All APBIO Ch. 1-55 (Pretty EPIC)

Flashcard maker : Kenneth McQuaid
A conserved sequence of 60 amino acids used in the binding to DNA. Usually found in transcription factors, it is used to express genes that are related, more specifically in development to make tissues associated with one another.
Model Organism
An organism selected for intensive scientific study based on features that make it easy to work with (e.g., body size, life span), in the hope that findings will apply to other species.
eukaryotes are genetic ____, they havae combined genomes of at least three different prokayroyes.
The development of body shape and organization.
Cell Differentiation
The structural and functional divergence of cells as they become specialized during a multicellular organism’s development; dependent on the control of gene expression.
Cell Division
the process in reproduction and growth by which a cell divides to form daughter cells
An embryonic stage in animal development encompassing the formation of three layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
The hollow ball of cells marking the end stage of cleavage during early embryonic development
In animal development, a series of cell and tissue movements in which the blastula-stage embryo folds inward, producing a three-layered embryo, the gastrula.
a type of cell death in which the cell uses specialized cellular machinery to kill itself
Cell Lineage
Cell Lineage
entire ancestry of every cell in the body of an adult (Like that of C. Elegens), usually represented over time in a pedigree.
Stem Cell
Stem Cell
an undifferentiated cell whose daughter cells may differentiate into other cell types (such as blood cells)
Plant tissue that remains embryonic as long as the plant lives, allowing for indeterminate growth.
Gene Expression
the activation or \”turning on\” of a gene that results in transcription and the production of mRNA
Genomic Equivalence
That each somatic cell in an organism has the same set of gene’s
Found that undeffirentiated carrot cells could be used to make any part of the carrot, or develop into an adult plant.(Totipotent)
Describing a cell that can give rise to all parts of the embryo and adult, as well as extraembryonic membranes in species that have them.
Nuclear Transplantation
a technique in which the nucleus of one cell(usually undifferentiated) is placed into another cell that already has a nucleus(differntiated) or in which the nucleus has been previously destroyed, inversly related to the age of the donor(becasue of acetylation, methylation etc etc.
Reproductive Cloning
The process of implanting an early embryo into the uterus of a surrogate mother. The resulting animal will be genetically identical to the donor of the nucleus.
cells that are capable of developing into most, but not all, of the body’s cell types
A fluid-filled sphere formed about 5 days after fertilization of an ovum that is made up of an outer ring of cells and inner cell mass. THis is the structure that implants in the endometrium of the uterus.
Therapeutic Cloning
the cloning of human cells by nuclear transplantation for therapeutic purposes, such as the generation of embryonic stem cells
The progressive restriction of developmental potential, causing the possible fate of each cell to become more limited as the embryo develops. Maked by the expression of certain tissue expression proteins
Tissue Specific proteins
found only in a specific cell type and give the cell thats characteristic structure and function.
An embryonic cell that develops into a cell of muscle fiber
The most abundant plasma protein, 60% of the total protein, made by the liver, plays an important role in osmotic balance, contributes to the viscosity of blood, transportation of lipids/hormones/calcium…, and helps to maintain pH
Transparent proteins in lens fibers that are responsible for the clarity and focusing power of the lens
Cytoplasmic Determinant
A maternal substance, such as protein or RNA, that influences the course of early development by regulating the expression of genes that affect the developmental fate of cells.
a transcription factor that binds to enhancers of various target, produces transcription factor that binds to the promoters of genes that produce features of skeletal muscle cells
The process in which one group of embryonic cells influences the development of another, usually by causing changes in gene expression involving the movement of certain signal molecules..
Body Plan
In animals, a set of morphological and developmental traits that are integrated into a functional whole—the living animal.
Pattern Formation
The development of a multicellular organism’s spatial organization, the arrangement of organs and tissues in their characteristic places in three-dimensional space.
Positional Information
Molecular cues that control pattern formation in an animal or plant embryonic structure by indicating a cell’s location relative to the organism’s body axes. These cues elicit a response by genes that regulate development.
Multinucleate Cell
During the first 10 quick mitotic divisions in an Drosophila melanogaster, there are S and M phases only with no growt, so the amount of cytoplasm does NOT change, making it a _____________.
an embryonic cap of dividing cells resting on a large undivided yolk
Edward Lewis
(1) studied developmental mutations in organisms and linked them to specific genes, (2) first researcher to notice mutations in Drosophila that affected the correct placement of body parts and therefore had to be mutants in the development process, (3) when he performed test crosses with antennapedia mutants, he found that the mutation was inherited as a recessive trait
Embryonic Lethals
mutations with phenotype causing death at the the embryonic or larval stage
Maternal Effect Gene
A gene that, when mutant in the mother, results in a mutant phenotype in the offspring, regardless of the genotype. AKA egg polarity genes.
Egg Polarity Genes
Another name for maternal effect genes, these genes control the orientation (polarity) of the egg, one group sets up the anterior posterior axis, while the other sets up the dorsal ventrtal axis.
A maternal effect gene that codes for a protein responsible for specifying the anterior(head) end in Drosophilia. A defect in this will lead to two posterior ends being formed, and is due to a gradient of the mRNA (morphogens) expressed in one part of the body.
A substance that provides positional information in the form of a concentration gradient along an embryonic axis.
Segmentation Genes
the genes of the embryo whose products direct formation of segments after the embryo’s major body axes are defined by egg polarity genes.
Homeotic Genes
determine such basic features as where a pair of wings and a pair of legs will develop on a bird or how a plant’s flower parts are arranged
Gap Genes
Mutations in these genes cause \”gaps\” in Drosophila segmentation. The normal gene products map out the basic subdivisions along the anterior-posterior axis of the embryo.
Pair Rule Genes
Genes that define the modular patterns in terms of pairs of segments in Drosophila. Mutations in these genes result in embryos with half the normal segment number because every other segment fails to develop.
Segment Polarity Genes
establish anterior-posterior gradient with each segment
the whole cell shrinks and becomes lobed
Ced -3
C. elegan caspase protein that causes apoptosis via the ced-3/ced4 complex which is upregulated by inhibitor ced-9.
Cytochrome C
loss of mitochondrial membrane potential will release substances like ____ which activate caspases
a family of cysteine-dependent, aspartate-specific proteases that are associated with apoptosis in neurodegenerative diseases
Evo Devo
Evolutionary developmental biology; a field of biology that compares developmental processes of different multicellular organisms to understand how these processes have evolved and how changes can modify existing organismal features or lead to new ones.
A 180-nucleotide sequence within a homeotic gene encoding the part of the protein that binds to the DNA of the genes regulated by the protein., and specifies a 60 amino acid homeodomain.
Hox Genes
series of genes that controls the differentiation of cells and tissues in an embryo
Mads Box Genes
a conserved sequence motif found in a family of transcription factors, the MADS-box protein family. The length of the MADS-box reported typically varies in the range of 168 to 180 bp.Found mainly in plants(ABC MODEL)
Gene Therapy
Gene Therapy
The insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in an attempt to correct the disorder, for it to be permanent it must involve the cells that will proliferate throughout a persons lifetime(like BONE Marrow Cells)
Human Genome Project
Human Genome Project
An international effort to map the complete human genetic code. This effort was essentially completed in 2001, though analysis is ongoing.
In Vitro Fertilization
In Vitro Fertilization
The most common assisted reproduction procedure, in which a woman’s eggs are mixed with sperm in culture dishes (in vitro) and then carefully inserted into a woman’s uterus.
Golden Rice
Golden Rice
Vitamin A deficiency is a serious health issue, so 2 genes from daffodils and 1 from bacteria were inserted, with added genes rice plants synthesize betacarotene, whtn the rice is eaten it is converted to Vitamin A
Recombinant DNA
Genetically engineered DNA made by recombining fragments of DNA from different organisms
Genetic Engineering
The direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes, which include the manufacture of protein products(like Hormones and blood clotting factors), by using this technological approach you can make recombinant DNA and then reintroduce it into cultured cells
A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes.
Multicellular animals having cells differentiated into tissues and organs and usually a digestive cavity and nervous system
DNA Microarray
Technique used to screen a single sample for a vast range of different nucleotide sequences stimultaneously; it is often used to study gene expression
Gene Cloning
The process of isolating a gene sequence in the genome of an organism and inserting the gene sequence into a plasmid vector for production in large numbers.
a diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family
Bacterial Plasmid
A Circular DNA molecule found in bacteria which can be inserted with foreign DNA.
Used to mass produce insulin and human growth hormone.
Recombinant Bacterium
Insert foreign DNA into a plasmid and then put the plasmid in a bacteria so it has foreign DNA too
a group of genetically identical cells or organisms derived from a single cell or individual by some kind of asexual reproduction
Cloned Genes
Are useful for two main purposes, they can be used to make many copies of a particular gene and can produce a protein product, which may endow an organism with a new metabolic function such as pest resistance.
Restriction Enzymes
Also called restriction endonucleases, were first discovered in the late 1960′ s and have made genetic engineering possible. They are found naturally in Bacteria and protect against foreign organisms. Is very specific and only recognizes a particular DNA sequence
Restriction Fragments
DNA segment resulting from cutting of DNA by a restriction enzyme at a restriction site (Usually Many
Sticky Ends
Short, single-stranded regions of DNA that came from broken double-stranded palindromic DNA.
Restriction Sites
The DNA sequence that is recognized by a restriction enzyme; the restriction enzyme cuts at this sequence, generating two DNA fragments (Usually 4 to 8 Nucleotides) , and because it is so small, restriction fragments are cut out at many places.
DNA Ligase
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of covalent bonds that close up the sugar phosphate backbone after the sticky ends form complementary hydrogen bonds(because these are only temporary)
Cloning Vector
An agent used to transfer DNA in genetic engineering. A plasmid from bacteria that moves recombinant DNA from a test tube back into a cell is an example , or it can be a virus that transfers recombinant DNA by infection.
Antibiotic resistance gene, found in vectors derived from natural episomes (plasmids) and bacterial genome.
Mech same as penicillin. Need a B-lactamase inhibitor. Used against Gram+ and HELPS (Haemophilus Influenza, E. Coli, Listeria, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella). SE: Pseudomembraneous Collitis (because of removal of gut bacteria). IV Form.
Gene part of the lac operon. If gene is intact, produces a product that can break down lactose and Xgal, and the colony WILL be blue. If not intact, it will NOTbreak down Xgal, colony will be white.
A Chemical similar to lactose that turns dark blue when cleaved by beta-galactosidase
a gel-like polysaccharide compound used for culturing microbes; extracted from certain red algae
The amount of cells that need to be present sothat they can be seen on an agar plate.
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
a form of DNA technology used to detect specific DNA or RNA sequences based on their ability to anneal to nucleic acid probes , if it know part of the neuclotide sequence of the gene of interest., then we could synthesize a probe that is complementary to it, which will then be labeled after it hydrgen bonds so that we could track it. KEY to this process is denaturazation of the Cell’s DNA.
Nucleic Acid Probe
In DNA technology, a labeled single-stranded nucleic acid molecule used to locate a specific nucleotide sequence in a nucleic acid sample. Molecules of the probe hydrogen-bond to the complementary sequence wherever it occurs; radioactive or other labeling of the probe allows its location to be detected.
Genomic Library
A set of thousands of DNA segments from a genome, each carried by a plasmid, phage, or other cloning vector
Phage Library
Most efficient genome library, 160,000 are needed to make up human genome, made by the backaging of the recombinant DNA into bacterial cells, where they replicate and produce new phage particles, which are stored as a selection of phage clones.
Plasmid Library
Cannot contain much info, 700,000 are needed to make the human genome, made by a collection of bacterial cells each of which containing copies of a particular genome fragment
Complementary DNA
A DNA molecule made in vitro using (mRNA) as a TEMPLATE and the enzyme reverse transcriptase . Also called (cDNA) molecules , they corresponds to a gene, but LACK the introns present in the DNA of the genome. Useful for studying the specialized function of a particular cell type.
Reverse Transcriptase
An enzyme encoded by some certain viruses (retroviruses) that uses RNA as a template for DNA synthesis.
Expression Vector
A cloning vector that contains the requisite bacterial promoter just upstream of a restriction site where a eukaryotic gene can be inserted, allowing the gene to be expressed in a bacterial cell. Allowing for the synthesis of many eukaryotic proteins in bacterial cells.
yeast artificial chromosomes. They are linear, like normal yeast chromosomes, not circular like plasmids. They can be used to clone very large pieces of DNA, up to about 500 kbp. They are not used much anymore, as BAC clones have technical advantages., Can surmount the differential transciption between prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.
A technique to introduce recombinant DNA into cells by applying a brief electrical pulse to a solution containing cells. The electricity creates temporary holes in the cells’ plasma membranes, through which DNA can enter.
A bacterium that forms Galls in plants and transfers some of its genes into plant chromosomes through conjugation
Polymerase Chain Reaction
A method of producing thousands of copies of DNA segment using the enzyme DNA polymerase(Usually From Archaea), it is especially useful when the amount of DNA present is very scant or impure, because it is a quicker(a couple billion in a couple of hours) and more selective. Requires Double Stranded DNA containing target sequence to be copied, heat resistant DNA Polymerase, all 4 Nucleotides, and two short,single stranded DNA molecules which will serve as primers. Problem becose of occasional errors.
Restriction Fragment Analysis
DNA fragments produced by restriction enzyme digestion of a DNA molecule are sorted by gel electrophoresis; is useful for comparing two different DNA molecules such as two allels for a gene; used to prepare pure samples of individual fragments
Gel Electrophoresis
A procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel, the ones that are largest( or least negative) will move the slowest and farthest , while the smallest will do the exact opposite. These bands are NOT visible until a marker is added.
Southern Blotting
A technique that enables specific nucleotide sequences to be detected in a sample of DNA. It involves gel electrophoresis of DNA molecules and their transfer to a membrane (blotting), followed by nucleic acid hybridization with a labeled probe. (Must use an alakine solutiojn, Gel, Nitrocellulose, and a heavy weight to pull the solution through the cell. Most useful application is its use to identify the heterozygote carriers of mutant alleles associated with genetic diseases.
Differences in homologous DNA sequences that are reflected in different lengths of restriction fragments produced when the DNA is cut up with restriction enzymes
Physical Mapping
Assign genes to a particular locations using measurements that are a true reflection of the physical distance between the genes, usually by the number of base pairs along the DNA, which are then arranged so that they overlap
Linkage Mapping
Genes on a chromosome are arranged in a linear array, and the physical distance between them dictates the frequency of crossing over between them. The greater the physical distance,
the greater the frequency of crossing over. Made after a cytogenic maps are constructed by in situ hybridization.
Cytogenetic Map
a map of a chromosome that includes the positions of genes relative to visible chromosomal features, such as stained bands
Also called bacterial artificial chromosomes, which can clone much larger pieces of DNA but have lower copy number
Fredrick Sanger
the pioneer in determining the amino acid sequence of proteins, through his use of Dideoxy Chain Termination Method for Sequencing DNA .
Dideoxy Chain Termination Method
A method of determining a sequence of nucleotides in any CLONED DNA fragments up to 800 base pairs in length which can be determined rapidly by using a nested set of DNA strands complementary to the original DNA fragment, each that starts with the same primer and ends with Dideoxyriboneuclotide.(ddNTP), which terminates a growing DNA strand because it lacks a (OH-), and because they are tagged with a flourescent label , it determines the ending of the sequence which can be then used to sequence the entire DNA. (Developed by Fredrick Snger)
Hemophilus Influenzae
Gram- bacillus responsible for 5% of all bacterial meningitis cases,l also first complete genome sequenced by Vente and Celera Genomics
Celera Genomics
privately owned biotech company (Craig Venter)
techniques: relied on newer/faster DNA sequences & programs
Craig Venter
entreprenuer who worked for Celera. Developed the \”Shotgun\” sequencing method, wanted people to pay to view genes in database, raced against Francis Collins to Finish Genome
Shotgun Approach
• As genomes get larger, piecing together information gets more difficult.
• Typically used for smaller genomes, like bacteria.
• Early step is to fractionate DNA to that the fragments of the particular size are used.
o This is done by using a sonificator which breaks
the DNA into particular sizes that can be shown
on a gel and extracted and purified. The
end-sequences of DNA inserts are obtained and
put into computer to sequence them.
• Organizing the clones, you generate probes from the clones creating end-sequences and apply it to the entire genome. If the probe sticks to numerous places then you can attempt to say that they line up to each other in the genome.
study and comparison of genomes within a single species or among different species
Expressed Sequence Tags
certain short sequences that correspond to sequences present in known mRNA, are catalouged in a computer, which identifies sequences that are new product coding genes.
In Vitro Mutagenesis
A technique to discover the function of a gene by introducing specific changes into the sequence of a cloned gene, reinserting the mutated gene into a cell, and studying the phenotype of the mutant. RNAi is more effective and faster.
RNA interference; injecting double stranded RNA into a cell turns off expression of a gene with the same sequence as the RNA, useful in assesing differential expression of genes.
DNA microarray assays
A method to detect and measure the expression of thousands of genes at one time. Tiny amounts of a large number of single-stranded DNA fragments representing different genes are fixed to a glass slide. These fragments, ideally representing all the genes of an organism, are tested for hybridization with various samples of cDNA molecules.
the full protein sets encoded by genomes
the study of all of an organism’s proteins, including its identity, structure, interaction, and abundance
a DNA sequence variation occurring when a single nucleotide — A, T, C, or G — in the genome (or other shared sequence) differs between members of a species (or between paired chromosomes in an individual). For example, two sequenced DNA fragments from different individuals, AAGCCTA to AAGCTTA, contain a difference in a single nucleotide. In this case we say that there are two alleles : C and T. Frequency may vary with ethnicity
is a variant of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a laboratory technique commonly used in molecular biology to generate many copies of a DNA sequence, a process termed \”amplification\”. An RNA strand is first reverse transcribed into its DNA complement (complementary DNA, or cDNA) using the enzyme reverse transcriptase, and the resulting cDNA
Severe combined immuno-deficiency. In this disorder both B-cells and T-cells are absent and therefore such babies are highly susceptible even to minor infections.
(Human growth hormone) also known as somatotrophic hormone is responsible for the growth of long bones, muscles and viscera.
Tissue Plasminogen Activator
converts PLASMINOGEN to PLASMIN in the presence of fibrin ,may lose fibrin specificity at high doses which disolves clots(Like in the case of a heart attck) and bleeding is common
DNA Fingerprints
Compares repeated sections of genes that have little to no known function, but vaary widley from one person to another(STRs). gel electrophoresis used to separate fragments, the specific repeats are then labeled using radioactive probes producing bands to e compared
Short Tandem Repeats, regions of a DNA molecule that contain short segments consisting of three to seven repeating base pairs
term used to refer to an organism that contains genes from other organisms
Ti Plasmid
a plasmid of a tumor-inducing bacterium that integrates a segment of its DNA into a chromosome of a host plants. frequently used as a vector for genetic engineering in plants. Comes form Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Genetically Modified Organisms
organisms whose genetic code has been altered by artificial means such as interspecies gene transfer
foreign gene that is transferred into target cell or tissue
a strech of DNA found in a Ti plasmid, INJECTED IN THE CHROMOSOMAL dna of its host.
a sclerenchyma cell with a thick, lignified secondary wall having many pits. sclereids are variable inf orm but typically not very long; they may or may not be living at maturity- seed coats, nutshells
Member of a clade consisting of the vast majority of flowering plants that have two embryonic seed leaves, or cotyledons. Taprrot System, lateral root divergence, vascular bundles arranged in a ring. Multiple of 5
an organism’s ability to alter itself in response to local environmental conditions, Can Be seen in the brain), plants.
the branch of biology that deals with the structure of animals and plants
A group of cells with a common function or structure.
Common aquatic plant of eastern North America having floating and submerged leaves and white yellow-spotted flowers
a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
Root System
All of a plant’s roots, which anchor it in the soil, absorb and transport minerals and water, and store food, have root hairs that significantly increase surface area and thus making the water transport more massive and efficent.
Shoot System
The aerial portion of a plant body, consisting of stems, leaves, and (in angiosperms) flowers. Main Photosyntheistic components take place here.
An organ in vascular plants that anchors the plant and enables it to absorb water and nutrients from the soil. In Eudicots and Gymosperms(Taproot) ,and Most mono cots and seedless Vascular (fibrous)
A vascular plant organ consisting of an alternating system of nodes and internodes that support the leaves and reproductive structures.
photosynthetic organ that contains one or more bundles of vascular tissue
Taproot System
A root system common to eudicots, consisting of one large, vertical root (the taproot) that produces many smaller lateral, or branch, roots.
Fibrous Root System
Root systems common to monocots consisting of a mat of thin roots that spread out below the soil surface. (Described as bring Adventitous)
Lateral Roots
A root that arises from the outermost layer of the pericycle of an established root. Allso called branched roots they are usually on the outside of taproots in Eudicots.
A clade consisting of flowering plants that have one embyonic seed leaf, or cotyledon. Flower parts in multiples of 3. Parellel Vein Structure
Root Tip
Made up of the root cap, meristematic zone, elongation zone, and maturation zone, where most of the water is absorbed/
Root Hair
A tiny extension of a root epidermal cell, growing just behind the root tip and increasing surface area for absorption of water and minerals.
Prop Roots
Prop Roots
Thick adventitious roots that grow from the lower part of the stem and brace the plant.
Storage Roots
many plants, such as the common beet, store food and water in these type of roots.
Buttress Roots
Large wall-like flanks that grow out from trees to brace the trunks; angular, open enclosures, ready habitat for animals. Found in tropical rainforests. (Ceiba Tree)
(air roots) produced by trees that inhabit tidal swamps. By projecting above the water’s surface, they enable the root system to obtain oxygen.
a point along the stem of a plant at which leaves are attached.
A segment of a plant stem between the points where leaves are attached.
