Anatomy and Physiology: Anatomical Position Outline Flashcard

Anatomy
The study of the structure of an organism and the relationships of its parts
Physiology
The study of the functions of living organisms and their parts
Dissection
Cutting apart the human body to isolate and study the structural components or parts of the human body
Disease
A result of abnormalities of the body structure or function that prevent the body from maintaining the internal stability that keeps us alive and healthy
Pathology
The study of disease, uses principles of anatomy and physiology to determine the nature of particular diseases
Cells
The “smallest” units of structure and function in the human body
Tissues
An organization of many similar cells that act together to perform a common function
Organs
A group of several different kinds of tissues arranged so that they can together perform complex functions
Systems
An organization of varying numbers and kinds of organs arranged so that they can together perform complex functions
Anatomical position
The relationship of one area to another assume that the body as a whole is in a specific position
Anatomical direction
Knowing where an organ is in relation to other structures
Superior
Toward the head, upper, above
Inferior
Toward the feet, lower, below
Anterior
Front, infront of
Posterior
Back, in back of
Medial
Toward the mid line of the body
Lateral
Toward the side of the body
Proximal
Nearest to the trunk of the body
Distal
Farthest from the trunk or the point of origin
Frontal plane
A lengthwise plane running from side to side, it divides the body into front and back portions
Sagittal plane
A lengthwise plane running from front to back, it divides the body into right and left sides
Transversal plane
A horizontal or crosswise plane, it divides the body into upper and lower portions
Cross sections
A transverse cut through a structure or tissue, the opposite of this is a longitudinal section
Superficial
Means nearer to the surface
Deep
Means farther away from the body surface
Ipsilateral
The same side
Contralateral
Opposite sides
Ventral body cavity
The thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
Dorsal body cavity
The cranial and spinal cavities
Thoracic cavity
Contains the lungs, heart, and other structures (tubular airways, blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves) in the chest
Abdominal cavity
Liver, gallbladder, stomach, spleen, pancreas, small intestine, and parts of the large intestine
Axial division
The head, neck, torso, and trunk
Appendicular division
Upper and lower extremities
Antebrachial
Forearm
Antecubital
Depressed area just in front of elbow
Axillary
Armpit
Brachial
Arm
Buccal
Cheek
Carpal
Wrist
Cephalic
Head
Cervical
Neck
Cranial
Skull
Crural
Leg
Cubital
Elbow
Cuntaneous
Skin (body surface)
Digital
Fingers or toes
Dorsal
Back
Facial
Face
Femoral
Thigh
Gluteal
Buttock
Inguinal
Groin
Lumbar
Lower back between the ribs and pelvis
Mammary
Breast
Occipital
Back of lower skull
Olecranal
Back of the elbow
Palmar
Palm of hand
Pedal
Foot
Pelvic
Lower portion of torso
Perineal
Area between anus and genitals
Plantar
Sole of foot
Popliteal
Area behind the knee
Supraclavicular
Area above the clavicle
Tarsal
Ankle
Temporal
Side of the skull
Thoracic
Chest
Umbilical
Area around naval or umbilicus
Volar
Palm or sole
Homeostasis
What physiologists call the relative consistency of the internal environment
Negative feedback loop
They oppose, or negate, a change in a controlled condition
Positive feedback loop
Exist in the body and are involved in normal function. They are stimulatory and instead of opposing a change in the internal environment and causing a “return to normal”, these feedback loops temporarily amplify or reinforce the change that is occurring
Sensor
A sensor detects change and feeds back to the control center
Effector
Some that has an effect on the controlled condition
Pelvic cavity
Contains the lower colon, rectum, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs
Abdominal
Anterior torso below diaphragm

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