ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY 1 MID TERM REVIEW CH. 1-6 Flashcard

ANATOMY
is the study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts.
PHYSIOLOGY
is the study of how the body and its parts function or work.
4 ELEMENTS OF LIFE
carbon
oxygen
hydrogen
nitrogen
(COHN)
5 FACTORS HUMAN LIFE DEPENDS ON
1) water
2) food
3) oxygen
4) heat
5) homeostasis
ENERGY
the ability to work
MATTER
anything that occupies space and has mass
NUCLEUS
brain or control center of a cell
3 FUNCTIONS OF THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
1) body covering
2) protects tissues
3) regulates body temperature
BONDING AND VALENT SHELLS
have 2 inner shells, max
ATOMS
gain , lose and share electrons in order for the outermost orbitals to become stable.
CELL MEMBRANE
is a transparent barrier surrounding cells that prevent or allow passage of substances.
CYTOPLASM
is the material outside the cell’s nucleus and allows for most of the cellular activities.
HOMEOSTATSIS
maintaining a stable internal environment or a dynamic state of equilibrium
ORGANIC
compounds that contain carbon and include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
INORGANIC
compound lack carbon and are simpler compounds such as water, salts, and acids and bases.
MITOSIS
the process of cell division where the end product is the formation of two daughter nuclei.
(DNA) DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID
genetic make up; provides instruction for every protein in the body
(RNA) RIBONUCLEIC ACID
carries out orders from the DNA
BODY SYSTEMS & FUNCTIONS
1) Cardiovascular system–Transport
2) Digestive system– Excretion & Absorption
3) Integumentary system– Body Covering
4) Skeletal system–Support
5) Muscular system– Support
6) Nervous system– Integration and Coordination
7) Endocrine System– Integration and Coordination
8) Lymphatic system– Transport
9) Respiratory system–Absorption & Excretion
10) Urinary system– Absorption & Excretion
11) Reproductive system- Reproduction
BODY SECTIONS
Frontal–divides body sections into anterior (front) and posterior(rear)
Midline/Sagittal–lengthwise; divides into left and right portions
Transverse–divides in half– across
BODY REGIONS
EPIGASTRIC
LEFT/ RIGHT HYPOGASTRIC REGION
UMBILICAL REGION
HYPOGASTRIC REGION
LEFT/ RIGHT ILIAC
BODY CAVITIES
CRANIAL CAVITY
SPINAL CAVITY
PLEURAL CAVITY
PERICARDIAL CAVITY
DIAPHRAGM
ABDOMINAL CAVITY
PELVIC CAVITY
ELECTRONS
function is to “hookup”, share with, give to
CHEMICAL REACTION FORMULAS
Synthesis–A+B–>AB
Decomposition–AB–> A +B
Exchange–AB+C–> AC+B
CELL DIAGRAM
nucleus
cytoplasm
cell/plasma membrane
VITAL PROPERITIES OF WATER
heat composition
chemical reactivity
cushioning
(ATP) ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE
chemical energy used by all cells
MITOSIS PHASES
Prophase– dna breaks apart and moves to separate parts of cells
Metaphase– spindle fibers from the centrioles attach to centeromeres of each chromosomes.
Anaphase–centromeres separate from the chromatids and identical chormatids are now considered individual chromosomes
Telophase– final stage of mitosis
APOPTOSIS
form of cell death
DEHYDRATION SYNETHESIS
take out water to form a new substance
HYDROLYSIS
adding a water molecule to split a molecule
ABALATION
taken away
ENZYMES
catalysis for all living organism
ANAEROBIC
absence of molecular oxygen
AEROBIC
presence of molecular oxygen
4 TYPES OF TISSUES
1) epithelial– protection
2) connective–support
3) muscle–movement
4) nervous–integration
4 TYPES OF MEMBRANES
1) serous membrane–body surface
2) mucous membrane–lines cavities
3) cutaneous membrane– commonly called skin
4) synovial membrane–lines joints, cushion
NERVOUS TISSUE
basic cells called neurons. found in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerve
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
CARTILAGE & TYPES:
CARTILAGE–RIGID CONNECTIVE TISSUE; SUPPORT, FRAMEWORK, ATTACHMENTS
HYALINE CARTILAGE–COLLAGENOUS FIBERS; END OF JOINTS, NOSE, SUPPORTING RINGS OF THE RESPIRATORY PASSAGES
ELASTIC CARTILAGE–FLEXIBLE, FRAMEWORK FOR EARS AND LARYNX
3 LAYERS OF SKIN
1) Epidermis
2) Dermis
3) subcutaneous
5 TYPES OF GLANDS & FUNCTION
1) sebaceous glands–keep hair soft, pliable, waterproof, everywhere but palms and soles.
2) eccrine sweat glands–sweat glands w/ odorless secretion. lower body temp.
3) apocrine sweat glands–sweat glands w/odor. near armpit and groin
4) ceruminous glands–secrete ear was.
5) mammary glands–secrete milk.
3 TYPES OF BURNS
1) 1st degree–skin red, swollen. epidermis is damaged.–10% of body
2) 2nd degree–skin red w/ blisters. epidermis and dermis is damaged.–25% of body
3) 3rd degree–skin is black or gray-white (charred) destroys entire skin layer.
MALIGNANT
cancer that spreads. skin cancer most common type
BENIGN
does not spread
SKIN CANCER TYPES
1) basal cell- least malignant, common type
2) squamous cell- metastasizes to lymph nodes, believed to be sun induced
3) malignant melanoma– most deadly, cancer of melanocytes, metastasizes quickly to lymph and blood vessels
ABCDE RULE
A-asymmetry– sides do not match
B- border irregularity– not smooth
C- color– different colors
D-diameter– larger than 6 mm
E- evaluation
LAYERS OF EPIDERMIS–DEEPEST TO SUPERFICIAL
Stratum basale
stratum spinosum
stratum granulosum
stratum lacidum ( thick, hairless skin only)
stratum corneum
MELANIN
dark pigment also yellow & brown
CAROTENE
orange-yellow pigment
HEMOGLOBIN
red coloring from blood cells in dermal capillaries. Oxygen determines the extent of red coloring.
ALERATIONS OF SKIN COLOR
redness– erythema
pallor– blanching, pale
jaundice– yellow, liver disorder
Bruises– hematomas
RULE OF NINES
body is divided into 11 areas, each represents about 9% of total body surface area.
HYPOTHALAMUS
temperature control center
CUTS REACTIONS
a) normal skin
b) injury occurs
c) blood escapes
d) blood clot forms
e) clot dries, forms scab
f) new connective tissue forms
g) skin repaired, scab sloughs off, scar tissue forms
AUOTGRAFT
transplant from self
ALLOGRAFT
transplant person to person
AGEING PROCESS
sag, nag and bag
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
largest organ in the body by weight. Protective covering, retards water loss, helps regulate body temp, houses sensory receptors, aids in the formation of vitamin D and excretes wastes.
CYANOSIS
bluish color
ALBINISM
nonpigmented skin
2 TYPES OF TISSUES UNDER DERMIS
1) areolar
2) adiipose

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