Axillary Bud
A structure that has the potential to form a lateral shoot, or branch. The bud appears in the angle formed between a leaf and a stem.
Lateral Shoot
an offshoot of the stem of the plant; fancy name for branch
Terminal Bud
Embryonic tissue at the tip of a shoot, made up of developing leaves and a compact series of nodes and internodes.
Apical Dominance
Concentration of growth at the tip of a plant shoot, where a terminal bud partially inhibits axillary bud growth.
The flattened portion of a typical leaf
The stalk of a leaf, which joins the leaf to a node of the stem.
plants formed from natural asexual reproduction that have buds that produce plantlets underground, i.e. potatoes and artichokes
short, underground stem that’s surrounded by leaves that contain stored food (occurs in tulips, lilies and onions)
Underground stems that anchor a fern and absorb water
Simple Leaf
leaf with a single blade, i.e. grass, maple leaves, oak leaves
Compound Leaf
a type of leaf that consists of a petiole and two or more leaf blades called leaflets
Doubly Compound Leaf
each leaflet in this type of leaf is divided into smaller leaflets
A twisting, threadlike structure by which a twining plant (vine) grasps an object for support (modified leaf)
In plants, modified leaves that are stiff and sharp and that function in defense.
modified leaves with bright color that serve the same function of petals in attracting pollinators
Reproductive Leaves
Leaf modification: These produce tiny plants along the leaf margins that fall to the ground and take root in the soil.
Tissue System
One or more tissues organized into a functional unit connecting the organs of a plant
Dermal Tissue System
The protective covering of plants; generally a single layer of tightly packed epidermal cells covering young plant organs formed by primary growth.
The dermal tissue system of nonwoody plants, usually consisting of a single layer of tightly packed cells.
The protective coat that replaces the epidermis in woody plants during secondary growth, formed of the cork and cork cambium.
Vascular Tissue System
A system formed by xylem and phloem throughout a vascular plant, serving as a long distant transport system for water and nutrients, respectively.
The woody part of plants: the supporting and water-conducting tissue, consisting primarily of tracheids and vessels
Vascular tissue responsible for the transport of nutrients and the carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis
Vascular Cylinder
The central cylinder of vascular tissue in a plant root., -a region completely enclosed by the endodermis.(Especially in angiosperm the stele is also completely enclosed)
Vascular Bundles
strands of vascular tissue that run the length of the stem
Ground Tissue System
Plant tissues that are neither vascular nor dermal, fulfilling a variety of functions, such as storage, photosynthesis, and support. Internal(pith)
parenchyma cells inside the ring of vascular tissue in dicot stems
Ground tissue that is between the vascular tissue and dermal tissue in a root or dicot stem.
A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.
Primary Growth
Growth produced by apical meristems, which lengthen stems and roots.
Secondary Growth
Growth produced by lateral meristems, which thickens the roots and shoots of woody plants, increasing the girth by making periderm.
Leaf Trichomes
Outgrowths of the epidermis ,
A water-conducting and supportive element of xylem composed of long, thin cells with tapered ends and walls hardened with lignin.
vascular tissue of a root or stem
A hard material embedded in the cellulose matrix of vascular plant cell walls that functions as an important adaptation for support in terrestrial species.
the contents of a plant cell exclusive of the cell wall
\”Typical Plant Cells\” less specialization, relatively thin, flexible primary plant cell walls(most LACK secondary cell walls), Perform most of the metabolic functions of the plant.(photosynthesis within chloroplasts), colorless plastids that store starch, fleshy tissue, retain ability to differentiate.
Collenchyma Cells
Plant cells that are grouped in strands and cylinders, have very unevenly thickened primary cell walls(help support plant). Usually located just below the epidermis, LACK lignin and secondary cell walls, and are flexible because of it.
Sclerenchyma Cells
Are the only cells with THICK secondary cell walls strengthed by lignin, and because of this are much more rigid than collenchyma cells. Cannot elongate, and are so specialized that most are dead at functional maturity. 2 Types of cells Sclereids (short,irregular, thickened and lignified-seed coats nutshells) and Fibers(long, slender and tapered- hemp, flax)
A lignified cell type that reinforces the xylem of angiosperms and functions in mechanical support; a slender, tapered sclerenchyma cell that usually occurs in bundles. (Flax, hemp)
Water Conducting Cells
Composed of tracheids(long thin with tapered ends) and vessel elements(wider, shorter, thinner walled and less tapered, with perferoations), these both have rigid, lignin-containing secondary cell walls, interrupted by pits
Vessel Elements
A short, wide, water conducting cell found in the xylem of most angiosperms and a few nonflowering vascular plants. Dead at maturity, vessel elements are aligned end to form micropipes called vessels.
Continuous water-conducting micropipes found in most angiosperms and a few nonflowering vascular plants.
Sugar Conducting Cells
In phloem, live at functional maturity, function in sugar transport. 2 types Sieve- Tube members and Companion Cells.
Sieve-Tube members
A living cell that conducts sugars and other organic nutrients in the phloem of angiosperms. They form chains called sieve tubes., lack nucleus, ribosomes, and a distinct vacoule, the sieve plates on the end facilitate the flow of fliud
Sieve Plates
An end wall in a sieve-tube element, which facilitates the flow of phloem sap in angiosperm sieve tubes.
Companion Cells
nucleated cells that help manage the transport of sugars and other organic compounds through sieve cells, connected to sieve ube members by plamsodesmata
Open channels in the cell wall of a plant through which strands of cytosol connect from an adjacent cell.
Indeterminate Growth
A type of growth characteristic of plants, in which the organism continues to grow as long as it lives.
Determinate Growth
A type of growth characteristic of most animals and some plant organs, in which growth stops after a certain size is reached.
Plants that complete their life cycle- from germination to flowering to seed production to death- in a single year or less. Ex. wildflowers, staple food crops (legumes and cereal grains).
Anthophyte that flowers only after two years of growth. Beets and Carrots
Plants which live for years that survive by remaining dormant during the dry periods and come to life when water is available. Usually dies by infection.
Plant tissue that remains embryonic as long as the plant lives, allowing for indeterminate growth.
Apical Meristems
Embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots that supplies cells for the plant to grow in length, which allow the plant to grow in length ( primary growth)
Lateral Meristems
A meristem that thickens the roots and shoots of woody plants. The vascular cambium and cork cambium are lateral meristems.
Plants with stems that are non-woody and die back to the ground every year. Some herbaceous plants include marigolds, zinnias, grass, tomatoes, green beans and geraniums.
Vascular cambium
A cylinder of meristematic tissue in woody plants that adds layers of secondary vascular tissue called secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem.
Cork cambium
A cylinder of meristematic tissue in woody plants that replaces the epidermis with thicker, tougher cork cells.
Cells that remain as wellsprings of new cells in the meristem are called —.
New cells that are displaced from an apical meristem and continue to divide until the cells they produce become specialized.
Primary Plant Body
The tissues produced by apical meristems, which lengthen stems and roots.
Root Cap
The thimble-shaped mass of cells covering and protecting the growing tip of a root as it pushes through the soil
Zone of Cell Division
The zone of primary growth in roots consisting of the root apical meristem and its derivatives. New root cells are produced in this region.
Zone of Elongation
The zone of primary growth in roots where new cells elongate, sometimes up to ten times their original length.
Zone of Maturation
The zone of primary growth in roots where cells complete their differentiation and become functionally mature.
first layer of cells (outermost) within the vascular cylinder, Where lateral roots arise from by puching through the cortex.
The innermost layer of the cortex in plant roots; a cylinder one cell thick that forms the boundary between the cortex and the vascular cylinder.
Leaf Primordia
Fingerlike projections along the flanks of a shoot apical meristem, from which leaves arise.
Intercalary Meristems
Found in monocots, actively produce new cells for increases in length, responsible for grass regrowing
Pore-like openings in leaves that allow gases (CO2 and O2) and water to diffuse in and out of the leaves.
opening in a leaf or a stem of a plant that enables gas exchange to occur
Guard Cell
specialized cell in the epidermis of plants that controls the opening and closing of stomata by responding to changes in water pressure
The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis.
Palisade Mesophyll
One or more layers of elongated photosynthetic cells on the upper part of a leaf; also called palisade parenchyma.
Spongy Mesophyll
Loosely arranged photosynthetic cells located below the palisade mesophyll cells in a leaf.
Leaf Traces
A small vascular bundle that extends from the vascular tissue of the stem through the petiole and into a leaf.
Bundle Sheath Cells
A type of photosynthetic cell arranged into tightly packed sheaths around the veins of a leaf. Usually consists of parenchyma.
Secondary Plant Body
The tissues produced by the vascular cambium and cork cambium, which thicken the stems and roots of woody plants.
Fusiform Initials
Cells within the vascular cambrium that produce elongated cells such as trocheids, vessel elements, fibers, and sieve-tube members.
Ray Initials
Cells within the vascular cambrium that produce xylem and phloem rays, radial files that consist mostly of parenchyma cells.
Located in the center portion of a tree trunk, it consists of older layers of secondary xylem
area in plants that surrounds heartwood and is active in fluid transport
In the stems of woody plants, a thin layer of cells located between the outer cork cells and inner cork cambium.
Fatty material found in the cell walls of cork tissue and in the Casparian strip of the endodermis
Small raised areas in the bark of stems and roots that enable gas exchange between living cells and the outside air.
Include all tissues that are external to the vascular cambium, not just the protective outer covering of plants.
The protective coat that replaces the epidermis in woody plants during secondary growth, formed of the cork and cork cambium.
Casparian Strip
A water-impermeable ring of wax around endodermal cells in plants that blocks the passive flow of water and solutes into the stele by way of cell walls
Systems Biology
An approach to studying biology that aims to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems.
the change in form of an organism resulting from cell differentiation
Asymmetrical Cell Division
produces two daughter cells with different properties; for example, one daughter cell received more cytoplasm that the other during mitosis
In plant cells only. In highly vacuolated plant cells, the nucleus has to migrate into the center of the cell before mitosis can begin. This is achieved through the formation of a phragmosome, a transverse sheet of cytoplasm that bisects the cell along the future plane of cell division. the formation of a ring of microtubules and actin filaments (called preprophase band) underneath the plasma membrane around the equatorial plane of the future mitotic spindle.
Pattern Formation
The development of a multicellular organism’s spatial organization, the arrangement of organs and tissues in their characteristic places in three-dimensional space.
Positional Information
Molecular cues that control pattern formation in an animal or plant embryonic structure by indicating a cell’s location relative to the organism’s body axes. These cues elicit a response by genes that regulate development.
KNOTTED-1 gene
important in development of leaf morphology, if overexpressed it causes super compound leaves
needed for appropriate root hair distribution, if turned off root hairs develop
Reporter Gene
used to determine whether inserted gene is \”turned on\” since it can sometimes be difficult to tell, detectable in phenotype when product present indicates that adjacent gene is functioning (ex. luciferase causing bioluminessence in mouse embryos & tobacco plants), a genetic marker.
Phase Changes
the morphological changes that arise from transitions in shoot apical meristem activity
Meristem Identity Genes
Plant genes that promote the switch from vegetative growth to flowering.
Organ Identity Genes
Plant homeotic genes that use positional information to determine(by doing for transcription factors) which emerging leaves develop into which types of floral organs.
ABC Model
ABC Model
A model of flower formation identifying three classes of organ identity genes that direct formation of the four types of floral organs.
Strands which form a transvers sheet of sytoplasm, Splits the cell in plane where it will finally divide. contains mircotubes and actin filaments
Jan Baptista van Helmont
1643 \”Willow tree experiment\” studied plant growth by weighing a small tree, some soil, and a pot, then he planted he small tree in the dirt in the pot and water the tree regulary, after several years he removed the tre and reweighd, he concluded that plants only need water to growz(FALSE), CO2
Stephen Hales
Suggested that conserving green plants preserved rainfall. His ideas were put into practice in 1974 on the Caribbean island of Tobago, where about 20% of the land was marked as ‘reserved in wood for rains’ (1) FAlSE CO2
Mineral Nutrients
An essential chemical element absorbed from the soil in the form of inorganic ions.
Essential element
In plants, a chemical element that is required for the plant to grow from a seed and complete the life cycle, producing another generation of seeds.
Process by which plants that release water into the atmosphere from small pores on their leaves known as stomata., makes plants lose 90% of water weight.t
Hydroponic Culture
A method in which plants are grown without soil by using mineral solutions.
Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous which are necessary for building and maintaining body tissues and providing energy for daily activities
Chemical elements that organisms need in small or even trace amounts to live, grow, or reproduce. Examples are sodium, zinc, copper, chlorine, and iodine. Compare macronutrients. Fuction mainly as cofactors
An abnormally yellow color of plant tissue, resulting from partial failure to develop chlorophyll, caused by a nutrient deficiency
through weathering soil will form a series of horizontal layers known as what?
A Horizon
A Horizon
This layer(horizon) of soil is made up of topsoil, crumbly, dark brown soil that is a mixture of humus, clay and other minerals.
B Horizon
Middle layer in a soil profile, less evolved soil, lighter in color, less life, less weathering than A horizon and above C Horizion
C Horizon
bottom layer, least evolved layer, contains minerals leached from B hor., MOSTLY contains partly weathered rock and solid rock at the bottom, is the PARENT material for the upper horizions.
Rich, dark organic material formed by decay of vegetable matter(by the action of bacteria and fungi), essential to soil’s fertility because it prevents it from clumping together which allows for adequate aeration of roots and absorption of water.
Negative ions (anions)
These types of ions( like Nitrate(NO3-), phosphate(H2PO4-) are NOT bound tightly to the negatively charged soil particles and are therefore easily released and are more available to roots EXCEPT during extensive water runoff
Positive Ions (cations)
These types of ions (like K+, Na+) ARE bound tightly to the negatively charged soil particles, and are NOT likely to be leached during extensive water runoff, They become aviable for absorption by a root only after being displaced by H+ (cation exchange)
Cation Exchange
A process in which positively charged minerals are made available to a plant when hydrogen ions (secreted by a root hairs and cellular respiration) which then releases CO2 into the soil solution where it will react with H2O to form carbonic acid, and its dissociation adds H+ which displaces mineral ions from the clay particles.
N-P-K Ratio
The Fertlizer Ratio used which contains (Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Potassium)
Drip Irrigation
A process by which precisely controlled amounts of water drip directly onto plants from pipes, thus preserving precious water resources in dry areas
The process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another
Sustainable Agriculture
Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil- restoring crops with cash crops and reducing in-puts of fertilizer and pesticides.
Contour Tillage
A way of planting that is planted going around anr round instead of up and down.
An emerging nondestructive technology that seeks to cheaply reclaim contaminated areas by taking advantage of the remarkable ability of some plant species(like alpine pennycress) to extract heavy metals and other pollutants from the soil and to concentrate them in easily harvested portions of the plant.
Cell Differentiation
Cell Differentiation
The structural and functional divergence of cells as they become specialized during a multicellular organism’s development; dependent on the control of gene expression.
Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring. Because of its phosphate group it is tightly bound to 4 positively charged Histones(8 total) to form a nucleosome.
Histone Code Hypothesis
This hypothesis proposes that specific combinations of modifications, rather than the overall level of histone acetylation, determine chromatin configuration
The proteins called ____ that are responsible for the first level of DNA packing in chromatin . Its mass is approximately equal to that of DNA, and it largely consists of positive amino acids(arginine, lysine), its apparent conservation in Eukaryotic genomes signals its importance. 4 of these(H2A, H2B, H3, H4) (8 total)along with DNA form a nucleosome.
Basic structural unit of chromatin; core of four types of histone ( H2A, H2B, H3, H4)(2 of each) wrapped in DNA, and prevalent during Interphase, also called beads on a string, they are linked together by linker DNA, some parts are tightly condensed(Telomeres and Centromeres), 10nm.
Looped Domains
After nucleosomes condense and link the 30 nm fiber gathers into thick supercoiled loops (80-100 nm). Tethered to protein scaffold of the (nuclear matrix)- regulates degree of supercoiling. Seen during Prophase, can become 300 nm
Densely staining condensed chromosomal regions, believed to be for the most part genetically inert, because transcription enzymes can’t reach it. Darkly stained throughout the cell cycle. Usually consists of Telomeres and Centromeres
DNA that is loosely packed around histones. This DNA is more accessible to enzymes and the genes in euchromatin can be activated if needed. (True Chromatin)
Organisms made up of one or more cells that have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
Differential Gene Expression
Differential Gene Expression
The expression of different sets of genes by cells with the same genome. Typically only about 20% of genes are expressed, however in highly differentiated cells(like muscle) even less is expressed.
Linker DNA
The string between beads of DNA on histones. They are also wrapped around a single histone, called linker histone (H1) – may not really have to know..
Nuclear Lamina
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope
A period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions during which the cell grows, copies its DNA, and synthesizes proteins
The 2nd stage in mitosis or meiosis in which the duplicated chromosomes line up along the equatorial plate of the spindle
N Terminus
the beginning of an amino acid chain, identified by a free amino group, in the histones it protrudes outwards from the nucleosome, which are sometimes modified by the addition or removal of chemicals( acetylation, methylation)
Maintain sister chromatid cohesion prior to the anaphase stage. Site of kinetochore formation. Hence, they mediate chromosome migration during the anaphase stage. This process is essential to the separation of chromatids and thus the fidelity of chromosome distribution during cell division. (Few mistakes).
First and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus
regions of cytoplasmic material that in animal cells contain structures called centrioles
Central Vacoule
large fluid vacuoles found olny in plants that support pressure of fluid against the cell wall which helps the cell stand upright
2 %
The percentage of DNA that actually codes for protein.
Gene Expression
The process whereby genetic information flows from genes to proteins; the flow of genetic information from the genotype to the phenotype, usually regulated at the transcription leve;.
Histone Acetylation
the attachment of acetyl groups (-COCH3) to certain amino acids(lysine, arginine) of histone proteins at the N Terminus, this neutralizes the positive charges(so less binding to necolosomes, the chromatin becomes less compact, and the DNA is more accessible for transcription
Histone Methylation
The addition of methyl groups (-CH3) to histone tails(N Terminus), promotes condensation of the chromatin and in effect discourages (discourages transcription)
DNA Methylation
The addition of methyl groups (—CH3) to bases of DNA after DNA synthesis(DIFFERENT from Histone Methylation); may serve as a long-term control of gene expression. Serves to limit expression, may act with other enzymes to recriut deacetylation enzymes, thus giving dual repression.
Genomic Imprinting
Phenomenon in which expression of an allele in offspring depends on whether the allele is inherited from the male or female parent., related to DNA methylation
Epigenetic Inheritance
inheritance of traits transmitted by mechanisms not directly involving the nucleotide sequence of a genome, like DNA methylation, and histone methylation or acetylation
Transcription Initiation Complex
The completed assembly of transcription factors and RNA polymerase bound to a promoter. Assembled on the promoter sequende at the upstream end of the gene.
RNA Polymerase 2
In the nucleoplasm and makes a pre -mRNA and some snRNAs. snRNA’s function in splicing out the introns. Part of the \”Snurp’s\”. Only one strand of DNA is used in transcription.
Control Elements
Segments of noncoding DNA that help regulate transcription of a gene by binding proteins called transcription factors.
Transcription Factors
collection of proteins that mediate the binding of RNA polymerase and the initiation of transcription
Proximal Control Elements
Control elements located close to the promoter
Still do the same job of binding proteins to DNA so that transcription can take place
Increase rate of transcription
Distal Control Elements
(groups are called enhancers), can be far away (downstream) from gene or even located in an intron.
the more distance distal control elements, groups of which are called ________, may be thousands of nucleotides upstream or downstream of a gene or even within an intron
A transcription factor that binds to an enhancer and stimulates transcription of a gene.
Mediator Proteins
Additional transcription factors that interact with proteins at the promoter to assemble the initiation complex
some specific transcription factors function as _________ to inhibit expression of a particular gene, can block the binding of activators to their control elements, or they can bind to their own control elements in an enhancer.
The recruitment of proteins by repressors that act to deacetylate histones leading to reduced transcription. Recruitment of mediator proteins is the most common mechanism for repression in Eukaryotes.
Alternative RNA Splicing
a type of eukaryotic gene regulation at the RNA-processing level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript, depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns
Poly A Tail
The modified end of the 3′ end (adenine base pairs) of an mRNA molecule consisting of the addition of some 50 to 250 adenine nucleotides., mRNA degradation typically begins with shortening of this.
mRNA Degradation
In multicellular eukaryotes last hours, days or weeks; duration dictates the number of protein translated from them. Breakdown starts with enzymatic shortening of poly-A tail; triggers the removal of 5′ cap by enzymes, followed by the consumption by of mRNA by nucleases.
Untranslated region; part of mature mRNA; not translated; upstream of start or downstream of stop, technically an exon, Neucleotide sequences at the 3` end of this molecule are thought to help determine the lifespan length of mRNA.
Small single-strand RNA molecules that bind to mRNA molecules to block certain parts’ expression. They are formed from longer RNA procurers that fold back on itself forming a long hairpin structure held together by hydrogen bonds.
Enzyme that cleaves and processes double stranded RNA to produce siRNAs or miRNAs that are 21-25 nucleotids in length
RNA Interference
technique to silence the expression of selected genes in nonmammalian organisms; uses synthetic double-stranded RNA molecules matching the sequence of a particular gene to trigger the breakdown of the gene’s messenger RNA. done by (RNAi) due to siRNA.
Global Control
the simultaneous regulation of numerous genes which is a form of transcriptional regulation, which involves the activation or inactivation of one or more protein factors(MRNA), Like in fertilization the activation of a protein factor initiates a burst of synthesis.
Human Genome Project
Human Genome Project
An international effort to map the complete human genetic code. This effort was essentially completed in 2001, though analysis is ongoing.
a fibrous scleroprotein that occurs in the outer layer of the skin(epidermis) and in horny tissues such as hair feathers nails and hooves, lead to the revison of the one gene- one enzyme hypothesis.
