the bone shaft
False

According to the course text, around age 6 the brain is fully grown
True

Forensic anthropologists still use expertise in human variation to identify victims of war and crime
True

The prenatal stage in humans consists of:
trimesters.

Melanin:
is advantageous because it provides protection from solar radiation.

Franz Boas:
showed that U.S.-born children had different head shapes than their immigrant parents.

Humans are capable of a “precision grip”
True

Human life history elongated for almost all growth stages
True

Nocturnal primates tend to have color vision, which helps them see bright fruits from a distance
False

Chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, orangutans, gibbons, and siamangs are monkeys
False

Gorillas are the largest living primate
True

Primate fingerprints aid in grip
True

Chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas are found in Europe and Asia
False

A post-orbital bar and post-orbital closure are evidence of reliance on
vision

Among all primates, humans have:
the largest brain relative to body size.

The variation in living primates provides models for understanding:
morphology, behavior, and adaptation in the evolutionary past.

Primate mothers typically care for their offspring for a long period of time
True

The word “primates” refers to monkeys, apes, and humans
True

A primate with a dental formula of 2:1:2:3 has a total of 32 teeth in its mouth
True

Primate dietary variation, reliance on vision, grasping hands and feet, and forward-facing eyes reflect adaptations to arboreal life
True

Diurnal primates tend to have color vision, which helps them see bright fruits froma distance
True

The Y-5 molar morphology is present in:
chimpanzees

Primates are characterized by:
arboreal adaptation, dietary plasticity, and parental investment.

The variation in living primates provides models for understanding:
morphology, behavior, and adaptation in the evolutionary past.

Higher-ranking or more dominant primates are guaranteed to have higher reproductive success than lower-ranking individuals
False

All attempts to teach apes American Sign Language have failed.
False

Dominance hierarchies are systems of social organization wherein individuals within a group are ranked relative to one another
True

Virtually all nonhuman primate populations impacted by human hunting and habitat destruction
True

Cultural behavior is learned
True

Grooming serves to indicate submission or reassurance
True

The prenatalperi group refers to the group in which an animal is born and raised
False

Male reproductive strategies emphasize:
competition between males for access to reproductive-age females.

Natural selection favors behaviors that enhance:
survival and reproduction.

Sociality among primates is likely the result of which of the following selective pressures?
predation

Some colobines have special microbes and bacteria in the gut that assist in the digestion of leaves and plants
True

Grooming is an example of an autonomic, or unintentional, response
False

Primate home ranges might overlap with other primate groups, but the core areas do not overlap
True

In some primates, estrus is accompanied by a large blue or green swelling
False

On average, larger animals require fewer calories per unit of weight than smaller animals
True

How do primates acquire food?
through a wide variety of food-foraging strategies

Chimpanzee communication involves different combinations of sounds, such as:
grunts, pants, and hoots.

Availability of food:
can be highly variable, depending on season and rainfall.

Sexual maturation or puberty is marked by:
menarche in girls.

Relative to people with a history of living in temperate climates, the Inuit and other cold-adapted populations:
have short limbs and large bodies.

Rickets is the result of:
a lack of vitamin D.

Stressors during the prenatal stage include:
smoking, alcohol, and drugs.

When epiphyses fuse to the diaphyses:
full adult height is attained.

Osteoblasts are cells responsible for bone resorption
False

A secular trend is a phenotypic change over time, due to multiple factors; such trends can be positive or negative.
True

Polytypic refers to a species composed of populations that have the same expression of a trait
False

Old World monkeys are also known as
catarrhines

Colobine primates:
have specialized digestive anatomy for eating leaves.

A skull with a foramen magnum positioned at the back belongs to:
an individual that is fully quadrupedal, such as a dog.

While observing primates at the zoo, you notice that the particular monkey you are watching uses its hands, feet, and tail to move throughout the trees in its enclosure. This is most likely:
a New World monkey, because many of these species have a tail with grasping abilities similar to those observed in nonhuman primate hands and feet.