Neurospora crassa
Neurospora crassa
studied by Beadle and Tatum using X-Ray , a common bread mold that grows on a very simple medium containing sugar and simple inorganic salts
Gene Expression
Gene Expression
the process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins, Has two stages transcription and translation.
the synthesis of RNA on a DNA template, the information is copied from one molecule to another, resulting in a faithful copy the gene’s protein coding genes(mRNA), occurs in the NUCLEUS.
the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific polypeptide at a ribosome in the CYTOPLASM
Archibald Garrod
The first to suggest that genes dictate phenotypes through enzymes that catalyze specific chemical reactions in the cell., Reported Alkaptonuria as the first human example of what is now known as Mendelian inheritance.
A growth hormone that causes a wide variety of effects. One role is to stimulate growth of stems by promoting cell division. Farmers use it to make fruit grow larger.
Defect in homogentisate oxidase, resulting in accumulation of homogentisic acid (Alkapton) which results in black urine, and Polymerized forms results in damage to joints, calfications in CV and UT, red skin
George Beadle
Man who hypothesis that each of the various mutations affecting eye color in Drosophila blocks pigment synthesis at a specific step by preventing production of the enzyme that catalyzes that step
Along with Tatum he mutated bread mold (Neurospora Crassa) using x-rays and observed difference in food requirements by providing different enzymes at differnt steps in the catabolic pathway and discovered that each class was blocked at different steps in the pathway because mutations in the class lacked the enzyme that catalyzes the blocked step this lead to the one gne one enzyme hypothesis – which then lead to the one gene one polypedptide hypothesis
One gene One polypeptide hypothesis
The hypothesis that every gene directs the synthesis of a particular polypeptide chain; originally called the one geneone enzyme hypothesis.
Minimal medium
a defined medium that contains the minimal ingredients needed by genetically normal (wild type) strains of a particular species.
Complete Growth Medium
This is a minimal medium that is supplemented with all 20 amino acids and a few other nutrients, usually required by the mutated species.
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
Messenger RNA
RNA that copies the coded message from DNA in the nucleus and carries to the protein synthesizing machinery of a cell into the cytoplasm
A cell organelle constructed in the nucleolus and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of rRNA and protein molecules, which make up two subunits, act as the sites of translation, and facilitate the orderly linking of amino acids into polypeptides.
Because bacteria lack _____, their DNA is not segregrated from ribosomes and the other protein synthesizing equipment.
pre- mRNA
Precursor mRNA; the first strand of mRNA produced by the gene transcription that contains both introns and exons
RNA processing
Modification of RNA transcripts(pre mRNA), including splicing out of introns, joining together of exons, and alteration of the 5′ and 3′ ends
Primary Transcript
in eukaryotes, the initial RNA product containing introns and exons produced by transcription of DNA; must be processed to form proteins
The Central Dogma
1. DNA is the genetic material, containing the genes that are responsible for the physical traits (phenotye) observed in all living organisms
2. DNA is replicated from existing DNA to produce new genomes
3. RNA is produced by reading DNA in a process called transcription
4. this RNA serves as the message used to decode and transmit the genetic information and synthesize proteins according to the encoded information. This process of protein synthesis is called translation.
The amount of possible base code words( 4 ^3), enough to code for the 20 amino acids known. 61 code for things while 3 are either start or stop codons.
Triplet Code
A set of three-nucleotide-long words that specify the amino acids for polypeptide chains.
Template Strand
the DNA strand that provides the pattern, or template, for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript using DNA Polymerase.
Complementary Strand
A newly synthesized strand of RNA or DNA that has a base sequence complementary to that of the template strand
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code. Written in 5` to 3` direction.
Marshall Nirenberg
made poly-U mRNA (UUUUU); when mixed with amino acids, ribosomes, & proper enzymes, a polypeptide containing only one amino acid (phenylalanine)(AAA) was produced
Start codon for protein synthesis(METHIONINE)
Repetition of messages to reduce the probability of errors in transmission, found in mRNA base sequences
Reading Frame
the way in which a cell’s mRNA-translating machinery groups the mRNA nucleotides into codons.
RNA Polymerase
Enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription, can only assemble in 5` to 3` ends.
a nucleotide sequence on a DNA molecule to which an RNA polymerase molecule binds, which initiates the transcription of a specific gene, upstream from the terminator, determines which DNA strand is used as the template.
A special sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene. It signals RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule, which then departs from the gene
Transcription Unit
unit, a region of a DNA molecule that is transcribed into an RNA molecule
RNA Pol 2
In Eukaryotes it is the RNA polymerase that transcribes DNA template strand when signaled by promoter
the first phase of transcription; RNA polymerase binds to DNA @ the promoter, and unwinds the double helix
2nd stage where amino acids brought by tRNAs are joined together by the ribosome in the order determined by the mRNA
The last stage of trranscription, stop of mRNA synthesis (i.e., transcription) at the terminator site, in Eukaryotes it involves the use of a polyadenton sequence.
Transcription Factors
to initiate transcription, eukaryotic RNA polymerase requires the assistance of proteins called _________ _________, which usually contains a TATA box
A DNA sequence in eukaryotic promoters crucial in forming the transcription initiation complex
Transcription Initiation Complex
the completed assembly of transcription factors and RNA polymerase bound to the promoter
last step of splicing, adds poly-a to the tail with the AUAAA code with poly-A-polymerase, then 10 to 35 nucletides the pre-mRNA is released
The 5` Cap
Contains a modified inverted nucleotide (7-methyl guanosine) which confers stability against nucleases and provides a mechanism to be recognized by the translation machinery. elps protect the pre mRNA from hydrolytic enzymes, and facilitate the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus.
Poly A Tail
The modified end of the 3′ end of an mRNA molecule consisting of the addition of some 50 to 250 adenine nucleotides. Helps protect the pre mRNA from hydrolytic enzymes, and facilitate the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus.
Untranslated regions at the 5 and 3 primed ends; are part of the mRNA that will not be translated into protein but promote ribosome binding
RNA Splicing
the removal of introns and joining of exons in eukaryotic RNA, forming an mRNA molecule with a continuous coding sequence; occurs before mRNA leaves the nucleus.
a non-coding, intervening sequence within a eukaryotic gene removed during RNA splicing
A coding region of a eukaryotic gene. Exons, which are expressed except for the UTR, are separated from each other by introns.
Small Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins
(snRNPs) recognize splice sites; are composed of RNA, protein molecules at the end of introns, they are located in the cell nucleus, the RNA within it is called a (snRNA) or small nuclear RNA, forms part of spliceosomes
short for small nuclear RNA and found within snRNPs. It can remove introns during the process: RNA splicing
A spliceosome is a complex of specialized RNA (snRNPs) and protein subunits that removes introns from a transcribed pre-mRNA (segment. This process is generally referred to as splicing.
An RNA molecule that functions as an enzyme, catalyzing reactions during RNA splicing
A type of protists called ciliates; small, unicellular organisms that can be found in pond water, and object of self splicing rRNA
Alternative RNA splicing
a type of eukaryotic gene regulation at the RNA-processing level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript, depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns, also explains why humans can get along with a relatively small amount of genes.
discrete structural and functional regions of proteins
Exon shuffling
the presence of introns in a gene may facilitate the evolution of new and potentially useful proteins as a result of a process known as _______ _________, by increasing the probability of a crossover (like recombinant DNA by increasing distances between exons)
Transfer RNA
Short-chain RNA molecules (L Shaped) present in the cell (in at least 20 varieties, each variety capable of combining with a specific amino acid) that attach the correct amino acid to the protein chain that is being synthesized at the ribosome of the cell, at 3` end it has amino acid.
A sequence of three bases of a tRNA molecule that pairs with the complementary three-nucleotide codon of an mRNA molecule during protein synthesis.
aminoacyl- tRNA synthetase
Enzyme which joins amino acids to the correct tRNA
Aminoacyl tRNA
A tRNA with an amino acid attached. This is made by an animoacyl-tRNA synthetase specific to the amino acid being attache.d
A violation of the base-pairing rules in that the third nucleotide (5′ end) of a tRNA anticodon can form hydrogen bonds with more than one kind of base in the third position (3′ end) of a codon.
Ribosomal RNA
The MOST abundant type of RNA, which together with proteins, forms the structure of ribosomes. Ribosomes coordinate the sequential coupling of tRNA molecules to mRNA codons. Made in the nucleolus
The organelle where ribosomes are made, synthesized and partially assembled, located in the nucleus
An antibiotic produced by the actinomycete Streptomyces griseus and used to treat tuberculosis, works because of the differential sizes of rRNA in bacteria and humans.
an antibiotic (trade name Achromycin) derived from microorganisms of the genus Streptomyces and used broadly to treat infections,orks because of the differential sizes of rRNA in bacteria and humans.
P Site
one of a ribosome’s three binding sites for tRNA during translation. It holds the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain.
A Site
One of a ribosome’s three binding sites for tRNA during translation. This site in the ribosome holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the polypeptide chain.
E Site
One of a ribosome’s three binding sites for tRNA during translation. This site is the place where discharged tRNAs leave the ribosome.
A nucleotide composed of guanine, ribose, and three linked phosphate groups. It is incorporated into the growing RNA chain during synthesis of RNA and used as a source of energy during synthesis of proteins
N Terminus
The amino end of the methionine(START) in an RNA. The amino end
C Terminus
The end of a polypeptide chain that contains the last amino acid to be incorporated during mRNA translation; usually retains a free carboxyl group
Initiation Factors
proteins that bind to ribosomal subunits and mRNA that bring components together in the correct positions to start translation
Elongation Factors
One of a group of nonribosomal proteins required for continued translation of mRNA (protein synthesis) following initiation
Two molecules of _______ are required for Codon recognition, and it also increases the accuracy and efficency, one more _____ is hydrolyzed to provide energy fro the translocation step.
Release Factor
A cytoplasmic protein that binds to a stop codon where it appears in the A-site of the ribosome. modify the peptidyl transferase activity of the ribosome, so that a water molecule is added to the end of the completed protein. This releases the finished protein from the final tRNA, and allows the ribosome subunits and mRNA to disassociate.
Found in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, enable a cell to make many copies of a polypeptide very quickly during translation; multiple ribosomes attached to an MRNA strand
Post Translation Modification
occurs mainly in Golgi
includes addition of sugars, lipids, etc. to complete polypeptide
also have polypeptides that are cleaved or several different polypeptides that come together to form final protein
(ex.- hemoglobin)
Primary Structure
The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain.
Secondary Structure
The localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between constituents of the backbone.Alpha helices and beta pleated sheets describe this
Quaternary Structure
The fourth level of protein structure; the complex shape resulting from the association and aggregation of two or more polypeptide subunits.
Tertiary Structure
Irregular contortions of a protein molecule due to interactions of side chains involved in hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges. (Making Up the 3-D Structure)
Free Ribosomes
ribosomes that float in the cytosol to make the proteins that are used there
Bound Ribosomes
ribosomes that are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum to make proteins to be exported, to be embedded in membranes, and to be shipped elsewhere within the cell
Carboxyl Group
A functional group present in organic acids and consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group.
Carbonyl Group
an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of a carbon atom linked to a double bond to an oxygen atom, C=O
Amino Group
A functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms; can act as a base in solution, accepting a hydrogen ion and acquiring a charge of +1., -NH2
Thiol Group
Phosphate Group
A chemical group consisting of a phosphorus atom covalently bonded to four oxygen atoms; important in energy transfer., , -OPO3^-2; contributes neg charge to molecule of which it is a part ; has potential to react with water releasing NRG
Hydroxyl Group
A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.
Signal Peptide
A sequence of about 20 amino acids at or near the leading (amino) end of a polypeptide that targets it to the endoplasmic reticulum or other organelles in a eukaryotic cell.
Signal Recognition Particle
(SRP), a protein-RNA complex that recognizes a signal peptide as it emerges from a ribosome and helps direct the ribosome to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by binding to a receptor protein on the ER
During protein synthesis, the third stage in the elongation cycle when the RNA carrying the growing polypeptide moves from the A site to the P site on the ribosome
small nucleolar RNA that form snoRNPs that modify rRNA and other snRNAs
class of double-stranded RNAs about 23 nucleotides in length that silence gene expression; act by either promoting the degradation of mRNAs with precisely complementary sequences or by inhibiting the transcription of genes containing precisely complementary sequences, also called small interfering RNA
(microRNA) about 20 nucleotides long, a small, single-stranded RNA molecule, generated from a hairpin structure on a precursor RNA transcribed from a particular gene, it associates with one or more proteins in a complex that can degrade or prevent translation of an mRNA with a complementary sequence, up to 1/3 of all human genes may be regulated by ______
Random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides; the source of all genetic diversity
Point Mutation
mutation that affects a single nucleotide, usually by substituting one nucleotide for another
Base Pair Substitution
A type of point mutation; the replacement of one nucleotide and its partner in the complementary DNA strand by another pair of nucleotides. Some are called silent mutations
Missense Mutation
A point mutation in which a codon that specifies an amino acid is mutated into a codon that specifies a different amino acid.
Nonsense Mutation
A mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of the three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein.
A mutation involving the addition of one or more nucleotide pairs to a gene.
a nucleotide is deleted, which changes the amino acid sequence.
Frameshift Mutation
A mutation occurring when the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three, resulting in the improper grouping of the following nucleotides into codons.
agents, such as chemicals or radiation, that damage or alter genetic material in cells
This tumor suppressor gene causes cell cycle arrest in G1, providing time for DNA repair. If repair is successful, cells re-enter the cycle. If unsuccessful, apoptosis
proto oncogenes
normal cellular genes that are important regulators of normal cellular processes, they promote growth. alterations in the expression of these cells resulr in oncogenes
Silent Mutation
A point mutation in which a codon that specifies an amino acid is mutated into a new codon that specifies the same amion acid.
Spontaneous Mutations
Natural changes in the DNA caused by unidentified environmental factors
Hermann Muller
Scientist(s) who demonstrated that mutations and hereditary changes can be caused via radiation.
research on tumor viruses led to the discovery of cancer-causing genes called ___________ in certain retroviruses
An RNA virus that reproduces by transcribing its RNA into DNA and then inserting the DNA into a cellular chromosome; an important class of cancer-causing viruses.
A _______ is a region of DNA whose final product is either a polypeptide or an RNA molecule.
Sickle Cell Disease
A human genetic disease caused by a recessive allele that results in the substitution of a single amino acid in the hemoglobin protein; characterized by deformed red blood cells that can lead to numerous symptoms.
____________________ are bacterial viruses with a polyhedral head and a helical tail, that also eat bacteria.
Rosalind Franklin
Rosalind Franklin
a British scientist that studied the DNA molecule using a technique called x-ray diffraction and was able to decipher important clues about its structures
deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism that is passed from parent to offspring AND is used by an individual as the recipe for making proteins
Hershey and Chase
Used radioactive material to label DNA(P-32) and protein (S -35), then used a blender to separate the phage(T2) from the bacteria(E-Coli), and centrifuged the mixture so that bacteria at bottom formed a pellet, and when analyzed measured the radioactivity in the pellet and liquid(supernatant). ; infected bacteria passed on DNA; helped prove that DNA is genetic material not proteins (at least for viruses)
Francis Crick
Described the Central Dogma of Gene Expression. DNA to RNA to protein, Cambridge University, works with James Watson, built model of DNA, reclusive, won nobel prize, studies chemical nature of dreams.
Oswald Avery
Oswald Avery
American Bacteriologist who inspired by Grifith’s experiment (Transofrmation), had several experiments that tested if DNA was the genetic material (It Was). Technically not given credit McCarty and Macleod(did announce) but (Hershey and Chase) are usually given credit.
Nucleic Acid
an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.
Frederick Griffith
British Medical officer who performed experiment using 2 varieties of (streptococcus pneumonia) , pathogenic/ non pathogenic, that led to discovery of DNA, concluded there was is a TRANSFORMATION from dead bacteria to live bacteria, studied the transforming substance
A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell (Coined by Griffith) . (DO not confuse with other transormation)
The conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous cell
James Watson
James Watson
American scientist. With Francis Crick, he elucidated the structure and function of the DNA double helix. He shared the 1962 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with Crick and Maurice Wilkins. He served as the head of the Human Genome Research program from 1989 to 1992.
worked with Avery and Mcleod, they discovered that DNA is what makes chromosomes and genes
Bacteriophage consisting of only DNA and protein. Replicates by invading bacteria(like E- Coli) and using its cellular components to produce progeny. Used in hershey and Chases expiriments.
The liquid on top of material deposited by settling or centrifugation.
Erwin Chagraff
Analyzed the base composition of DNA and saw that it varied from species to species(shows the diversity of species).He also found that the amount of A nucleotides approximately equaled the number of T nucleotides, and the number of C nucleotides approximately equaled the number of G nucleotides. . this became known as Chagraff’s rule.
Chagraff’s rule.
A rule that thymine combines w/ adenine in equal amounts;and cytosine combines w/ guanine in equal amounts.
Nitrogenous bases that have a single ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms, such as cytosine and thymine
Nitrogeneous bases that have a double ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms such as adenine and guanine
X- Ray Crystallography
A technique that depends on the diffraction of an X-ray beam by the individual atoms of a crystallized molecule to study the three-dimensional structure of the molecule. Helped Watson figure out the double helix of DNA
Double Helix
Double Helix
Shape of a DNA molecule formed when two twisted DNA strands are coiled into a springlike structure and held together by hydrogen bonds between the bases
Watson- Crick Model
DNA consists of two nucleotide strands; strands run in opposite directions 5’=>3′ and 3’=>5′ (think of 2 magnets together). Strands held together by hydrogen bonds between bases. A binds with T with 2 hydrogen bonds and C with G with three hydrogen bonds. Molecule is a double helix
Semiconservative Model
Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the old molecule, and one newly made strand. (RIGHT). Tested by Matheson and Stahl
Conservative Model
A model based on the hypothesis that when a double helix replicates, the parent strands come back together and there is a completely new daughter strand. (WRONG) Tested by Matheson and Stahl
Dispersive Model
Model that says each strand of both daughter molecules contains a mixture of old and newly synthesized DNA (WRONG) Tested by Matheson and Stahl using istopes of Nitrogen
There are one in _____________ nucleotide base pairs per replication.
Origins of Replication
Sites where the replication of a DNA molecule begins, is where two parental strands separate and form replication bubbles, which expand laterally in both directions. There may be thousands of these in a eukaryote’ s DNA.
Replication Bubble
The region where two replication forks are in close proximity to eachother, producing a bubble in the replicating DNA
Replication fork
a Y-shaped point that results when the two strands of a DNA double helix separate so that the DNA molecule can be replicated
DNA Polymerases
An enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA at a replication fork by the addition of nucleotides(Nucleoside triphosphate ) to the existing chain at and ONLY at the 3` end.
Nucleoside triphosphate
Molecule consisting of a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and three phosphate groups, e.g., adenosine triphosphate (ATP) only difference is in the sugar(deoxirbose) compared with ribose. Is what is actually added to a growing neuclotide strand by DNA Polymerase
The triphosphate monomers are chemically reactive because their triphosphate tails (-OPO3-) are ____________
when each monomer of dATP joins DNA strand it looses two phosphate groups creating this molecule, and drives the polymerization of DNA.
Parallel, but running in opposite directions. The 5′ end of one strand of DNA aligns with the 3′ end of the other strand in a double-helix.
DNA Pol 3
Using parental DNA as a template, synthesizes new DNA strand by covalentley adding nucleotides to the 3′ end of a pre-existing DNA strand or RNA primer(leading strand). Always makes the new strand 5′ to 3′., The Okazaki Fragments are added(after lagging) in the 5′ to 3′
Okazaki Fragments
A short segment of DNA synthesized away from the replication fork on a template strand during DNA replication, many of which are joined together to make up the lagging strand of newly synthesized DNA
Lagging Strand
The newly forming daughter strand of DNA that is replicated in a discontinuous fashion, via Okazaki fragments that will ultimately be ligated together; the daugther strand that is replicated in the opposite direction that parallel DNA is unwinding
Leading Strand
The new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5′ 3′ direction by DNA Pol 3 .
An enzyme that connects two fragments of DNA (their sugar phosphate backbones) to make a single fragment; also called DNA _____. This enzyme is used during DNA replication and is also used in recombinant DNA research.
Recombinant DNA
DNA in which one or more segments or genes have been inserted, either naturally or by laboratory manipulation, from a different molecule or from another part of the same molecule, resulting in a new genetic combination.
An already existing RNA chain bound to template DNA to which DNA nucleotides are first added during DNA synthesis.
An enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer using the parental DNA strand as a template.
DNA Pol 1
repairs and patches DNA (5-3 exonuclease activity= clears away short stretched of nucleotides SEVERAL at a time); removes RNA primer as replication forks move and replaces them with DNA.
an enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and making them available as template strands, after that Topoisomerase relieves the strain caused by the untwisting.
A protein that breaks, swivels, and rejoins DNA strands. During DNA replication, topoisomerase helps to relieve strain in the double helix ahead of the replication fork.
Single Strand binding Protein
A protein that binds to the unpaired DNA strands during DNA replication, stabilizing them and holding them apart while they serve as templates for the synthesis of complementary strands of DNA.
Mismatch Repair
The cellular process that uses specific enzymes to remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides, a heridiatary defect in one of them is associated with colon cancer.
An enzyme that cuts DNA or RNA, either removing one or a few bases or hydrolyzing the DNA or RNA completely into its component nucleotides., after it does this the resulting gap is filled in by DNA Pol 1 and ligase which add and cement new nucleotides.
Nucleotide Excision Repair
Enzymes detect damaged DNA, nuclease enzymes cut out the damaged area, DNA polymerase adds nucleotides, ligase completes process by closing the break in the sugar-phosphate backbone
Thymine Dimer
Abnormally chemcally bonded thymine bases in DNA resulting from ultra violet irradion damage. the cellular processes that repair often make errors that cause mutations
Xeroderma Pigmentosum
An Autosomal recessive disease , caused by a defect in the nucleotide excision repair system; Accumulation of damaged DNA; Risk of cancer, a rare genetic condition characterized by an eruption of exposed skin occurring in childhood and photosensitivity with severe sunburn (Mainly from UV )
Prokaryotes do not have a problem with completing the 5` end of daughter strands, because their DNA is ___________
The protective structure at each end of a eukaryotic chromosome. Specifically, the tandemly repetitive DNA at the end of the chromosome’s DNA molecule. (TTACGG) in humans, protects the DNA from being eroded ater succesive DNA replications, and somehow activate with other proteins to make sure that the staggered end of the daughter molecule do not activate the cell systems defense for monitoring DNA damage.
The six nucleotide sequence of human teleomeres is __________
An enzyme that catalyzes the lengthening of telomeres. The enzyme includes a molecule of RNA that serves as a template for new telomere segments. Is not active in most cells but is in most of the germ cells which help result in the maximization length of a zygote
Germ Cell
The cell that undergoes meiosis (in humans, only found in the ovaries and testes)
Meselson and Stahl
Proved that DNA replicates in a semiconservative fashion, confirming Watson and Crick’s hypothesis. Cultured bacteria in a medium containing heavy nitrogen (15N) and then a medium containing light nitrogen (14N); after extracting the DNA, they demonstrated that the replicated DNA consisted of one heavy strand and one light strand
the science which deals with the formation, structure, and function of cells
Chromosome Theory of Inheritance
A basic principle in biology stating that genes are located on chromosomes and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis accounts for inheritance patterns.
Anaphase 1
The third phase of Meiosis where homologus pairs seperate and move to opposite poles
Thomas Hunt Morgan
Dicovered that sometimes alleles for different traits do not assort independently and can be linked because they exist on the same chromosome. Discovered that sex-linked traits appear in different rates in males and in females because males need only one recessive allele to express the recessive trait.
Wild Type
An individual with the phenotype most commonly observed in natural populations; also refers to the phenotype itself. +
Mutant Phenotypes
traits that are alternatives to the wild type are called ________ _____ because they are due to alleles assumed to have originated as changes (mutations) of the wild-type allele
The physical traits that appear in an individual as a result of its gentic make up.
the particular alleles at specified loci present in an organism
Linked Genes
genes located on the same chromosome that tend to be inherited together in genetic crosses, when following these genes they will deviate from the law of independent assortment
Law of independent assortment
Mendel’s second law, stating that each allele pair segregates independently during gamete formation; applies when genes for two characteristics are located on different pairs of homologous chromosomes.
Genetic Recombination
new combination of genetic information in a gamete as a result of crossing over during prophase I of meiosis
Parental Types
Offspring with a phenotype that matches one of the parental phenotypes.
Recombinant Types
Offspring who have inherited new combinations of genes and have phenotypes that don’t match either parental phenotypes (usually 50%)
Crossing Over
the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during meiosis; can result in genetic recombination
Recombination Frequency
percentage of recombinants, meaning percentage of of offspring that had traits from crossover. recombination frequencies are lower when alleles are closer together.
Genetic Map
an ordered list of genetic loci (genes or other genetic markers) along a chromosome
Alfred Sturtevant
Constructed a gene map of the fruit fly using crossing over frequencies.
Linkage Map
A genetic map based on the frequencies of recombination between markers during crossing over of homologous chromosomes. The greater the frequency of recombination between two genetic markers, the farther apart they are assumed to be. See also genetic map.
Map Units
A measurement of the distance between genes; one map unit is equivalent to a 1 percent recombination frequency. Can be a maximun vaalue of 50%
Cytogenetic Maps
a chart of a chromosome that locates genes with respect to chromosomal features distinguishable in a microscope, by comparing this with a linkage map we can determine that the linear order is the same but the spacing between genes is not.
X 0 System
how gender is determined in grasshoppers and cockroaches, male has one X and a female has two X’s
Z W System
birds, some fishes and insects; sex determined by eggs, female has ZW and male has ZZ (ex. rooster)
Haplo- Diploid system
There are no sex chromosomes in most species of bees and ants. Females develop from fertilized eggs (diploid) and males develop from unfertilized eggs (haploid). No fathers
The gene on the Y chromosome whose product instructs the undifferentiated fetal gonads to develop into testes
Sex linked Gene
any gene that is located on a sex chromosome
Because _____ have only one locus, the term homozygous is useless(hemizygous) instead , any ____ receiving a recessive sex linked gene from the mother will inherit it.
in a diploid organism, having only one allele for a given trait, typically the case for X-linked genes in male mammals and Z-linked genes in female birds
A human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele; characterized by excessive bleeding following injury due to an absence of the essential proteins allowed for clot formation, treated with intravenous injections of the protein.
Clot Formation
Happens when cut tissue release thromboplastin-interacts with factor VII
prothrombin–> thrombin
fibrinogen–(thrombin)–> fibrin
Barr Body
A dense object lying along the inside of the nuclear envelope in female mammalian cells, representing an inactivated X chromosome, reactivated in the cells that give rise to the ova.
Mary Lyon
who suggests that early in the development of normal females one of the X chromosomes is inactivated in every somatic cell; random as to which is expressed: in some cell the material chromosome is expressed; in other cells the male chromosome is expressed (Females consist of a mosiac of two types of cells.
The spontaneous expulsion of a baby from the mother’s body before week 20 of pregnancy
X is inactive in specific transcript. Transcribed only from the inactive X. It is located in teh XIC. RNa is 17kb lond, but never leaves the nucleaus and does not code for a protein. Non-coding RNa, that coats the inactive X. Required for X activation.
error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes don’t separate; gametes end up with wrong number of chromosomes
A chromosomal aberration in which one or more chromosomes are present in extra copies or are deficient in number.
A chromosomal condition in which a particular cell has an extra copy of one chromosome, instead of the normal two; the cell is said to be _______ for that chromosome.
A chromosomal condition in which a particular cell has only one copy of a chromosome, instead of the normal two; the cell is said to be ________ for that chromosome.
A chromosomal alteration in which the organism possesses more than two complete chromosome sets.
(1) A deficiency in a chromosome resulting from the loss of a fragment through breakage. (2) A mutational loss of one or more nucleotide pairs from a gene.
An aberration in chromosome structure resulting from an error in meiosis or mutagens; duplication of a portion of a chromosome resulting from fusion with a fragment from a homologous chromosome.
An aberration in chromosome structure resulting from reattachment in a reverse orientation of a chromosomal fragment to the chromosome from which the fragment originated.
change to a chromosome in which a fragment of one chromosome attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome
a group of symptoms or signs that collectively characterize or indicate a disease, disorder, abnormality, etc.
Down Syndrome
A human genetic disease caused by presence of an extra chromosome 21; characterized by mental retardation and heart and respiratory defects. Often called Trisomy 21
Trisomy 21
condition in which an individual has three number 21 chromosomes, resulting in Down syndrome
Turner Syndrome
Chromosome disorder in females. a x chromosome is missing or part of one x is deleted. short stature and webbed neck.
Klinefelter Syndrome
syndrome in males that is characterized by small testes and long legs and enlarged breasts and reduced sperm production and mental retardation
Philadelphia Chromosome
a shortened chromosome produced when a large portion of chromosome 22 is exchanged with a small fragment from a tip of chromosome 9
What leukemia is characterized by Philadelphia chromosomal translocation (9;22); massive splenomegaly; peripheral leukocytosis (commonly > 100, 00); decreased LAP levels; and nonspecific symptoms of fatigue, malaise, weight loss, and anorexia?
Genomic Imprinting
a phenomenon in which expression of an allele in offspring depends on whether the allele is inherited from the male or female parent
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
one of the first imprinted genes to be identified. found in mice. encodes a growth hormone called insulin-like growth factor 2 that is needed for proper growth. lack of it results in dwarf.
process that plays a role in the control of genetic expression, initiation of DNA Replication, Protection against Viral infection, and Repair of DNA
Extranuclear Genes
Genes that are found in organlles in the cytoplasm; mitcohondria, chrlorplasts. Inherited maternally
Mitochondrial Myopathy
muscle weakeness, death of muscle cells, dysphagia, speech difficulties, affects muscles of eye
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
C4 Plants
C4 Plants
A plant that changes CO2 into a four carbon compound before entering the Calvin cycle for photosynthesis, is related to their unique leaf anatomy( 2 distinct bundle sheath cells and looselty arranges mesophyll cells), CO2 is incorporated into the mesophyll cells and PEP Carboxylase. (Sugarcane, Corn most Grasses)
an organism that obtains energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains.
organisms that use energy from sunlight or from chemical bonds in inorganic substances to make organic compounds, and are thefore called producers.
An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their by-products, and are therefore consumers.
An organelle found only in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.
a green pigment that is present in most plant cells, that gives plants their characteristic green color, and that reacts with sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to form carbohydrates, found mainly in the cells of the mesophyll
The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis because it contains most of the chlorophyll.
A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange and some water vapor exchange .
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water. (Where Calvin Cycle takes place).
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy
Thylakoid Space
space within each thylakoid which is thought to be connected to the space within every other thylakoid
A stacked portion of the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast. Grana function in the light reactions of photosynthesis
Guard cells
Specialized cells in the epidermis of the leaf that control the opening and closing of stomata by responding to changes in water pressure.
A hard material embedded in the cellulose matrix of vascular plant cell walls that functions as an important adaptation for support in terrestrial species.
Van Niel
(Last name) Hypothesized that oxygen was released from water, not carbon dioxide, by using the fact that some bacteria use H2S instead of Water for photsynthesis., 20 years after scientists used a oxygen 18 as a radiotracer.
Light Reactions
The steps in photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and that convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, evolving oxygen in the process.
Calvin Cycle
Also known as the dark reactions, , The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate by addition of electrons (Occurs in the Stroma)
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, an acceptor that temporarily stores energized electrons produced during the light reactions.
The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a proton-motive force generated by the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis
Melvin Calvin
American scientist who worked out the details of the Calvin cycle
Carbon Fixation
The incorporation of carbon from carbon dioxide into an organic compound by an autotrophic organism.
The distance between crests of waves, such as those of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Electromagnetic Spectrum
arrangement of electromagnetic radiation–including radio waves, visible light from the Sun, gamma rays, X rays, ultraviolet waves, infrared waves, and microwaves–according to their wavelengths
Visible Light
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum detected as various colors by the human eye, ranging in wavelength from about 380 nm to about 750 nm.
a quantum of light; a discrete bundle of electromagnetic energy that interacts with matter similarly to particles
An instrument that measures the proportions of light of different wavelengths absorbed and transmitted by a pigment solution.
Absorption Spectrum
Graph plotting a pigment’s light absorption versus wavelength
Chlorophyll a
Main photosynthetic pigment in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. Works best with violet- blue and red light work best for it. Also is blue green.
the scientist that took algae, prism, light source, and exposed them to aerobic bacteria (which congregated near purple and red light, indicating that there’s the most oxygen there, and they are therefore the best colors for photosynthesis), and green is the least effective.
An accessory pigment, either yellow or orange, in the chloroplasts of plants. By absorbing wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot, carotenoids broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis, and function in photoprotection
Chlorophyll b
A type of yellow-green accessory photosynthetic pigment that transfers energy to chlorophyll a.
C3 Plants
C3 Plants
More then 95 % of plants on the earth are this. A plant that changes C02 into a three carbon compound (3-phosphoglycerate) before entering the Calvin cycle for photosynthesis. (Rice Wheat, Soybeans)
A process in which carotenoids absorb and dissipate exessive light energy that would otherwise damage chlorophyll or interact with oxygen forming reactive oxidative molecules that are dangerous to the cell;
in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts, a cluster of chlorophyll and other pigment molecules that harvest light energy for the light reactions of photosynthesis
Light Harvesting Complex
A complex of proteins associated with pigment molecules (including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids) that captures light energy and transfers it to reaction-center pigments in a photosystem.
Photosystem 1
(Functions 2nd) Reaction Center is P700(far red), Uses Light to excite electrons and converts NADP to NAPDH, It has light dependent reactions, also spilts water to make Oxygen.
Photosystem 2
(Functions 1st) Reaction Center is P680(red), a light reaction in which ATP and NADPH are formed
Reaction Center
Complex of proteins associated with two special chlorophyll a molecules and a primary electron acceptor. Located centrally in a photosystem, this complex triggers the light reactions of photosynthesis. Excited by light energy, one of the chlorophylls donates an electron to the primary electron acceptor, which passes an electron to an electron transport chain.
Primary Electron Acceptor
A specialized molecule sharing the reaction center with the pair of reaction-center chlorophyll a molecules; it accepts an electron from one of these two chlorophylls.
Noncyclic electron flow
A route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves both photosystems and produces ATP, NADPH, and oxygen. The net electron flow is from water to NADP+.
Chlorophyll a molecules that serve as the reaction center of Photosystem II, transferring photoexcited electrons to a primary acceptor; named by their absorption peak at 680 nm. If missing an electron it is the strongest biological oxidizing agent knwn.
(connects 2 photosystems) small diffusable protein that receives e-‘s from photosystem II and transfers to photosystem I
Transports the protons to the lumen of the thylakoid discs ,while the electrons continue through the chain into the cytochrome bf6 protein complex
an iron-containing protein, a component of electron transport chains in mitochondria and chloroplasts
in photosystem I, the chlorophyll also absorbs light, and the excited electrons are donated to _____, a small, iron/sulfur-containing protein
NADP+ reductase
enzyme that transfers a proton and two electrons from ferredoxin to NADP+, forming NADPH (2 ELECTRONS are required).
Cyclic Electron Flow
A route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves only photosystem I and that produces ATP but not NADPH or oxygen. Makes up the differences in ATP required for the Calvin Cycle., and a rise in NADPH can contribute to a switch to this route.
in chloroplasts and mitochondria, a process in which the movement of protons down their concentration gradient(have to be more electronegative as you go down) across a membrane is coupled to the synthesis of ATP
ATP Synthase
large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP
Raw material from which plants and other producers assemble glucose…this molecule is a product of the calvin cycle.
Ribulose carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 (carbon fixation) to RuBP, or ribulose bisphosphate). The product of the reaction is a 6 carbon intermediate( that is so unstable it immediately splits in half) forming 2 molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate. Is probably the most abundant protein on earth.
1,3 biphosphoglycerate
2nd Step of Calvin Cycle a molecule produced by the phosphorylation(taken from ATP) of 3-phosphoglycerate. Thens the electrons from NADPH reduce the carboxyl group of this to make the aldehyde group of G3P.
A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen, releases carbon dioxide, generates no ATP, and decreases photosynthetic output; generally occurs on hot, dry, bright days, when stomata close and the oxygen concentration in the leaf exceeds that of carbon dioxide.
CAM Plants
CAM Plants
A plant that uses crassulacean acid metabolism, an adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions, first discovered in the family Crassulaceae. Carbon dioxide entering open stomata during the night is converted into organic acids, which release CO2 for the Calvin cycle during the day, when stomata are closed. Different from C4 plants in that carbon fixation occur in the same place just at different times. (Pineapples, Cacti, most Succulent plants)
Bundle sheath cells
Cells in the leaves of C4 plants in which the four-carbon acids produced during carbon fixation are broken down to three-carbon acids and CO2.
PEP Carboxylase
An enzyme that adds CO2 to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to form oxaloacetate in C4 plants. It acts prior to photosynthesis. It is good because it has NO affinity for oxygen (less photorespiration)
The mesophyll cells of a C4 plant export their 4 carbon compound to the bundle sheath cells through __________
An open channel in the cell wall of plants through which strands of cytosol connect from adjacent cells
Crassulacean acid Metabolism
An adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions, first discovered in the family Crassulaceae. In this process, a plant takes up CO2 and incorporates it into a variety of organic acids at night; during the day, CO2 is released from organic acids for use in the Calvin cycle.
The percentage of organic material that is consumed by cellular repiration during photosynthesis
the production of light by means of a chemical reaction in an organism
the sum of all chemical processes that occur in an organism, and is also an emergent property that arises from the interactions between molecules within the environment.
Metabolic Pathway
A series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex molecule (anabolic pathway) or breaks down a complex molecule into simpler compounds (catabolic pathway). In each step of the pathway an enzyme is used.
A process in which large molecules are broken down into smaller ones, for example cellular respiration.Releases energy .
A process in which large molecules are built from small molecules (Steriods), they must consume energy in order to happen.
Cellular Respiration
Cellular Respiration
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
the study of how organisms manage their energy resources
the capacity of a physical system to do work
Kinetic Energy
Kinetic Energy
the mechanical energy that a body has by virtue of its motion. KE=1/2 mv squared.
Potential Energy
Potential Energy
the mechanical energy that a body has by virtue of its position. PE =mgh
the transfer of thermal energy
Chemical Energy
that part of the energy in a substance that can be released by a chemical reaction
study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter
a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation
Everything in the universe except the system.
Open System
matter can enter from or escape to the surroundings
Closed System
A system that allows the exchange of energy, but not matter, between the system and its surroundings.
First Law of Thermodynamics
the fundamental principle of physics that the total energy of an isolated system is constant despite internal changes, also known as the principle of the conversation of energy..
Second Law of Thermodynamics
The principle stating that every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe. Ordered forms of energy are at least partly converted to heat. Or the Entropy of the Universe is constant.
A quantitative measure of disorder or randomness, symbolized by S.
Free Energy
The portion of a system’s energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system.
J. Willard Gibbs
defined the Gibbs free energy system, deltaG
point at which the number of diffusing molecules moving in one direction is equal to the number moving in the opposite direction
Exergonic Reaction
A spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy.
Endergonic Reaction
A non-spontaneous chemical reaction, in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings.
Mechanical Work
the type of cellular work that includes the beating of cilia, the contraction of muscle cells, and the movement of chromosomes during reproduction
Transport Work
the pumping of substances across membranes against the direction of spontaneous movement
Chemical Work
the type of cellular work that includes the pushing of endergonic reactions, which would not occur spontaneously, such as the synthesis of polymers from monomers
Energy Coupling
In cellular metabolism, the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction.
adenosine triphosphate, an organic molecule that acts as the main energy source for cell processes; composed of a nitrogenous base (adenine), a sugar(ribose), and three phosphate groups, the bonds betwen the phosphate groups can be broken by hydrolysis.
Referring to a molecule that has been the recipient of a phosphate group, and usually undergoes a conformational change.
a chemical process in which a compound is broken down and changed into other compounds by taking up the elements of water.
involuntary contrctions of skeletal muscles initiated when the core body temp falls below its central setpoint, resulting in an increase in heat production, started by ATP hydrolysis.
ATP Cycle
Regenerates ATP. Energy is stored in the high-energy bond extending to the last phosphate. Heat is given off when ATP breaks into ADP (adenosine diphospate) and P (phosphate). The energy released when ATP->ADP +P is transferred to endergonic reactions through coupling
an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose
Activation Energy
the energy that an atomic system must acquire before a process (such as an emission or reaction) can occur
Transition State
An unstable grouping of atoms that exists momentarily in the course of a reaction, when a system is highest in energy.
a substance on which an enzyme acts during a chemical reaction
Enzyme Substrate Complex
a temporary complex formed when an enzyme binds to its substrate molecules
Active Site
The specific portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate by means of weak chemical bonds.
Induced Fit
The change in shape of the active site of an enzyme so that it binds more snugly to the substrate, induced by entry of the substrate.
the state that an enzyme is said to be in if as soon as the product of one reaction leaves, a new substrate enters the active site, the rate of product formation can only be increased by adding more enzymes.
Optimal Conditions
Optimal Conditions
Because an enzyme is a protein, it is affected by pH and Temperature, and as a consequence works best in ________________ that favor the most active conformation of the enzyme molecule.
35 – 40 Celsius
Most human enzymes have a temperature from _______ _____that represents the optimal conditions for temperature. Generally a enzymatic reaction increases with increasing temperature however, past a point it will be denatured and its activity will fall rapidly. Bacteria and archaea (Thermophiles) that live in hot springs have their optimal temperature at about 70 degrees celsius.
Organisms which are adapted to high temperatures, such as in hot springs and geysers, smoker vents on the sea floor, and domestic hot water pipes.
The optimal pH values for most enzymes are____, however pepsin a digestive enzyme in the stomach works best at pH of 2.
The main protease secreted by the pancreas; trypsin is activated (from trypsinogen) by enterokinase, and subsequently activates other pancreatic enzymes. Works best at a pH of 8 (Alkaline)
A protein-digesting enzyme secreted by the chief cells of the gastric glands. Pepsin is secreted in its inactive form (pepsinogen) and is activated by gastric acid. It is unusual in that its pH optimum is around 1-2; most of these enzymes in the body function best at neutral pHs
An enzyme of the small intestine that converts trypsinogen to trypsin.
Any nonprotein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme. Cofactors can be permanently bound to the active site or may bind loosely with the substrate during catalysis (Minerals)
An organic molecule serving as a cofactor. Most vitamins function as this in important metabolic reactions
Competitive Inhibitors
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics. Can be overcome by increasing the concentration of substrate so that more active sites become available than inhibitor molecules.
Noncompetitive Inhibitors
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site, changing its conformation so that it no longer binds to the substrate.