What is the name for the moist, hairless, fleshy pad at end of nose seen in most mammals and some primitive primates
rhinarium

Apes lack
tails

The skeleton of a terrestrial quadruped typically includes which of the following
All answers listed are correct
-Feet usually work more like hands
-Restricted shoulder joint
-Shortened tail

African monkeys, including Miss Waldron’s red colobus, are:
African monkeys, including Miss Waldron’s red colobus, are:

Primate mouths house different types of teeth such as incisors, canines, premolars, and molars
True

A dental formula is a numerical device that indicates number of each type of tooth in each quadrant (1/4th) of the mouth
True

Sexual dimorphism:
concerns differences in body size and canine size.

Male primates most often compete for mates while female primates compete for other resources, demonstrating that:
reproduction places different energy demands on males and females, resulting in varying reproductive strategies.

The higher the social rank of a female primate the:
greater her access to resources, which results in higher birth rates.

Altruistic behavior:
is behavior that benefits others while causing a disadvantage to the individual.

Altruistic behavior benefits others while being a disadvantage to the altruistic individual. Which of the following reasons does not explain why it exists in primate societies?
Altruistic behavior is random.

Female reproductive strategies emphasize:
caring for young and ensuring access to food

Dominance hierarchies usually serve to reduce the amount of physical violence
True

Chimpanzees sometimes go termite fishing
True

Primate males are generally dominant to females, but not always
True

The earth’s age is:
About 4.6 billion years

The study of what happens to an organism’s remains after death is:
taphonomy.

Taphonomy is the study of:
the processes that affect an organism after death.

Chemical analysis of the _________ can provide information on diets and habitats.
bones and teeth

Eras are:
divisions in geologic time divided into periods and epochs.

Most of the fossils discovered in Africa come from the eastern parts of the continent. Why is this?
These areas provided better preservation.

If fossil species A is consistently recovered from geological deposits beneath layers containing fossil species B, then A is considered older than B. This relative dating technique is based on the principle of:
superposition.

Which of the following is NOT an ideal environment for fossilization?
acidic soil (as in a jungle)

Radiometric methods are based on the principle that “parent” atoms of radioactive elements decay at a known rate into “daughter” atoms of another element
True

Half-life refers to the time period in which half of the amount of a radioactive isotope is chemically converted into a daughter product
True

Dendrochronology is another way of referring to Carbon dating
False

Fossils are the remains of once-living organisms that have been chemically converted to stone, either partially or fully.
True

One theory of primate evolution suggests forward-facing eyes, nails, and grasping hands would have been useful if primates were visually-directed predators.
True

Soon after the extinction of the dinosaurs, mammals experienced an adaptive radiation and diverged into the many different mammal orders found today.
True

The Miocene epoch lasted from about 36 million years ago to 5 million years ago.
False

Craniofacial morphology of Sivapithecus suggests it may be related to the modern day Orangutan.
True

Hominoids are lesser apes, greater apes, and humans.
True

The term “hominoids” includes generalized mammals like squirrels, raccoons, and mice.
False

Proconsul is the best known genus from the Miocene and was highly successful as evidenced by numerous species in the fossil record.
True

Hominoids, or apes, first appear in fossil record between _______ mya
20-25

Proconsul is associated with which of the following traits/behaviors?
All answers listed are correct
-Monkey-like post-cranial skeleton
-Lack of a tail
-Ape-like skull and teeth

Based on genetic analysis of living primates calibrated by the fossil record, it is estimated that apes and Old World monkeys diverged into separate lineages around:
25 mya.

Hominoids, or apes, first appear in fossil record between 20-25 mya
True

By calculating genetic distance, and using rate of change from molecular clock, researchers can estimate when two lineages diverged
True

A species that is adapted to a wide range of environments, climates, and diets is:
biologically diverse.

Sivapithecus is widely recognized as an ancestral member of which ape lineage?
orangutan

The discovery of Sahelanthropus tchadensis showed that bipedal hominins were less widely distributed than previously thought
False

Pieces of a skull, spinal column, pelvis, femur, knee, ankle, or foot can all be used as evidence in reconstructing locomotion from bits of fossils, and determining whether these ancient individuals walked on two legs.
True

Australopithecus boisei was a robust species with adaptations for heavy chewing
True

Sahelanthropus tchadensis is dated to between 7 and 6 mya
True

When looking at a robust australopithecine, you are likely to see evidence of attachment sites on the skull for large, strong chewing muscles.
True

As a species, Australopithecus afarensis survived for more than 900,000 years.
True

Prognathism refers to an anterior projection of the face
True

The earliest australopithecines first show up in the fossil record more than:
4 mya.