A highly toxic chemical nerve agent that inhibits the activity of cholinesterase by irreversibly binding to it, so the muscles are supplied with a continous amount of calcium and remain in a state of tetanus
Irreversible anticholinesterase. Excessive stimulation of nicotinic receptors – muscle weakness and paralysis. Excessive parasympathomimetic effects – salivation, bronchoconstriction, miosis, bradycardia, increased GIT motility and tone. The potentially fatal adverse effect is paralysis of the respiratory muscles. Posioning by this drug can be treated with pralidoxime or atropine.
Any of various antibiotics obtained from penicillium molds (or produced synthetically) and used in the treatment of various infections and diseases. Works by binding to the active site of enzymes that many bacteria use to make their cell walls.
Allosteric Regulation
The binding of a regulatory molecule to a protein at one site that affects the function of the protein at a different site.
Allosteric Site
A site on an enzyme other than the active site, to which a specific substance binds, thereby changing the shape and activity of the enzyme.
A kind of allosteric regulation whereby a shape change in one subunit of a protein caused by substrate binding is transmitted to all the others, facilitating binding of subsequent substrate molecules.
Feedback Inhibition
A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.
swollen as from a fluid, bloated
Plasma Membrane
thin outer boundary of a cell that regulates the traffic of chemicals between the cell and its surroundings
Selective Permeability
feature of the plasma membrane that maintains homeostasis within a cell by allowing some molecules into the cell while keeping others out
(water channel proteins that facilitate the amount of diffusion)A transport protein in the plasma membrane of a plant or animal cell that specifically facilitates the diffusion of water across the membrane (osmosis).
Amphipathic Molecule
Example Phospholipid, , a molecule that has both a hydrophilic region and a hydrophobic region
Fluid Mosaic Model
The currently accepted model of cell membrane structure, which envisions the membrane as a mosaic of individually inserted protein molecules drifting laterally in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids.
A large amount of this in a phospholipid bilayer at High Temperatures reduces membrane fluidity, but at lower temperature prevents the membrane from solidifying.
Unsaturated lipids
What helps a membrane increase its overall fliudity by making more kinks avaliable to it at lower temperatures? Also explains why some plants have more of these in the autumn than the summer.
Integral Proteins
Typically transmembrane proteins with hydrophobic regions that completely span the hydrophobic Interior of the membrane.
Peripheral Proteins
Protein appendages loosely bound to the surface of the membrane and not embedded in the lipid bilayer.
a receptor protein built into the plasma membrane that interconnects the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton
function in support, adhesion, movement, and regulation (glycoproteins) collagen most abundant in animal cells
Membrane carbohydrates bound to lipids, take part in cell-cell recognition
a protein with one or more carbohydrates covalently attached to it.
Transport Proteins
proteins that span the plasma membrane creating a selectively permeable membrane that regulates which molecules enter and leave a cell
Channel Proteins
What kind of proteins open passageways through the membrane for certain hydrophilic substances such as polar and charged molecules? It is a type of transport protein.
Passive Transport
the movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy or by diffusion (the concentration gradient itself acts as potential energy) .
Active Transport
energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
Concentration Gradient
the path molecules travel when an imbalance between separated molecule concentrations exists
the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, because of thermal motion (heat)_
diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal
The ability of a solution surrounding a cell to cause that cell to gain or lose water. Must take both the concentration and the membrane.
describes a solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside a cell,NO NET movement
describes a solution whose solute concentration is lower than the solute concentration inside a cell, water will enter the cell which will eventually cause it to become more turgid and burst.
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes, will lose water shrivel and then die. Can be accomplished by adding salt
The regulation of solute and water concentrations in body fluids by organisms living in hyperosmotic, hypoosmotic, and terrestrial environments.
Contractile Vacuole
Saclike organelles found in Paramesium that expand to collect excess water and contract to squeeze the water out of the cell when it is hyposmotic to the enviroment.
lacking firmness or stiffness, hypertonic (cell)
the contraction or shrinking of the cell membrane of a plant cell in a hypertonic solution in response to the loss of water by osmosis
Facilitated Diffusion
the transport of substances through a cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins
Carrier Proteins
some transport proteins, called _____ ____, function by having a hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or atomic ions can use as a tunnel through the membrane
Ion Channels
a transmembrane protein channel that allows a specific ion to flow across the membrane down its concentration gradient
Gated Channels
closed most of the time sensitive to voltage, mechanical force, or ligand (molecule that binds to a receptor), open to both intra- and extracellular fluid, problems with channels can lead to disease ex. cystic fibrosis
Disease caused by a kidney transporter defect in a the kidney transporter involved in the reabsorption of some amino acids which leads to the excretion of cysteine, lysine, arginine, and ornithine. Cysteine (because it is the least soluable) forms calculi in kidney tubules.
Sodium Potassium Pump
A special transport protein in the plasma membrane of animal cells that transports sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell against their concentration gradients.
Membrane Potential
The charge difference between a cell’s cytoplasm and the extracellular fluid, due to the differential distribution of ions. Membrane potential affects the activity of excitable cells and the transmembrane movement of all charged substances.
Electrochemical Gradient
The diffusion gradient of an ion, representing a type of potential energy that accounts for both the concentration difference of the ion across a membrane and its tendency to move relative to the membrane potential.
Electrogenic Pump
an ion transport protein that generates voltage across a membrane
Proton Pump
An active transport mechanism in cell membranes that uses ATP to force hydrogen ions out of a cell, generating a membrane potential in the process. Main type in plant, fungi and bacteria.
the coupling of the \”downhill\” diffusion of one substance to the \”uphill\” transport of another against its own concentration gradient
the process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out
Bulk Transport
The process by which large particles and macromolecules are transported through plasma membranes. Inc. exocytosis and endocytosis. (Neurotransmitters)
The cellular uptake of macromolecules and particulate substances by localized regions of the plasma membrane that surround the substance and pinch off to form an intracellular vesicle. (Phagocytosis and Pinocytosis
A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes.
process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell
general term for any molecule that binds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule
Familial Hypercholesterolemia
A metabolic disorder that is caused by defective or absent receptors for LDLs on cell surfaces, that is marked by an increase in blood plasma LDLs and by an accumulation of LDLs in the body resulting in an increased risk of heart attack and coronary heart disease, and that is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
The movement of specific molecules into a cell by the inward budding of membranous vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being taken in; enables a cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substances.
four main classes of large biological molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) Have a mass of over 100, 000 daltons.
Large compound formed from combinations of many monomers. 3/4 of macromolecules are this (Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids, and Proteins) NOT Lipids.
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, non-polar.
A chemical process that lyses, or splits, molecules by the addition of water, functioning in disassembly of polymers to monomers. Opposite of a dehydration reaction.
the unit of measurement used to measure the mass of an atom and subatomic particles
One of the 4 main classes of biological molecules, ,contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. source of energy. needed by tissue for repair and growth. made up of 20 amino acids.
One of the 4 main classes of biological molecules, Organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms usually in the proportion of 1:2:1.
Nucleic Acids
Nucleic Acids
One of the 4 main classes of biological molecules are very long organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphurous, contain instructions that cells need to carry out all the functions of life
a simple molecule that can combine with other like or unlike molecules in a dehydration reaction to make a polymer
The simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, the molecular formulas of are generally some multiple of CH2O. Glucose, Sucrose, each molecule has a carbonyl group and multiple hydroxyl groups
Carbonyl group
C=O, an organic molecule, a functional group consisting of a carbon atom linked to a double bond to an oxygen atom, can either form an aldehyde or ketone depending on location.
Hydroxyl groups
A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.
Name of polysaccharide when carbonyl compound is at the end of a C-skeleton; glucose is an ex.
Name of polysaccharide when carbonyl compound is within the C-skeleton; fructose is an ex.
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis(also called a glycosidic linkage .
Glycosidic linkage
covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction
a complex carbohydrate found chiefly in seeds, fruits, tubers, roots and stem pith of plants, notably in corn, potatoes, wheat, and rice which consists entirely of glucose monomers which are joined by 1-4 linkages, 2 main forms in plants (Amylose, amylopectin, stored within plastids
Linear (unbranched) polymer of D-glucose units.
This polysaccharide is one of the two components of starch, making up approximately 20-30% of the structure. The other component is amylopectin, which makes up 70-80% of the structure. Slower breakdown.
The second type of starch is_______________and is a branched polymer linked by 1(arrow)-4-alpha and 1 (arrow)-6-alpha-glycosidic linkages.70-80% of the structure, higher faster breakdown usually long term storage.
One of a family of closely related plant organelles, including chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and amyloplasts (leucoplasts).
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch. Most branched fastest possible breakdown time. Depleted every day if not replenished by food.
A structural polysaccharide of cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by b-1, 4-glycosidic linkages. The MOST abundant organic compound on Earth. Arises from the beta ring structure for glucose, and gives it a never branched look which in plants is grouped into Microfibrils. When this compound is eaten by humans it cannot be broke down but instead abrades the digestive tract to produce mucus.
A threadlike component of the cell wall, composed of cellulose molecules
stomach chamber in cows and related animals in which newly swallowed plant food is stored and processed by bacteria.
A tough structural polysaccharide, consisting of amino sugar monomers, found in many fungal cell walls and in the exoskeletons of all arthropods.
lipid; made up of fatty acids and glycerol; protects body organs, insulates body, and stores energy in the body
Fatty acid
an organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils, combines with gylserol to make fat.
Three-carbon compound with three hydroxyl groups; component of fats and oils. combines with fatty acids to make fat.
Ester Linkage
A condensation (water-releasing) reaction in which the carboxyl group of a fatty acid reacts with the hydroxyl group of an alcohol. Lipids are formed in this way.
a fat that consists of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule; linkages that bond hydroxyl to carboxyl are called ester linkages
Saturated Fat
Saturated Fat
fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms, cannot by hydrogenated( Carbon single bonds)
Unsaturated Fat
A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one cis double bond between carbon atoms which creates a kink in the struccture.
the most common form of CVD; a disease characterized by fatty plaques (atheromas) along the inner walls of the arteries.
adding hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids, forcing the liquid to solidfy, creates trans fat(which are worse than saturated fats)
Adipose Cells
Cells that humans and other mammal stock their long-term food reserves (fats); also serve as cushioning and, when found in subcutaneous layer, as insulation
A lipid made of a phosphate group and two fatty acids; consists of a hydrophilic polar head and two non-polar hydrophobic tails; forms cellular membranes.
Phosphate Group
-OPO3^-2; organic phosphates; contributes neg charge to mc of which it is a part (like DNA); has potential to react with water releasing NRG
A type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached.These all have the same ring pattern: three six-sided rings and one five-sided ring.
A steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids.
Molecules, usually proteins or nucleic acids, that act as catalysts in biochemical reactions.
chemical agents that selectively speed up chemical reactions without being consumed by the reaction and lower activation energy.
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
Amino acid
organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group. At the center is an asymmetric carbon called the alpha carbon. Also has a R group known as the side chain.
An amino acid; an important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the lower brain stem and spinal cord. Also the only one lacking an assymetric carbon.
Peptide Bond
covalent bond formed between amino acids
Frederick Sanger
English biochemist who determined the sequence of amino acids in insulin and who invented a technique to determine the genetic sequence of an organism (born in 1918)
Ribbon Model
Protein model showing how the single polypeptide chain folds and coils to form the functional protein
Space Filling Model
a molecular model in which atoms and their electron clouds are represented by spheres. The advantage is that it better represents the overlap of the electron clouds that occur in a molecule
Primary Structure
The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain, whose order is determined by inherited genetic information.
Secondary Structure
The localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between peptide linkages. The oxygen and nitrogen atoms are slighlty electronegative, so the weakly positive hydrogen bonds attatch to the nitrogen atom. Can be alpha helix or B- Pleated Sheet
Tertiary Structure
The third level of protein structure; the overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain. A hydrophobic interaction may contribute to the structure, van der Waal and disulfide bridges help hold and reinforce the conformationof the protein.
Quaternary Structure
The fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits. Examples Collagens helical polypesptide chains and Hemoglobin2 4 poplypeptide subunits with a heme group
B-Pleated Sheet
One form of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypeptide chain folds back and forth and the regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds.
a helix
A spiral shape constituting one form of the secondary structure of proteins, arising from a specific pattern of hydrogen bonding between very 4th amino acid.
Hydrophobic interaction
A type of weak chemical bond formed when molecules that do not mix with water coalesce to exclude the water usually found at the core of the protein, and van der Waals interactions hold them together .
Disulfide Bridges
Strong covalent bonds formed when the sulfur of one cysteine monomer bonds to the sulfur of another cysteine monomer which rivets parts of proteins together.
Heme Group
A group that is a large organic molecule with an iron atom at its center. It is made of heme, an oxygen transporter.
Sickle Cell Disease
The point mutation that results in the substitustion of valine for glutamic acid changes the primry structure which creates an exposed hydrophobic region which leads to a deformation (makes clumping more likely and diminished oxygen capacity in this disease.
For proteins, a process in which a protein unravels and loses its native conformation, thereby becoming biologically inactive. For DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix. Denaturation occurs under extreme conditions of pH, salt concentration, and temperature. Proteins can also become this if they are transfered from an aqueous environment to an organic solvent(because the hydrophobic parts would be switched to the outside).
A protein molecule that assists in the proper folding of other proteins. Work by keeping the polypeptide \”separated from bad influences.
X- Ray Crystallography
A technique that depends on the diffraction of an X-ray beam by the individual atoms of a crystallized molecule to study the three-dimensional structure of the molecule.
way to study protein structure, gives spectra that shows atoms resonating at certain ranges, family of conformations
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring.
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.
A type of RNA, synthesized from DNA, that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein; also called messenger RNA.
polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities
One of two families of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides. Adenine (A) and guanine (G) are purines. Have a DOUBLE RING.
the family of smaller nitrogenous bases in which its members have 1 six-membered rings of carbon and nitrogen atoms; members include cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U)
A structure composed of a ribose molecule linked to one of the aromatic bases. In a deoxynucleoside, the ribose is replaced with deoxyribose. Does NOT contain the phosphate group.
Double Helix
The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape.
Phosphodiester linkage
covalent bonds that join adjacent nucleotides between the -OH group of the 3′ carbon of one nucleotide and the phosphate on the 5′ carbon of the next
the pattern that describes the formation of DNA; the two sugar-phosphate backbones run in opposite 5′ >> 3′ directions from each other, somewhat like a divided highway
The branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms and their environment
nonliving, physical features of the environment, including air, water, sunlight, soil, temperature, and climate
the living organisms in an ecosystem
all the plant and animal life of a particular region
the number or amount of something., In Ecology questions relating to this are of prime importance
The arrangement of something across Earth’s surface . In Ecology questions relating to this are of prime importance
the typical weather pattern in an area over a long period of time
Organismal Ecology
The branch of ecology concerned with the morphological, physiological, evolutionary, and behavioral ways in which individual organisms meet the challenges posed by their biotic and abiotic environments.
a group of organisms of the SAME species populating a given area
Population Ecology
The study of populations in relation to the environment, including environmental influences on population density and distribution, age structure, and variations in population size.
A group of interdependent organisms of all the species inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other
Community Ecology
focus on how interactions between species, such as predation, competition and symbiosis affect community structure and organization
Collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving environment.
Ecosystem ecology
The study of energy flow and the cycling of chemicals among the various biotic and abiotic components in an ecosystem
Landscape Ecology
the study of past, present, and future patterns of landscape use, as well as ecosystem management and the biodiversity of interacting ecosystems
localized variation in environmental conditions within an ecosystem, arranged spatially into a complex of discrete areas that may be characterized by distinctive groups of species or ecosystem processes
the regions of the surface and atmosphere of the Earth (or other planet) where living organisms exist
A social movement dedicated to protecting the earths life-support systems for us and all other forms of life, NOT to be confused with Ecology.
Precautionary Principle
A guiding principle in making decisions about the environment, cautioning to consider carefully the potential consequences of actions. An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.
Aldo Leopold
(1888-1948) founder of the enviromental change, going green, turned chicken shed in shack for family to live in, wrote \”Sand Country Almanac\”, caught own food, passion about nature.
The study of the past and present distribution of species in the context of evolutionary theory.
large supercontinent that existed 250 million years ago, the gradual breakdown of this lead to the biogeographic realms we now associate with.
the movement of individuals away from their area of origin or from centers of high population density
Potential Range
where a species could live if transplanted plus its actual living area.
Actual Range
For a transplant to be considered successful, soe of the organisms must not only survive in the new area but also reproduce there. If a transplant is successful then the potential range of the species is larger than its_________ . In other words, the species COULD live in certain areas where it currently does not.
To lay eggs
Anopheline Mosquitoes
The protist called plasmodium that causes malaria spends the first part of its life cycle in ________ and the second half of its life cycle inside of humans. Is usually associated with a specific type of habitat.
Spatial Heterogeneity
A concept parallel to ecosystem productivity, the species richness of animals is directly related to the species richness of plants in a certain habitat.
Temporal Heterogeneity
changes in competitive dominance over time because interactions are dynamic and environment fluctuates.
the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment (corresponding to its molecular activity)
the part of the earth’s surface covered with water (such as a river or lake or ocean)
What is the main source of energy for life on Earth?
relative lengths of night and day, more reliable then temperature for cuing seasonal events such as flowering by plants or migration by animals.
What amplifies the effects of enviromental temperature by increasing heat loss due to evaporation and convection, also increases rate of evaporative cooling in animals.
the transfer of thermal energy by the circulation or movement of a liquid or gas
the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas
energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles
The exudation of water droplets, caused by root pressure in certain plants.
climate patterns on the global, regional, and local level
climate within a small area that differs significantly from the climate of the surrounding area
Equatorial region between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. It is characterized by generally warm or hot temperatures year-round, though much variation exists due to altitude and other factors.
Mediterranean Climate
Mediterranean Climate
the mixing of waters as a result of changing water-temperature profiles in a lake, helps brig nutrient rich water through Spring and August
a broad, regional type of ecosystem characterized by distinctive climate and soil conditions and a distinctive kind of biological community adapted to those conditions.
Photic Zone
Portion of the marine biome that is shallow enough for sunlight to penetrate and where the majority of photosynthesis occurs .
Pelagic Zone
The area of the ocean past the continental shelf, with areas of open water often reaching to very great depths.
Benthic Zone
bottom of an aquatic ecosystem; consists of sand and sediment and supports its own community of organisms
Aphotic Zone
the part of the ocean beneath the photic zone, where light does not penetrate sufficiently for photosynthesis to occur.
…, organisms (plants and animals) that live at or near the bottom of a sea
Littoral Zone
…, a shallow zone in a freshwater habitat where light reaches the bottom and nurtures plants
Limnetic Zone
Area in a freshwater habitat away from the shore but still close to the surface
Neritic Zone
The region of shallow ocean water over the continental shelf.
Abyssal Zone
the deep sea (2000 meters or more) where there is no light
Continental Shelf
a gently sloping, shallow area of the ocean floor that extends outward from the edge of a continent
Oceanic Zone
vast open ocean from the edge of the continental shelf outward
In water, a distinctive temperature transition zone that separates an upper layer that is mixed by wind (the epilimnion) and a colder, deep layer that is not mixed (the hypolimnion)
large natural bodies of standing freshwater formed when precipitation, runoff, or groundwater seepage fills depressions in the earth’s surface.
Ecosystems of several types in which vegetation is surrounded by standing water during part or most of the year, home to a diverse array of species, may be of three types (Basin, Riverine, and Fringe)
a large stream of water of natural origin which drains an area of land and flows into another river or body of water, are distinguished by their fast flowing current. Salt and nutrient content typically increases as they get to the mouth.
Transition area where fresh water from streams and rivers spill into the ocean, during rising tide seawater will flow up it, and flow out of it during falling tide. The denser seawater is usually found near the bottom. Are used as feeding grounds and are crucial feeding grounds for semi-aquatic vertebrates.
Fringe Wetland
A wetland occurring along the coasts of large lakes and seas, where water flows back and forth because of rising lake levels or tidal action (thus it includes both freshwater AND marine biomes).
Basin Wetland
A wetland that develops in a shallow basin, ranging from upland depressions to filled in lakes and ponds.
Riverine Wetland
A wetland that develops along shallow and periodically flooded rivers and streams.
Oligotrophic Lakes
Lakes that have a small supply of plant nutrients are called oligotrophic (poorly nourished) lakes but are generally oxygen rich. Often, this type of lake is deep and has steep banks. (Not Productive)
Eutrophic Lakes
Eutrophic Lakes
Lakes that are nutrient rich and often depleted of oxygen in the deepest zone in summer and if ice covered in winter
Temperate Lakes
Temperate Lakes
Are lakes that have a seasonal thermocline.
Tropical Lowland Lakes
Are lakes that have a thermocline all year round.
Intertidal Zone
Intertidal Zone
an area along ocean shorelines that is repeatedly covered and uncovered by ocean tides, because it experiences longer exposure to air it has greater variation, the stresses(salinity, temperature, wave action) act to limit the distribution of animals in this biome. Most animals have some adaptation that allows them to attach to a substrate. Oil pollution has caused a severe decline in beach nesting birds and sea turtles.
Marine Benthic Zone
Consists of the seafloor below the surface waters of the coastal zone or neritic zone and the offshore pelagic zone zone. Except for shallow, near-coastal areas, this aquatic biome receives no sunlight. Organisms in the very deep benthic zone receive no sunlight and are adapted to continuous cold and extremely high pressure. Oxygen is usually available are associated deep sea hydrothermal vents. obtain enrgy by oxidizing H2S by a reaction of hot water with Sulfate.
Coral Reefs
Coral Reefs
Prominent oceanic features composed of hard, limy skeletons (CaCO3) produced by coral animals; usually formed along edges of shallow, submerged ocean banks or along shelves in warm, shallow, tropical seas. Limited to the Photic Zone, and are sensitive to temperaturea below 18degrees celsius and above 30. Dionaflagette algae,cnidarians are the predominant species, Global Warming and pollution may be leading to the large scale destruction.
Oceanic Pelagic Biome
Most of the ocean’s waters far from shore, is mixed by ocean currents. This biome covers approximately 70% of the Earth Surface. Most common organisms are phytoplankton., jellies, worms krills, squids fishes and marine animals. Overfishing is a deep concern in this region
shows profiles of precipitation and temperature for various biomes to show the impact of climate on the distribution of organism. Remember it is based on the AVERAGE and the pattern of climatic variation.
a statistical relation between two or more variables such that systematic changes in the value of one variable are accompanied by systematic changes in the other
A cause and effect relationship in which one variable controls the changes in another variable.
The uppermost layer of vegetation in a terrestrial biome
Low Tree Stratum
layer of trees directly under the canopy
Ground Layer
Layer of the rainforest with very limited diversity
A non-woody, non-grass species of plant feound in broadleaf forests.
The transition from one type of habitat or ecosystem to another, such as the transition from a forest to a grassland.
Tropical Forest
Tropical Forest
A terrestrial biome characterized by high levels of precipitation(seasonal) 200-400 cm and high temperatures year-round. Stratified and competition for light is very intense. Large amount of epiphytes cover the trees, but are less abundant in the dry versions of these, Exhibits the highest animal diversity of any terrestrial biome, rapid population growth and human expansion are now destroying this biome.
Biome in which evaporation exceeds precipitation and the average amount of precipitation is less than 25 centimeters (10 inches) a year. Such areas have little vegetation or have widely spaced, mostly low vegetation, large amount of succulent plants (like cacti), reduced ;leaf surface area, C4 or CAM photosynthesis. Animals include scorpions, ants bettles lizards, seed eating rodents. Conversion to irrigated agriculture and increased urbanization have reduced the natural biodiversity of this biome.
A tropical grassland biome with scattered individual trees, large herbivores, and three distinct seasons based primarily on rainfall, maintained by occasional fires and drought. Plants are usually thorny with reduced leaf surface area. Warm all year round. Large Mammals like wildebeests and Zebras, Lions and Hyenes are common inhabitants, There is also evidence that the earliest humans lived in this biome, fires help mantain this biome while farming and overhunting is leading to a decline in large mammal population.
The matorral, maquis, garigue and Fynbos are all examples of this biomes, Usually occurs in mid altitude coastal areas but is very far flung, Precip. is highly seasonal(30-50) with rainy winters and long, dry summers. Dominated by shrubs and small trees, along with a high diversity of grasses and herbs. Temp. in Summer can reach 40 degrees Celsius. Plants have adapted by having tough evergren leaves of woody plants that reduce water loss.
Temperate Grassland
Pampas, Steppes, Veldts, Puszta are all examples of this. , a biome similar to savanna; characterized by low precipitation and lack of trees, except along stream courses, such as the prairies of North America, highly seasonal precipitation, Winters are cold, Summers are hot, common plants are grasses and forbs., plants are adapted to periodic droughts and to fire. Grazing of animals helps prevent woody shrubs and trees. Fertile soils make it an ideal place for agriculture.
Coniferous Forest
Coniferous Forest
Also known as Taiga(the largest terrestrial biome on Earth), precipitation goes from 30 to 70 cm( Although coastal coniferous forest gets up to 300 cm of annual precipitation. Winters are usually cold and long summers may be hot. Moose, Brown Birds, Tigers and insects (which occasionally outbreak and kill vast amount of trees), Old growth may start to disappear.
Treeless arctic or alpine biome characterized by cold, harsh long winters, a short growing season, and potential for frost any month of the year (permafrost) ;mostly herbaceous vegetation includes low-growing perennial plants, mosses and lichens. Large Grazing musk Ox are residents, while caribou and reindeer, and birds are migratory.
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
A biome located throughout midlatitude regions( and also in small places in Australia) where there is sufficient moisture to support the growth of large, broadleaf deciduous trees. Precipitation is 70-120 cm( equally throughout all seasons). Few Epiphytes, most common in NA is decidous while in Aussie it is Eucalyptus. Most of the original types of these biomes have been destroyed by over logging.
Perennially frozen layer of the soil that forms when the water there freezes. It is found in arctic tundra.
Alpine Tundra
Alpine Tundra
type of tundra that that occurs above the limit of tree growth but below the permanent snow line on high mountains; vegetation is similar to the arctic tundra but receives more sunlight and has no permafrost layer
plants such as mosses, lichens, and orchids, that grow on other plants but do not take nutrients from them
Population Ecology
Population Ecology
The study of populations in relation to the environment, including environmental influences on population density and distribution, age structure, and variations in population size.
a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area, can be described in terms of density and dispersion
The number of individuals per unit area(volume)
The pattern of distribution of organisms in a population
Mark-Recapture Method
A sampling technique used to estimate the size of animal populations., Capture a few organisms, tag them, put the back into the environment, and then recapture and the # of tagged organisms caught helps tell total population, assumes that chances of being recaught are the same for every animal.
migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)
migration from a place (especially migration from your native country in order to settle in another)
Describing a dispersion pattern in which individuals are aggregated in patches. Is the MOST common types of dispersion (think Wolf’s, Mayflies)
Describing a dispersion pattern in which individuals are evenly space, this may result from direct interaction(such as secretion of chemicals that inhibit competition, usually anagonistic and might extend to territoriality
the defense of a bounded physical space against encroachment by other individuals
Describing a dispersion pattern in which individuals are spaced in a patternless, unpredictable way, only occurs in the absence of strong attractions or repulsions among individuals, where key resurources and chemical factors are spread homogeneously.
the study of the vital statistics of populations and how they change over time, especially death/ birth rates, dispersion, and density. Can usually be sumarized with a Life Table
Life Table
A summary of how survival and reproductive rates in a population vary with the age of individuals; in species for which age is not informative or is difficult to measure, are often based on the size or life history stage of individuals. Best way to consturct one is by following a cohort
A population group unified by a specific common characteristic, such as age, and subsequently treated as a statistical unit.
Tioga Pass Belding's Ground Squirrel
Tioga Pass Belding’s Ground Squirrel
Study by Sherman and Morton conducted a study of this animal (Spermophilus belding), figured out that males hae higher death rates than females in the population, and involved a cohort. (Type 2 Curve)-constant
Survivorship Curve
A plot of the number of members of a cohort that are still alive at each age; one way to represent age-specific mortality obtained by constructing a Life Table.
Type 1 Curve
Exhibeted by animals that produce few offspring, but good care increases their survival rate to maturity, so the curve is relatively flat at the begining then starts to curve downwards after middle age. (Humans, large mammals)
Type 2 Curve
Indicates that death rates do not vary much with age ; lizards, small mammals, big birds, old individuals are as likely to die as young ones
Type 3 Curve
Indicates that death rates for a population peaks early in life ; species that produce many small offspring and provide little or no parental care ( clams)
Reproductive Table
fertility schedule- age specific summary of reproduction rate in a population
Life History
The traits that affect an organism’s schedule of reproduction and survival. Involves 3 basic variables (WHEN reproduction begins, How often an animal reproduces, and HOW many offspring are produced per reproductive cycle.
A life history in which adults have but a single reproductive opportunity to produce large numbers of offspring, such as the life history of the Pacific salmon, Agaves ; also known as big-bang reproduction. Also called BIG BANG REPRODUCTION or one shot, is favored in environments that are unpredictable because it increases the chances that some will survive.
latin; means :a single time
latin for beget
Also called century plants, are plant that grow in a semiarid environment, they grow for several years and then send up o huge flowering stalk, produce seeds and then die, the irregular water production may prevent seed production or seeding establishment for some time.
A life history in which adults produce large numbers of offspring over many years; also known as repeated reproduction. (Lizards) Favored in more dependent environments.
latin: to repeat
Per Capita Birth Rate
The expected number of offspring produced per unit time in a population of any size. (The average number of births per individual during the specified time interval). If individuals cannot obtain sufficient resources to reproduce, the per capita birth rate will decline.
Per Capita Death Rate
The expected number of deaths per unit time in a population of any size. (The average number of deaths per individual during the specified time interval). If individuals cannot consume enough energy, the per capita death rate will increase.
Per Capita Rate of Increase
the average contribution of each individual to population on growth. \”per person\”
( r )
to calculate: 100 individuals, 50 births, 20 deaths
50-20=30: net increase
Zero Population Growth
when a population is stable, neither growing nor decreasing. globally, this would occur when the birth rate and the death rate are the same (ZPG)
Exponential Population Growth
The geometric increase of a population as it grows in an ideal, unlimited environment. Under the condition of abundant food and resources( plus freedom to reproduce to capacity) we may assume the intrinsic rate of increase (J shaped Curve
Intrinsic rate of increase
the difference between the number of biths and the number of deaths, symbolized as r-max; the maximum population growth rate
Carrying Capacity
largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support (symbolized by K)
Logistic Growth Model
a description of idealized population growth that is slowed by limiting factors as the population size increases nad carrying capacity. (S shaped Curve)
Allee Effect
For smaller populations, the reproduction and survival of individuals decrease; arising from behavioral or ecological factors, such as difficulties in finding mates in animals.
The concept that in certain populations, life history is centered around producing relatively few offspring that have a good chance of survival (iteroparous), density dependent selection. tENDS TO MAXIMIZE POPULATION LIMIT.
The concept that in certain populations, a high reproductive rate is the chief determinant of life history(semalparous), also called density independent selection. Tends to maximize rate of increase
Surrounding the topic of _____________ of population growth, THERE ARE 2 FACTORS (What stops an animal population from growing) ,and why do some populations show large fluctuateions while others remaine stable.
Density Dependent
Referring to any characteristic that varies according to an increase in population density. (Negative Feedback Loop)
Density Independent
referring to any characteristic that is not affected by population density
Population Dynamics
The study of how complex interactions between biotic and abiotic factors influence variations in population size.
the practice of eating the flesh of your own kind, helps limit the Dungeness Crab
Dungeness Crab
Dungeness Crab
small edible crab of Pacific coast of North America, that practices cannibalism and whose population fluctuates from a couple thousand to hundreds of thousands many times ever 10 years.
A collection of populations that have regular or intermittent gene flow between geographically separate units
Age Structure
the relative number of individuals of each age in a population (commonly represented in Pyramids)
Infant Mortality
Infant Mortality
The number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births
Demographic Transition
change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates ( is associated with a n increae in basic health care , are the most dramatic in China)
Life Expectancy at Birth
The predicted average length of life at birth.
Anton Von Leeuwenhoek
Anton Von Leeuwenhoek
1st scientist to observe cells using a simple microscope, also in 1679 he provided the first estimate of the Global Carrying Capicity of the human population at 13.4 billion.
Ecological Footprint
Ecological Footprint
A calculation that shows the productive area of Earth needed to support one person in a particular country (uses arable land, pasture, oceans, built up land ,and fossil energy)
Ecological Capacity
the actual resource base of each country
What keeps on increasing humans carrying capacity, however all populations must stop growing sooner or later.
A group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other
Interspecific Interactions
interactions between 2 or more different types of species (includes competition, predation, herbivory, and symbiosis
the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent
the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources
symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship. +/+
the relation between two different kinds of organisms when one receives benefits from the other without damaging it. +/0
a relationship between two species in which one species benefits and from the other species, which is harmed, involves a host
any change, other than an injury, that disrupts the normal functions of the body, +/-
an animal or plant that nourishes and supports a parasite
an organism that lives in or on another organism; one who lives off another person
an interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism. +/-
Interspecific Competition
in a community competition for limited resources between members of different species
Competitive Exclusion
The concept that when populations of two similar species compete for the same limited resources, one population will use the resources more efficiently and have a reproductive advantage that will eventually lead to the elimination of the other population, This principle can be used to predict fundamental ecological niches
Carrying Capacity
largest number of individuals of a population that a given environment can support
Ecological Niche
the sum of a species’ use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment. Like a \”profession\”.
Fundamental Niche
The full potential range of the physical, chemical, and biological factors a species can use if there is no competition from other species.
Realized Niche
the range of resources and conditions a species actually uses or can tolerate at optimal efficiency; smaller than fundamental niche
Resource Partitioning
The division of environmental resources by coexisting species such that the niche of each species differs by one or more significant factors from the niches of all coexisting species
Allopatric Speciation
The formation of a new species as a result of an ancestral population’s becoming isolated by a geographic barrier resulting in distrupted gene flow.
Sympatric Speciation
The formation of a new species as a result of a genetic change that produces a reproductive barrier between the changed population (mutants) and the parent population. No geographic barrier is present.
Character Displacement
Character Displacement
the tendency for characteristics to be more divergent in sympatric populations of two species than in allopatric populations of the same two species. An example is Darwin’s Finches
Seed Predators
Animals that chew up or digest plant seeds
Cryptic Coloration
camouflage, , , makes potential prey difficult to spot against its background is a defensive mechanism.
Aposematic Coloration
The bright coloration of animals with effective physical or chemical defenses that acts as a warning to predators (Posion Frogs)
Batesian Mimicry
A type of mimicry in which a harmless species looks like a species that is poisonous or otherwise harmful to predators
Mullerian Mimicry
evolution of two species both of which are unpalatable and have poisonous stingers or some other defense mechanism to resemble each other, leads into the gain of successive advantage .
not pleasant or acceptable to the taste or mind
An interaction in which an herbivore eats parts of a plant or alga. +/- interaction
Wide variety of chemical compounds. May interfere with DI tracts of insect herbivores and inhibit microbial growth.
parasites that live within the body of their host like roundworms
Organisms, such as fleas, that live in the exterior of another organism (the host) and obtain food from it.
A type of parasitism in which an insect lays eggs on or in a living host; the larvae then feed on the body of the host, eventually killing it
A phylum of nonsegmented intestinal helminths characterized by having an anterior attachment organ (proboscis) covered with spines; also called spiny-headed worms. Alter behavior in crustaceans in a way that maximizes the probability of transmittance.
an organism that produces disease in a host organism disease being alteration of one or more metabolic functions in response to the presence of the organism
Sudden Oak Death
caused by Phytophthora ramorum
West Nile Virus
West Nile Virus
A flavivirus infection is transmitted by mosquitoes and is relatively new to the United States and can cause flu-like symptoms that can result in encephalitis
the process in which species exert selective pressure on each other and gradually evolve new features or behaviors as a result of those pressures
Species Diversity
the number and relative abundance of species in a biological community
Species Richness
the number of different species in a community
Relative Abundance
Proportional representation of a species in a community or sample of a community
Trophic Structure
The different feeding relationships in an ecosystem, which determine the route of energy flow and the pattern of chemical cycling
Food Chain
series of steps in an ecosystem in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
Food Webs
A complex diagram representing the many energy pathways in an ecosystem
Energetic Hypothesis
The concept that the length of a food chain is limited by the inefficiency of energy transfer along the chain. One of two along with the Dynamic stability Hypothesis
Dynamic Stability Hypothesis
A theory suggesting that food chain length is limited because longer food chains are less stable and higher level consumers would be at a higher risk of extinction( because predators would be slower to rebound after an ecological change.
Dominant Species
Those species in a community that have the highest abundance or highest biomass. These species exert a powerful control over the occurrence and distribution of other species.
Keystone Species
a species that is critical to the functioning of the ecosystem in which it lives because it affects the survival and abundance of many other species in its community
Invasive Species
plants and animals that have migrated to areas where they did not originate; often displace native species by outcompeting them for resources(exotic species)
Foundation Species
Foundation Species
Species that plays a major role in shaping communities by creating and enhancing a habitat that benefits other species.
A species that has a positive effect of the survival and reproduction of other species in a community and that contributes to community structure.
Bottom- up Model
A model of community organization in which mineral nutrients control community organization because nutrients control plant numbers, which in turn control herbivore numbers, which in turn control predator numbers N +o V +o H, +o P
Top Down Model
A model of community organization in which predation controls community organization because predators control herbivores, which in turn control plants, which in turn control nutrient levels; also called the trophic cascade model.
Nonequilibrium Model
The model of communities that emphasizes that they are not stable in time but constantly changing after being buffeted by disturbances.
A discrete event that disrupts an ecosystem or community. Examples are fires, hurricanes, tornadoes, droughts, and floods. Examples of human-caused disturbances include deforestation, overgrazing, and plowing.
Intermediate disturbance hypothesis
The concept that moderate levels of disturbance can foster greater species diversity than low or high levels of disturbance.
Ecological Succession
series of changes in the species in a community, often following a disturbance
Primary Succession
an ecological succession that begins in a an area where no biotic community previously existed
Secondary Succession
succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil. Yellowstone Fire in 1988 for example.
unsorted sediments deposited directly from glacial ice at the end or side of the glacier
any of various pale or ashy mosses of the genus Sphagnum whose decomposed remains form peat
The loss water from the soil through both evaporation and transpiration from plants.
Actual Evapotranspiration
the amount of water annually transpired by plants and evaporated from a landscape, usually measured in millimeters.
Potential Evapotranspiration
a measure of energy availability but not water availability is determined by the amount of solar radiation and temperature is highest in regions of high solar radiation and temperature
German naturalist who explored Central and South America and provided a comprehensive description of the physical universe (1769-1859)
Species Area Curve
the biodiversity pattern, first noted by Alexander von Humboldt, that illustrates that the larger the geographic area of a community, the greater the number of species (ceteris paribus).
Island Equilibrium Model
model of speciation where the equilibrium number of species will be at where the immigration rate meets the extinction rate
Integrated Hypothesis
The concept, put forth by F. E. Clements, that a community is an assemblage of closely linked species, locked into association by mandatory biotic interactions that cause the community to function as an integrated unit, a sort of superorganism. Emphasizes study groups of species.
Individualistic Hypothesis
The concept, put forth by H. A. Gleason, that a plant community is a chance assemblage of species found in the same area simply because they happen to have similar biotic requirements. Emphasizes studying individual species. Generally accepted today,
Rivet Model
the concept, put forth by Paul and Anne Ehrlich, that many or most of the species in a community are associated tightly with other species in a web of life. according to this model, an increase or decrease in one species in a community affects many other species.
Redundancy Model
The concept, put forth by Henry Gleason and Brian Walker, that most of the species in a community are not tightly coupled with one another (that is, the web of life is very loose). According to this model, an increase or decrease in one species in a community has little effect on other species, which operate independently.
Consists of all the organisms living in the community as well as all the abiotic factors with which they interact. Boundaries of this are not discernable. Involves two processes, energy flow and chemical cycling.
What all energy in an ecosystem enters as before being converted by autotrophs into chemical energy which is used by heterotrophs in the organic compounds of food, and then dissapated of heat.
loose bits and pieces of material resulting from disintegration or wearing away; fragments that result from any destruction
Law of conservation of energy
the law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another
Primary Producers
An autotroph, usually a photosynthetic organism. Collectively, autotrophs make up the trophic level of an ecosystem that ultimately supports all other levels.
Primary Consumers
this category includes organisms that consume producers (plants and algae) and have to be herbivores.
organisms that mainly prey upon animals.
organisms that eat only plants
Secondary Consumers
The carnivores in an ecosystem; organisms that feed on primary consumers(herbivores)
Tertiary Consumers
Animals that feed on animal-eating animals. They feed at high trophic levels in food chains and webs. Examples are hawks, lions, bass, and sharks.
organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; also called a consumer
organisms that eat both plants and animals
organisms that feed on the detritus and decomposing organic material of living organisms, are the major link between primary producers and consumers in an ecosystem. Mainly prokaryotes ( bacteria/ archea) and fungi. They also account for most of the conversion of organic materials from all trophic levels to inorganic compounfs usuable by primary consumers.
Primary Production
the amount of LIGHT energy converted to chemical energy (organic compounds) by autotrophs in an ecosystem during a given time period, sets the limit for the budget of the entire ecosystem.
Gross primary production
the amount of light energy that is converted to chemical energy by photosynthesis per unit time, more than net primary production because of inefficency. (GPP) Equation is NPP + R = GPP
Net Primary Production
The gross primary production of an ecosystem minus the energy used by the producers for respiration. (NPP). Equation is GPP – R = NPP, is the key measurment because it represents the true storage of chemical energy in an ecosystem. New
Standing Crop
the total biomass of photosynthetic autotrophs present at a given time, not to be confused with NPP
Rain Forest
a forest region located in the Tropical Zone with a heavy concentration of different species of broadleaf trees. Has the highest average NPP value.
Photic Zone
Regions of a body of water where light penetrates, enabling photosynthesis, the depth of this is an important factor in a regions primary production, along with limiting nutrients.
Limiting Nutrients
The most important factor that limits primary production, is the element that must be added in order for production to increase in a particular area. Is usually nitrogen or phosphorous( and are usually very low in the photic zone)
Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean
This ocean, often not labled on maps, surrounds Antarctica and extends northward toward Australia, has the largest area of upwelling (nutrient rich waters circulating to the open surface), which stimulates growth of phytoplankton populations and increase primary production.
The buildup over time of nutrients in freshwater lakes and ponds that leads to an increase in the growth of algae, usually lead to the loss of all but the most tolerant species, which would reduce biodiversity.
Actual Evapotranspiration
The amount of water transpired by plants and evaporated from a landscape over a given period of time, usually measured in millimeters and estimated for a year. Related to the fact that temperature and moisture are the key factors that control primary production in terrestrial ecosystems. It INCREASES with the amount of precipitation in a region and the amount of solar energy available.
the average kinetic energy of the individual particles, in a terrestrial environment it along with moisture are the main factors affecting primary production.
Secondary Production
The amount of chemical energy in consumers’ food that is converted to their own new biomass during a given time period
20 %
Energy transfer between trophic levels is usually less than _____
Net Secondary Production
The energy stored in biomass represented by growth and reproduction.
Production Efficiency
The percentage of energy stored in food that is not used for respiration or eliminated as waste.