The only preaustralopithecine found outside the East African Rift Valley is:
Sahelanthropus tchadensis.

Australopithecus robustus was likely the longest-surviving species of australopithecine in South Africa. It had:
large molars, a big face, and a sagittal crest.

The Laetoli Footprints provide good evidence that bipedal hominins were present in Africa about 3.6 mya
True

Australopithecus afarensis is the genus and species that “Lucy” belongs to
True

Australopithecus boisei has the thickest dental enamel of any known early hominin
False

In species that have one, the ____________ serves as an attachment site for the large temporal muscles
sagittal crest

__________________ evolved first, then brain size increased, and toolmaking followed during hominin evolution
Bipedal locomotion

Oldowan tools are based on ____ hammer percussion
hard

Many H. erectus skulls have a sagittal crest.
False

Cut marks on top of carnivore marks suggests hominin scavenging
True

The temporalis muscle anchors to the sagittal keel of H. erectus specimens
False

Stone artifact manufacture would have allowed hominins to butcher mammals that may have been acquired from hunting or scavenging
True

Many of the stone tools recovered at the H. erectus site of Dmanisi are similar to the Oldowan industry from Africa
True

All Dmanisi H. erectus crania have relatively large cranial capacities compared to what is expected for H. erectus
False

All Dmanisi H. erectus crania have relatively small cranial capacities compared to what is expected for H. erectus
True

Compared to previous species, H. erectus was:
All answers listed are correct
-Large bodied (robust)
-Committed to a terrestrial habitat
-More widely dispersed

Modern anatomical features of the Nariokotome Boy include:
relatively short arms and long legs.

Compared to australopithecines, Homo habilis is characterized by:
all answers listed are correct
-a rounder and larger skull.
-a smaller face.
-a bigger brain.

Acheulian stone tools are considered mode I tools.
False

Homo habilis was definitely, without a doubt, the first stone tool maker
False

Acheulian tool makers developed a new way to knock flakes from stone cores using “soft hammer” percussion
True

According to taphonomists, when used on bone carnivore teeth leave a series of parallel grooves
False

Oldowan tools show that hominins were inventing and adopting cultural solutions to problems
True

A sagittal keel is present on many H. erectus skulls.
True

Homo habilis had traits that include:
short legs.

Homo erectus differed from earlier hominids in having traits such as:
a larger brain.

Modern human populations outside of Africa possess 1-4% of distinctive Neandertal DNA
True

There is good evidence that Neandertals buried their dead and included grave goods like animal bones and stone tools
True

Some Neandertals were buried in a flexed position
True

The Out-of-Africa model argues that that archaic Homo evolved into modern Homo sapiens solely in Africa, around 200,000 years ago
True

Denisovians are thought to have shared a very recent ancestor with Homo floresiensis (i.e. “the Hobbit”)
False

Denisovians are thought to have shared an ancestor with Neandertals.
True

DNA has been extracted from a finger bone and molar tooth, which indicates there was another contemporary hominin present 50,000 to 30,000 years ago. This species is currently referred to as “Denisovians”
True

To date, the majority of Neandertal fossils have been found in:
Europe.

Analyses of modern human genetic variation indicate that Homo sapiens may have evolved approximately:
200,000 yBP.

If I were to argue that all of human evolution has been within a single continuous human species, then this would mean that I favor the
Regional Continuity Model: Multiregional Evolution

The remains of animal bones at archaic Homo sites demonstrate that they were successful hunters
True

The Out-Of-Africa model argues that human species first arose ~2 mya and subsequent human evolution has been within a single, continuous human species
False

Patterns of trauma in Neandertal remains match those of contemporary dancers, indicating close proximity to prey
False

The remains of animal bones at Neandertal sites demonstrate that Neandertals were successful hunters
True

Shanidar I is a skeleton of a male who lived to be 30-45 years old who had numerous injuries that would have altered his quality of life. These injuries are so severe that some suggest he was crippled and only could have lived within a social group that helped care for him.
True

The Middle Paleolithic is associated with _________ tools which Neandertals produced.
Mousterian

The best fossil evidence to suggest that Neandertals could produce a language like that of modern humans comes from which bone(s) collected at Kebara, Israel?
the hyoid

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