____________ usually have higher production efficencies then endotherms.
Trophic Efficiency
The ratio of the biological production of one trophic level to the biological production of the next lower trophic level, are always less than production effeciences because they take into account energy lost through respiration and contained in feces.
Pyramid of Net Production
the representation of the loss of energy with each transfer in a food chain in which trophic levels are stacked in blocks, with primary producers forming the foundation of the pyramid
Biomass Pyramid
diagram representing the biomass in each trophic level of an ecosystem, most sharply decrease while some aquatic ecosystems have inverted biomass biomass resulting from phytoplankton having such a short turnover time., howver the pyramid of production is still the same.
Turnover time
The time required to replace the standing crop of a population or group of populations (for example, of phytoplankton), calculated as the ratio of standing crop biomass to production
The relative ______ of the food chain limits the overall biomass of top level carnivrores and the number of trophic levels to about 4 or 5.
Pyramid of Numbers
Pyramid of Numbers
A diagrammatic representation of the number of individual organisms present at each trophic level in an ecosystem
Green World Hypothesis
Green World Hypothesis
Explains why most terrestrial ecosystems are green., The conjecture that terrestrial herbivores consume relatively little plant biomass because they are held in check by a variety of factors, including predators, parasites, and disease
Gypsy Moth
Gypsy Moth
brought to US from Eurasia to breed hardier silk worm; $500 mil spent on control; lack of natural predators in US, an exotic species( One of the 4 main factors reducing biodiversity).
Biogeochemical cycles
process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another
when meteoroids enter Earth’s atmosphere, are the only exterrestrial source of new matter.
Water Cycle
Water Cycle
The continuous movement of water from the ocean to the atmosphere to the land and back to the ocean, main processes that drive it are the evaporation of liquid water, condensation of water vapors into clouds, and precipitation
The Carbon Cycle
The cycle that describes:carbon in CO2 is incorporated into plants by photosynthesis, then into animals by consuming organisms, and returned to the air as CO2 from respiration. Cellular carbon is returned to the soil through waste and dead organism decay.
The Nitrogen Cycle
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria live in the roots of legumes and convert free nitrogen (N2) into the ammonium ion (NH4+). Nitrifying bacteria convert the ammonium ion into nitrites (NO2-) and then into nitrates (NO3-). Dentrifying bacteria convert nitrates into free atmospheric nitrogen (N2).
Nitrogen Fixation
the assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by soil bacteria and its release for plant use on the death of the bacteria, some is also fixed by lightning
A process in the nitrogen cycle where soil bacteria convert organic nitrogen to ammonia
the oxidation of ammonium compounds in dead organic material into nitrates and nitrites by soil bacteria (making nitrogen available to plants)
Anaerobic process in which fixed nitrogen compounds are converted back into nitrogen gas and returned to the atmosphere
The Phosphorous Cycle
a sedimentary cycle in which only a small amount is available to plants by the weathering of the rocks; the biotic community recycles phosphorus back to the producers, temporarily incorporating it into ATP, nucleotides, teeth, bone and shells, and then returning it to the ecosystem via decomposition
Abbreviation of a long term ecological research that is taking place in forest ecosystems since 1963 in the Whit Mountains of New Hampshire.
Critical Load
the amount of added nutrient, usually nitrogen or phosphorus, that can be absorbed by plants without damaging ecosystem integrity. Anything that is over this runs into other ecosystems choking waterways and killing fish
a condition of a lake or other body of water characterized by low nutrients, low productivity, and HIGH oxygen levels in the water column.
Cultural Eutrophication
Overnourishment of aquatic ecosystems with plant nutrients (mostly nitrates and phosphates) because of human activities such as agriculture, urbanization, and discharges from industrial plants and sewage treatment plants.
a condition in a lake or other body of water that is characterized by lush phytoplanktonic growth followed by high amounts of decay in the bottom resulting in depletion of oxygen in the water column. May be supersaturated with the oxygen produced in the day but anoxic(oxygen- poor) at night when respiration occurs.
Acid Precipitation
rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water , leads to calcium and other ions or granite(which is affected the most) because of the low amount of bicarbonate. to leach from the soil which creates nutrient deficiencies.
Biological Magnification
Increasing concentration of a harmful substance in organisms at higher trophic levels in a food chain or food web. Example DDT, and PCB’s (polychlorinated biphenyls)
The 1976 Toxic Substance Control Act specifically banned the production and use of what substance? Also known as polychlorinated biphenyls, itsuppress the immune system, cause cancer in humans, aquatic ecosystems (bad for reproduction since the babies retain high levels of PCB ,and was put into transmitters.)
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, a chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been widely used as a pesticide but is now banned in some countries.
1976 Toxic Substance Control Act
Allows for control and testing of chemicals that have potential negative impact to human life or the environment. Banned DDT and PCB’s
Silent Spring
Silent Spring
A book written to voice the concerns of environmentalists. Launched the environmentalist movement by pointing out the effects of civilization development. By Rachel Carson.
C3 Plants
C3 Plants
More then 95 % of plants on the earth are this. A plant that changes C02 into a three carbon compound before entering the Calvin cycle for photosynthesis.
C4 Plants
A plant that prefaces the Calvin cycle with reactions that incorporate CO2 into four-carbon compounds, the end product of which supplies CO2 for the Calvin cycle. Are outproduced by C3 plants in a very high oxygen environment.
Stands for the Forest- Atmosphere Carbon Transfer and Storage Emperiment. Manipulated the concentration of CO2
Greenhouse Affect
Greenhouse Affect
The balance of the amount of heat being reflected back to earth by the atmosphere controled by the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, normally elavates the temperature from about – 18 degrees celsuis, making living life possible.
Kyoto Protocol
establishes legally binding commitments for the reduction of four greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride), and two groups of gases (hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons) Took place in Rio De Janeiro in 1992, U.S. withdrew in 1997.
O3, a form of oxygen that has three oxygen atoms in each molecule instead of two. protects us from dangerous ultraviolet radiation from the sun
chloroflourocarbons human made organic compounds containing Cl and Flourine several industrial and commercial applications but are now banned (1978) because they attack ozone layer which protects us from ultraviolet radiation, most apparent over antartica.
Montreal Protocol
Montreal Protocol
meeting in 1987 where a group of nations met in Canada and agreed to take steps to fight against Ozone Depletion-CFC’s banned
Rosy Periwinkle
Rosy Periwinkle
Catharanthus roseus, , native to madagascar. source of 2 natural alkaloids agents that are highly successful in treating childhood leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease.
Conservation biology
Conservation biology
Multidisciplinary science created to deal with the crisis of maintaining the genes, species, communities, and ecosystems that make up earth’s biological diversity. Its goals are to investigate human impacts on biodiversity and to develop practical approaches to preserving biodiversity.
Restoration Ecology
Restoration Ecology
A goal-directed science that applies ecological principles in an effort to return degraded ecosystems to conditions as similar as possible other natural, predegraded state.
Equatorial region between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. It is characterized by generally warm or hot temperatures year-round, though much variation exists due to altitude and other factors. MOST species live in these areas.
Cretaceous Period
Cretaceous Period
By some estimates we are currently in the process of pushing more species towards extinction than in the ____________________ 65 million years ago.
disappearance of a species from all parts of its geographical range, occurs naturally, so in itself it is not the problem, the rate of it is.
Ecosystem Engineer
Ecosystem Engineer
A dominant species that influences its community by creating, modifying, or maintaining physical habitat for itself and other species.
Refers to the biological diversity, and has 3 main components, Genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecosystem diversity
Genetic diversity
The individual genetic variation within a population, and between populations that is associated with adaptations to local conditions , loss of some genetic diversity might make microevolution impossible, which could lead to loss of genetic resources that could improve disease resistance in crops through plant breeding.
Species diversity
refers to the number of different species an ecosystem or within the biosphere
Ecosystem diversity
variety of habitats, living communites, and ecological processes in the living world
The process whereby a specific segment of DNA is copied or cloned many times (amplification) using DNA polymerase, The base pair sequence of each end of the target must be known
Endangered Species
Endangered Species
a species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range
Threatened Species
Threatened Species
a species that could become endangered in the near future
mandates that listed animals be protected
the regions of the surface and atmosphere of the Earth (or other planet) where living organisms exist
various tropical and subtropical freshwater fish – many are popular as aquarium fish, loss of a about 200 of these species in Lake Victoria is a major concern.
Keystone Predator
a predator species that reduces the density of the strongest competitors in a community, thereby helping maintain species diversity
having to do with the banks of a body of water
the connections that human beings subconsciously seek with the rest of life
Hodgkin’s disease
painless progressive enlargement of lymph nodes, spleen, and lymphoid tissue; symptoms include anorexia, lassitude, weight loss, fever, itching, night sweats, and anemia
Ecosystem Services
Important environmental benefits, such as clean air to breathe, clean water to drink, and fertile soil in which to grow crops, that ecosystems provide
Introduced Species
0ne of the 4 major major threats to biodiversity,a species moved by humans, either intentionally or accidentally, from its native location to a new geographic region; also called an exotic, invasive, or nonnative species.
A hardy vine that has compound leaves and purplish flowers and roots that contain a nourishing starch used medicinally. It is an invasive weed in the southeastern United States but is native to Asia. Was introduced in order to control erosion.
Zebra Mussels
Zebra Mussels
Native to the lakes of Russia. Detected in the Great Lakes in 1988. Invasive in that they multiply rapidly and can filter large amounts of zooplankton, robbing native young fish of food. Introduced accidently
0ne of the 4 major major threats to biodiversity ,practice of harvesting or hunting to such a degree that remaining individuals may not be able to replenish the population, large organisms with low reproductive rates are especially susceptible.
Extinction Vortex
A downward population spiral in which positive-feedback loops of inbreeding and genetic drift cause a small population to shrink, and unless reversed, become extinct.
continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics to maintain the desired characteristics of a line of organisms, can bring out many harmful recessive traits.
Genetic Drift
changes in the gene pool of a small population due to chance. Tends to reduce genetic variation.
estimate of the smallest number of individuals necessary to ensure the survival of a population in a region for a specified time period, USUALLY estimated by a computer model.
aim: to determine the minimum size of population that will guarantee species survival. types: subjective assessment, rule of thumb, analytical population models, computer simulations, displayed in percentages. Allows biologists to expolre the potential consequences of alternative management plans.
Genetic Variation
the many different genetic combinations an individual gamete can produce, is the key issue in the small population approach, because the total size of a population may be misleading because only certain members will pass their alleles to their offspring.
Effective Population size
An estimate of the size of a population based on the numbers of females and males that successfully breed; generally smaller than the total population. The equation is ( 4 x M X F) / (M+F)
Grizzly Bear
Grizzly Bear
(Ursus arctos horribilis) The bear considered to probably be the most dangerous animal in North America, the first population viabilty anaylses was performed in 1978 by Mark Schaffer of Duke University in Yellwstone National Park..
Small population approach
One of the two approaches used to fight the biodiversity crisis, the approach to species conservation concerned with the factors that drive a small population to extinction, such as genetic drift, inbreeding, etc., instead of the ecosystem.
Declining Population approach
One of the two approaches used to fight the biodiversity crisis, , a proactive approach to species conservation that focuses on detecting, diagnosing and preventing population declines in order to keep the population above a minimum viable size. Mainly on enviromental factors.
boundaries between well-defined ecosystems, have characteristics of their own, and some animals like deer can flouish when its range is broadened, which usually will signal a loss of the interior species.
Landscape Ecology
the study of past, present, and future patterns of landscape use, as well as ecosystem management and the biodiversity of interacting ecosystems
(Molothrus ater), an example of an eged adapted species that lays eggs in the nests of others brds, poarticulary migratory songbirds and makes them take care of their young. Increasing parasitism of this bird is correlate with declining population of the brirds host species.
Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project
A long term project that has focused on the effects of logging within the amazon basin , they have discovered that species that have adapted to the interior show the greatest declines in the smallest fraagments.
Movement Corridor
A series of small clumps or a narrow strip of quality habitat (usable by organisms) that connects otherwise isolated patches of quality habitat. Can be a deciding factor in preserving biodiversity, depending on whether or not they help tranport diseases as well.
Biodiversity Hot Spot
A relatively small area with an exceptional concentration of endemic species and a large number of endangered and threatened species
Endemic Species
Endemic Species
Species that is found in only one area. Such species are especially vulnerable to extinction.
Biotic Boundary
The area that is needed to prevent the extinction of a species.
Legal Boundary
The actual area put aside to try and prevent the extinction of a species.
Zoned Reserves
An extensive region of land that includes one or more areas undisturbed by humans surrounded by lands that have been changed by human activity and are used for economic gain
the act of treating waste or pollutants by the use of microorganisms (as bacteria) that can break down the undesirable substances
A bacterium that is used in the process of bioremediation to help clean up oil spills on beaches.
Biological Augmentation
an approach to restoration ecology that uses organisms to add essential materials to a degraded ecosystem, an example is the rapid growth of indegenous plaant communities along roadsides in Peurto Rico using Albizzia procera(a nonnative plant)
Albizzia procera
A nonnative plant( to Puerto Rico) that thrives in nitrogen poor soils and colonize roadsides and was used in the biological augmentation.
(360-260mya) caused by initial expansion of first forests that depleted large amounts of atmospheric CO2, is a semi desert located in South Africa
Sustainable Development
Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
E. O Wilson
E. O Wilson
published Sociobiology: The New Synthesis- applies the principles of evolutionary biology to the study of social behavior in animals, also coined \” biophilia\”, which he says is innate.
A ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening, and in consequence the amount of light entering the eye
Action potentials that reach the brain via sensory neurons
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events. Only exists within the brain
Axial Skeleton
Axial Skeleton
The part of the skeleton forms the main trunk of the body and is composed of the skull, spinal column, ribs, and breastbone
Sensory Reception
detection of a stimulus by sensory cells, what sensation and perception begin with.
Sensory Receptors
specialized cells that detect certain forms of energy, usually specailized neurons or epithelial cells that exist in groups or with other sensory organs like eye and ear.
sensitive to stimuli arising outside body (touch, pressure, pain receptors)
sense internal environment; monitor inside world; such as glucose and oxygen levels in the blood
Hair Receptor
nerve endings around root of hair in hairy skin, small receptive field, either slowly or rapidly adapting – vibrissae, whiskers, are specialized hair follicle receptors
Stretch Receptor
sensory receptor in a muscle that responds to stretching of tissue; send information to CNS concerning lengths and tensions of muscle fibers
the amount of increase in signal power or voltage or current expressed as the ratio of output to input
The processing of sensory information, occurs as soon as info is recieved, also includes sensory adaptation
Process whereby the pain impulse travels from the receiving nociceptors to the spinal cord
Sensory Transduction
receptor cell converts exposure from stimulus into a change in electrical potential across its membrane
Receptor Potential
A slow, graded electrical potential produced by a receptor cell in response to a physical stimulus
Sensory adaptation
Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
A sensory receptor that responds to mechanical disturbances, such as shape changes (being squashed, bent, pulled, etc.). Mechanoreceptors include touch receptors in the skin, hair cells, in the ear, muscle spindles, and others.
sensory receptor that detects the presence of a specific chemical
Electromagnetic receptors
detect electromagnetic energy such as light, electricity, and magnetism; ex: photoreceptors
respond to changes in temperature. They conduct sensations along the same pathway that carry pain sensations.
light sensitive cells (rods and cones) that convert light to electrochemical impulses
Pain receptors
Respond to tissue damage; triggered by mechanical, electrical, thermal or chemical energy
Receptors in the skin that give rise to the sense of pain; they respond to various forms of tissue damage and to temperature extremes.
Muscle Spindle
Distributed throughout the belly of the muscle. They function to send information to the nervous system about muscle length and rate of change of its length.
Chemical signals released by organisms to communicate with other members of their species. ________ are often used by animals as sexual attractants.
Rods and Cones
visual receptors that transduce light neural impulses. The rods are concentrated in the periphery of the retina, the cones in the fovea.
the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
a gravitationally-sensitive vesicle lined with sensory cells and containing dense bodies; found in many invertebrates(cnidarians)
Grains of sand or dense granules that determine gravity in invertebrates
Tympanic Membrane
The eardrum. A structure that separates the outer ear from the middle ear and vibrates in response to sound waves.
Outer Ear
The portion of the ear consisting of the pinna and the external auditory canal. The outer ear is separated from the middle ear by the tympanic membrane (the eardrum).
Middle Ear
the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea’s oval window
Inner Ear
the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs.
Oval Window
membrane at the enterance to the cochlea through which the ossicles transmit vibrations
the stirrup-shaped ossicle that transmits sound from the incus to the cochlea
Middle Ear
the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea’s oval window
Semicircular Canals
three canals within the inner ear that contain specialized receptor cells that generate nerve impulses with body movement
Eustachian Tube
A narrow tube between the middle ear and the throat(pharynx) that serves to equalize pressure on both sides of the eardrum
throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
the snail-shaped tube (in the inner ear coiled around the modiolus) where sound vibrations are converted into nerve impulses by the Organ of Corti
The organ of Corti
The actual hearing organ found within the cochlea, consists of hair cells, the receptor cells of the ear.
basilar membrane
A structure that runs the length of the cochlea in the inner ear and holds the auditory receptors, called hair cells.
Vestibular Canal
the sensory system that provides the dominant input about movement and equilibrioception and contributes to our balance and our sense of spatial orientation
Round Window
one of the two openings into the cochlea of the inner ear; closed off from the middle ear by the round window membrane, which vibrates with opposite phase to vibrations entering the cochlea through the oval window; allows fluid in the cochlea to move, which in turn ensures that hair cells of the basilar membrane will be stimulated and that audition will occur
the bodily fluid that fills the space between the bony labyrinth and the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear
the property of sound that varies with variation in the frequency of vibration
larger of two sacs within the membranous labyrinth of the vestibule in the inner ear (uter = leather bag)
smaller of two sacs within the membranous labyrinth of the vestibule in the inner ear ( small bag)
Lateral Line System
A mechanoreceptor system consisting of a series of pores and receptor units (neuromasts) along the sides of the body of fishes and aquatic amphibians; detects water movements made by an animal itself and by other moving objects
cluster of hair cells w/ cilia embedded in cupula that detect the movemnt of water – for fish and amphibians (functional cell), resemble the ampullae found in human semicircular canals
enlargement at the base of each semicircular canals. at the base is where the receptors are found
Weberian Apparatus
A series of bones that conduct the vibrations from the swim bladder to the inner ear.
gelatinous structure, as the head moves in different planes, this moves with cravity causing hair cells to bend ( there are no otoliths in the semicirucular canals)
or taste, provides information about the food and liquids that we consume.
the sense of smell, which occurs when receptors in the nose respond to chemicals
these tiny hairs found on an insects legs and antennae give insects their senses of touch, balance, hearing, smell, taste and temperature, allows insect to quickly identify chemicals
recently recognized and only defined as \”savory\”, \”meaty\”, \”delicious\”; when certain AA (glutamate, aspartate, MSG) bind to specific receptor proteins
excites receptors in the brain; synthetic; people sensitive to it have problems when ingested, can act as agonist for AMPA and NMDA receptors
Structures on the tongue containing groups of taste receptors, or taste buds
Is a protein that a odorous substance or odorant binds to after diffusing into the layer of mucus coating the nasal cavity, triggerd a signal transduction pathway involving a G protein, adenylyl cyclase, and cyclic AMP, which opens channels in the plasma membrane that are permeable to Na+ and Ca2+, which depolarizes the membrane and causes the receptor cell to generate an action potential.
A molecule that activates an olfactory receptor and causes the transmission of information about a smell.
A small cup with light-sensitive surface backed by light-absorbing pigment, in contrast to compound eyes, which are image forming., Is only open in a particular directions ( one left and slightly forward and the other right forward) Used by planarians to avoid predators because they are then able to distinguish the direction of the light and move away from it.
Compound Eyes
Compound Eyes
Found in Insects and Crustaceans(Arthropods) and some polycheate worms(Annelida), it consists of several thousand light detectors(ommatadia), each with its own lens, which directs light from a tiny portion of the visual field , where they differences in angles and intensity result in a mosiac image, very capable of detecting very fast movements (330) times per second
In this functional structure of the compound eye , the cornea and the crystalline cone focus light into the rhabdom(stick of pigmented plates onside a circle of photoreceptors), which traps light and guides it to the photoreceptors producing a mosiac image of different intensities and angles.
Single- lens eyes
Found in jellies, spiders, molluscs, and most polycheates, works on a camera like principle , the iris changes the diameter of the pupil, and behind the pupil a single lens focuses light on a layer of photoreceptors, and muscles in the lens can also move the lens forward backward or forward.
\”the outermost layer is the tough connective tissue\”: maintains the shape of the eye: also referred to as the ‘white’ of the eye, cornea is the outermost part of it in the front of the eye.
The darkly pigmented middle layer of the eyeball, found between the sclera (outer layer) and the retina (inner layer). The interior forms the dougnout shaped iris
The curved protective layer through which light rays enters the eye. Light rays are bent here as well as in the lens.
clear mucous membrane consisting of cells and underlying basement membrane that covers the sclera (white part of the eye) and lines the inside of the eyelids. Protects eyes from foreign bodies.
The light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information, the photoreceptors in this part leavres the eye at the optic disk
Optic Disk
A hole in the retina where the optic nerve fibers (and visual information) exit the eye. Because you can not see the part of an image that falls on this hole, it is also known as the blind spot.
The transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape(accommodation) to help focus images on the retina.
Ciliary Body
A portion of the vertebrate eye associated with the lens. It produces the clear, watery aqueous humor that fills the anterior cavity of the eye, and together with the lens it separates the eye into two cavities.
the process by which the eye’s lens changes shape to focus near(by beoming more spherical) or far objects (by becoming flatter) on the retina
Retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don’t respond. (125 Million) Mainly concentrated in the peripheral part of the retina., and NOT found in the fovea. Consist of retinal bounded to an opsin.
Retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations. (6 million) Less sensitive., MOST DENSE in the fovea. Consist of retinal bounded to an opsin . 3 classes red green, blue RGB.
Suspensory Ligaments
Bands of collagen that connect the lens to the ciliary muscles(near sight relax), (far sight pull against lens)
area consisting of a small depression in the retina containing cones and where vision is most acute
A visual pigment consisting of retinal and opsin. When rhodopsin absorbs light, the retinal changes shape and dissociates from the opsin, after which it is converted back to its original form.
The protein part of the visual pigment molecule, to which the light-sensitive retinal molecule is attached.
A chemical derived from vitamin A found in the pigment proteins of the rod photoreceptors of the retina. Retinal changes conformation when it absorbs light, triggering a series of reactions that ultimately result in an action potential being sent to the brain.
Activation of rods by light bleaches photopigment (changes wavelengths absorbed by rhodopsin) – no longer respond at particular light intensities
Are the photoreceptor proteins found in the cone cells of the retina that are the basis of color vision. 3 types (RED, BLUE, GREEN). An absence of one diminishes the relative capacity of the brain’s reception on differentual hues.Color blindness is due to the lack of these cone types.
The frequency of the wavelength of color; what we normally refer to as the color of an object.
Bipolar Cells
Located in the retina, has specialized neuron located in the eye; as one dendrite and one axon; connects rods/cones which when stimulated are depolarized or hyperpolarized depending on the type of photo-receptors they contain, and continually release the neurotransmitter Glutamate.
a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain that increases the likelihood that a postsynaptic neuron will fire; important in learning, memory, neural processing, and brain development.
Ganglion Cells
neurons that connect the bipolar cells to the optic nerve; an interneuron; one million in each eye; summarizes and organizes data from rods/cones and sends it to the brain, most of its cells go to the Lateral Geniculate nuclei in the Thalamus.
Amacrine Cells
they link bipolar cells to other bipolar cells and ganglion cells to other ganglion cells.
Horizontal Cells
Specialized retinal cells that contact both the receptor cells and the bipolar cells
Lateral Inhibition
Exaggerates the sense of contrast that occurs when light hits the photoreceptors. Occurs when an illuminated cone or rod stimulates a horizontal cell, which then inhibits more distant photoreceptors.
Receptive Field
Describes all the rods and cones that feed information to one ganglion, the larger the less sharp of the image , because of less specificty on exactly where light struck the retina.
Optic Chiasm
The point at which the optic nerves from the inside half of each eye cross over and then project to the opposite half of the brain
Lateral Geniculate nuclei
The destination in the thalamus for most of the ganglion cell axons that form the optic nerves. This area has neurons that extend into the primary visual cortex (which is located in the occipital lobe of the cerebrum)
Primary Visual Cortex
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives information directly from the visual system; located in the occipital lobe of the cerebrum.
Hydrostatic Skeleton
A fluid skeleton in many soft-bodied invertebrates, including annelids, that allows an organism to change shape but not volume.
A rythmic, wavelike motion that progressively moves through a tube organ such as the small intestine, or a type of movement produced by contracting the circular muscles and relaxing the longitudinal muscles.
Complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi; also found in the external skeletons of arthropods
The exterior protective or supporting structure or shell of many animals (especially invertebrates) including bony or horny parts such as nails or scales or hoofs, may include chitin.
A process in ecdysozoans in which the exoskeleton is shed at intervals, allowing growth by the production of a larger exoskeleton.
member of the group of animal phyla with protosome development that some systematsts hypothesize form a clade, including many molting animals
A hard skeleton buried within the soft tissues of an animal, such as the spicules of sponges, the ossicles of echinoderms, and the bony skeletons of vertebrates
Found in echinoderms, it is the Magnesium carbonate and calcium carbonate bound by protein fibers,
Appendicular Skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton
One of the two main parts of the human skeleton; includes the bones of the arms and legs and associated structures, such as the shoulders and hip bones, makes motion possible and protects the organs of digestion, reproduction, and excretion
Cross Sectional
The strength of the skeleton depends on the _____________ area, which increases with the square of its diameter.
Body Posture
Related to the extent to which we face or lean toward or away from others, is more important than weight in mammals and birds.
tough connective tissue that joins skeletal muscles to bones For Example (Achilles Tendon)
Skeletal Muscle
Skeletal Muscle
Name the muscle type based on the histological features: • Actin and myosin in sarcomeres; striated; multinuclear; lacks gap junctions; troponin:calcium binding; T tubules and SR forming triadic contacts; highest ATPase activity; no calcium channels
Micorsopic, fiber-like structures that occupy most cytoplasm in skeletal muscle cells, composed of two myofilaments( thin filaments and Thick filaments
Smaller structure within sacromeres; the muscle equivalents of the actin or myosin containing microfilaments (THIN and THICK filaments)
Thin filaments
Composed of 2 strands of actin and a regulatory protein(troponin); each actin has an active site that can interact with myosin; active sites are covered by tropomyosin strands, which are held in place by troponin.
Thick filaments
Composed primarily of myosin; , extend the entire length of the A-band; contain twisted myosin subunits, contain strands that recoil after stretching, myosin molecules: tail- binds to other myosin molecules, head= made of 2 globlular protein subunits reachest nearest thin filament
Troponin Complex
The regulatory proteins that control the position of tropomyosin on the thin filament., When Ca2+ is there it causes a conformational change in tropomyosin.
A helical protein that winds around actin helices in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells to form the thin filament of the sarcomere. In the absence of Ca2+, it covers the myosin-binding sites on actin and prevents muscle contraction. When calcium binds to a troponin complex, a conformational change in tropomyosin occurs so that the myosin-binding sites are exposed and muscle contraction can occur.
The band of the sarcomere that extends the full length of the thick filament. Includes regions of thick and thin filament overlap, as well as a region of thick filament only(H zone). It alternate with I bands to give skeletal and cardiac muscle a striated apperance. This band does NOT shorten during muscle contraction.
the smallest contractile unit of a muscle fiber – the functional unit of skeletal muscle; average 2um long; the region of a myofibril between 2 successive Z discs
Z lines
Thin filament (thin horizontal lines), Thick filament (darker horizonal lines). From one z-line to another is one sarcomere
I Band
The region of the sarcomere made up ONLY of THIN filaments. It is bisected by a Z line.These bands alternate with A bands to give skeletal and cardiac muscle a striated appearance. I bands get shorter (and may disappear completely) during muscle contraction.
H Zone
The region at the center of an A band of a sarcomere that is made up of myosin only. This zone zone gets shorter (and may disappear) during muscle contraction.
Sliding Filament Model
The theory explaining how muscle contracts, based on change within a sarcomere, the basic unit of muscle organization, stating that thin (actin) filaments slide across thick (myosin) filaments, shortening the sarcomere; the shortening of all sarcomeres in a myofibril shortens the entire myofibril
Creatine Phosphate
Creatine Phosphate
An energy storage molecule used by muscle tissue. The phosphate from creatine phosphate can be removed and attached to an ADP to generate ATP quickly.
An anerobic metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP, can suppurt about a minute of sustained contractions.
A neurotransmitter that enables muscle action, learning, and memory, is released and depolarizes the muscle fiber causing an action potential which then spreads to the transverse tubules
Transverse Tubules
System of tubules that provides channels for ion flow throughout the muscle fibers to facilitate the propagation of an action potential.
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
The smooth ER of a muscle cell, enlarged and specialized to act as a Ca2+ reservoir. The SR winds around each myofibril in the muscle cell.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Progressive muscle atrophy caused by hardening of nerve tissue on the lateral columns of the spinal column (Lou Gehrig disease)
Motor Unit
A single neuron and all the muscle fibers it stimulates
Increase in number of motor units activated as stimulation intensity increases
a sustained muscular contraction resulting from a rapid series of nerve impulses
Oxidative Fibers
Muscle fibers with many mitochondria, a lot of myoglobin, and a high capacity of oxidative phosphorylation, surrounded by many small blood vessels (to deliver O2)
Glycolytic Fibers
Muscle fibers w/ a little mitochondria and myoglobin, a lot of glycolytic enzymes and glycogen, and surrounded by few blood vessels, (WHITE)
A globular protein found in muscle tissue that has the ability to bind oxygen.Helps to store oxygen in the muscle for use in aerobic respiration (it does not move, just stays there). Muscles that participate in endurance activities (including cardiac muscle) have abundant supplies of of this(which is red)
Cardiac Muscles
Cardiac Muscles
A striated involuntary muscle that is found in the heart.
Intercalated Disks
These structures branch and connect cardiac cells. They contain specialized gap junctions and coordinate muscle contractions.
Smooth Muscle
Smooth Muscle
A muscle that contracts without conscious control and found in walls of internal organs such as stomach and intestine and bladder and blood vessels (excluding the heart), have dense bodies to which thin filaments are attatched , contraction caused by Ca2+ binding to calmodulin.
Dense Bodies
smooth muscle…thin filaments in smooth muscle are anchored directly to the sarcolemma or to protien muscles called _________
A cyoplasmic Ca2+-binding protein that is particularly important in smooth muscle cells, where binding of Ca2+ allows for the activation of a myosin light-chian kinase, the first step in smooth muscle cell contraction.
Found in clam adductor muscles, allows month long contraction with very limited energy
Motion or the potential of motion of a living organism
Spindle-shaped; elongated, thick in the middle, and tapered at both ends, such as the shape of a smooth muscle cell or a muscle spindle, or of a swimmer.
The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the is responsible for automatic survival functions, consists of a stalk with caplike swelling at the anterior end of the spinal cord, consists of 3 parts(medulla oblangata, pons, and the midbrain) which function in homeostasis, coordination, and conduction of information to higher brain centers.
a selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor commonly prescribed as an antidepressant
The individual cells that are the smallest units of the nervous system, Approximetly 100 billion(10^11) in the brain.
Functional MRI
Allows researchers to scan areas of the brain while a participant performs a physical or cognitive task
In prokaryotes and protists, the movement toward or away from a chemical stimulus, such as the movement toward food or away from a toxin
Cambrian Explosion
By the time of the _________, 500 million years ago , systems of neurons allowed animals to sense and rapidly move in essentially a modern day form.
All animals EXCEPT ________ have some type of nervous system, also they are they only phyla that are \”not true tissue\” animals.
Radially symetrical invertebrates (Think Polyp/Medusa), which have the simplest nervous system, one that has a diffuse nerve net.
Nerve Net
A diffuse web of inconnected nerve cells which control nervous responses in cnidarians
Neural \”cables\” containing many axons. These bundled axons, which are part of the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs, more complicated then nerve nets.
Animal phyla that has a nerve net in each arm conected by a radial nerve to a central nerve ring. Which allows this phylum to be more adept at making movements.
An evolutionary trend toward the concentration of sensory equipment at the anterior end of the body. Greater ___________ usually means greater, more complex neurological structures.
The portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord(In annelids(like leaches), in more complex creatures behavior is regulated by ganglia
groups of nerve cell bodies that coordinate incoming and outgoing nerve signals
The sensory and motor nerves that connect the brain and the spinal cord to the rest of the body, 12 Cranial Nerves and 31 Spinal Nerves, broken into two parts(Somatic and Autonomic)
Phylum Mollusca, have no distinct head, clings to rocks, scrape algae with radula, one broad muscular foot, little or no cephalization and very simple sense organs, in contrast to moving cephalopod( squids and octopi) which have complicated nervous systems, these molllusca show how nervous system organization correlates to an animals lifestyle.
Central Nerve Ring
Found in starfish and other echinoderms… manifests as a ring of nerves in the center of the organism to which all radial/peripheral nerves attach
Sensory Input
1st stage of information processing by Nervous System, where nervous system receives information from environment through stimuli (inside and outside of the body) which is then sent to the CNS via Sensory Neurons.
2nd Stage of information processing by Nervous System(and the complex), where interneurons analyse and interpet the sensory input taking into account the immediate context as well as what has happened in the past.
Motor Output
3rd and final stage of information processing by Nervous System, where motor neurons take the signal from the interneurons and transmitt them into effector cells (muscle or endocrine cells).
An automatic and often inborn response to a stimulus that involves a nerve impulse, is the simplest way to study nervous sytem
Effector Cells
The muscle cells or gland cells(endocrine) that actually carry out the body’s responses to stimuli.
Cell body
Contains the nucleus, where most of the molecules that provide energy neuron needs to survive and function is manufactured
Axon Hillock
The conical region of a neuron’s axon where it joins the cell body; typically the region where nerve signals (action potential) is generated.
Myelin sheath
A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next, Mutiple Scedlrosis attacks this in PNS(Schwann Cells) .
The bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
Postsynaptic Cell
Cell recieveing the neurotransmitter, so that sodium ions can go in and Action potenital may occur
Presynaptic Cell
synaptic surface where neurotransmitter release occurs.
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
Glia Cells provide myelination in CNS, elctrically insulates certain axons, & speeds up rate of electrical signals, MS targets these.
Schwann Cells
Part of the neuron in the (PNS) that produces the myelin sheath; functions in repair and regeneration of damaged nerves; wrap around the axon; aid the myelin in insulation
Star shaped cells found throughout the CNS, cleaning up debris in the extracellular space and removing neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft, connects neurons to nearby cappilaries, components of the blood-brain barrier, and along with radial glia produce stem cells that help produce more glia and neurons.
Blood Brain Barrier
Blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out, formed by astrocytes (glia) which induce the formation of tight junctions between cells that line the capillaries in the brain and the spinal cord.
Radial Glia
Special glia with fibers that grow radially outward from the ventricular zone to the surface of the cortex; provide guidance for neurons migrating outward during brain development, and can also act along with astrocytes to produce stem cells which can generate neurons and other glia.
From the Greek Word meaning \”glue\”. Cells that support, nurture, and insulate neurons, remove debris when neurons die, enhance the formation and maintenance of neural connections, and modify neuronal functioning, outnumber neurons 10 to 50 times. 4 types (Oligodendrocytes, Astrocytes, Radial Glia, and Schwann Cells)
Membrane Potential
The charge difference between a cell’s cytoplasm and the extracellular fluid, due to the differential distribution of ions. Membrane potential affects the activity of excitable cells and the transmembrane movement of all charged substances. In Neurons it is usuakky -60 to -80 mV when the cell is not transmitting signals.
A thin electrode made of wire or glass (with a salt solution) that can measure the electrical activity of a single neuron by using a micropositioner to insert an extemely fine tip into the cell, and then an oscilloscope or computer measuresa the voltage
Resting Potential
An electrical potential established across the plasma membrane of all cells by the Na+/K+ ATPase and the K+ leak channels. IN most cells, the r__________ is approximately -70 mV with respect to the outside of the cell.
Sodium Potassium Pump
A pump that actively maintains the gradient of sodium ions (Na+) and potassium ions (K+) across the plasma membrane of animal cells . K+ concentration is low outside animal cell and high inside the cell. Na+ concentration is high outside an animal cell and low inside the cell. Maintains these concentration gradients using the energy of one ATP to pump three Na+ out and two K+ in.
Equilibrium Potential
When the net diffusion of an ion down its conc. gradient slows, and then stops, because of the potential difference. Nernst equation converts the concentration difference of an ion into a voltage measurement.
Ligand Gated ion channels
Found at synapses and open or close when a specific chemical, such as a neurotransmitter, binds to the channel. THINK Tyrosine Kinase/ other kinases
Voltage gated ion channels
A specialized ion channel that opens or closes in response to changes in membrane potential
Stretch-gated ion channels
Ion channelss found in cells that sense strecth and open when the membrane is mechanically deformed
Gated ion channels
special channels that neurons have that allow the cell to change its membrane potential in response to stimuli the cell receives, open or close to 3 stimuli.
A reduction in the magnitude of the membrane potential (the inside of the membrane becomes more positive or less negative), may be due to the opening of Na+ channels which increase membrane permanbility and causes potential to approach ENa(+62 mV at 37 degrees celsius) is a graded potential
An electrical state in which the inside of the cell is more negative relative to the outside than at the resting membrane potential. Mat be cause by the opening of K+ channels which cause the potential to reach Ek( -92 mV at 37 degrees celsius), is a graded potential
Graded potential
Shift in electrical charge in a tiny area of the neuron (temporary); transmits a long cell membranes leaving neuron and polarized state; needs higher than normal threshold of excitation to fire and its magnitude depends on the strength depends of the stimulus. Hyper/ De polarization, and
The point at which most depolarizations are graded
Action Potential
A large transient depolarization event which goes past the threshold, and includes polarity reversal, that is conducted along the membrane of a muscle cell or a nerve fiber
Rising Phase
3rd Phase, where depolarization opens activation gates on most Na+ channels, while K+ stay closed, the influx of Na+ makes the inside of the membrane positive with respect to the outside,
Falling Phase
4th(2nd to last) phase, Where the inactivation gates on most Na+ are close blocking Na + influx, while most K+ channels are open permitting K+ efflux, making the inside of the cell negative again.
5th and Last stage, where both Na+ gates are closed but the actication gates on some K+ gates are open , as these gates cose the inactivation gates open omn Na+ channel, and the membrane returns to resting state.
2nd Stage, Where a stimulus opens the activation gates on some Na+ channels, which depolarize, if the depolarization can reach the threshold then it can trigger the action potential.
Refractory Period
The time after a neuron fires or a muscle fiber contracts during which a stimulus will not evoke a response, sets the limit on the maximum frequency at which action potentials can be generated.
Synaptic Terminals
special axonal ending that sends information to next cells, relay signals to other cells by releasing chemical messengers called neurotransmitters.
One of the two factors that affect the speed at which the action potential is conducted, is because the resistence to flow of an electrical current is inversely proportional to the cross sectional area of a conductor, which allows more distant membranes to reach the membrane threshold faster.
One of the two factors that affect the speed at which the action potential is conducted, has largely evolved in vertebrates, is the insulation of the axon by lipid based myelin sheaths which insulate and cause the depolarizing current to reach more distant parts of the threshold sooner. Is very about 2,000 more space efficent than having a large diameter, also causes the Na+ and K+ ion channels to be located in gaps in the myelin sheath called Nodes of Ranvier ,and is part of salatory conduction.
Nodes of Ranvier
Gaps in the myelin sheath of the axons of peripheral neruons. Action potentials can ‘hump’ from node to node, thus increasing the speed of conduction (saltatory conduction).
Salatory conduction
Rapid conduction of impulses when the axon is myelinated since depolarizations jump from node (of Ranvier) to node
Electrical Synapse
A type of syanpse in which the cells are connected by gap junctions, allowing ions (and therefore an action potential) to spread easily from cell to cell, usually in smooth and cardiac muscle. – compared to chemical synapse. (Minority)
Chemical Synapse
A type of synapse at which a chemical (a neurotransmitter) is released from the axon of a neuron into the ysnaptic cleft where it binds to receptors on the next structure in sequence, either another neuron or an organ.
Presynapyic Neuron
Part of the neuron that synthsize neurotransmitters and package it into synaptic vesicles.
Synaptic vesicles.
Tiny oval-shaped sacs in a terminal of one neuron; assist in transferring mineral impulse from one neuron to another neuron by releasing specific neurotransmitters
Synaptic Cleft
synaptic gap or synaptic space; tiny gap between the terminal of one neuron and the dendrites of another neuron (almost never touch); location of the transfer of an impulse from one neuron to the next
the process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out
Ca2+ channels
Open after an action potential depolarizes the plasma membrane os the synaptic terminal allowing an influx of Ca2+, which then cause synaptic vesicles to fuse with presynaptic membrane, then the (synaptic vesicles)release the neurotransmitter into the synaptic clef, and then the neurotransmitter binds to the receptor portion of ligand gated ion channels allowing Na+ and K+ to diffuse through the chaennels, continue until neurotransmitter diffuses out of synaptic ckeft.
Direct Synaptic Transmission
__________ __________ __________ involves binding of neurotransmitters to ligand-gated ion in channels in the postsynaptic cell, generally results in postsynaptic potential
Postsynaptic potential
the change in the membrane potential of a neuron that has received stimulation from another neuron, (postsynapse)
Excitatory postsynaptic potentials generated by depolarization , mostly mediated by glutamate (or aspartate) acting on AMPA or kainate receptors, occur in channels in which both Na+ and K+ can diffuse.
Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials generated by hyperpolarizations( due to only K+ selectivity), mostly mediated by GABA acting on GABA-A receptors or glycine acting on glycine receptors
a neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction, borken down by Acetylcholinerase, and it works in CNS PNS, and vertebrate junctions.
enzyme responsible for the immediate breakdown of acetylcholine when release from the nerve ending; prevents overstimulation of cholinergic receptor sites
Spatial Summation
A phenomenon of neural integration in which the membrane potential of the postsynaptic cell is determined by the combined effect of EPSPs or IPSPs produced nearly simultaneously by different synapses.
Temporal Summation
Summation by a postsynaptic cell of input (EPSPs or IPSPs) from a single source over time.
Indirect Synaptic Transmission
In __________ __________ __________, a neurotransmitter binds to a receptor that is not part of an ion channel. This binding activates a signal transduction pathway involving a second messenger in the postsynaptic cell, its effects are slowr but last longer thadn direct synaptic transmission.
Neurotransmitter that influences voluntary movement, attention, alertness; lack of dopamine linked with Parkinson’s disease; too much is linked with schizophrenia
A neurotransmitter that affects hunger, sleep, arousal, and mood. Appears in lower than normal levels in depressed persons, only in CNS
Substance P
A Neuropeptide neurotransmitter involved in pain perception throughout both the CNS and PNS.
A catecholamine precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and also released at synapses, hormone stimulates the sympathetic nervous system; speeds up heart rate, in CNS and PNS
Protein Kinase A
a serine/threonine kinase which is activated by cAMP (immediate effect)
An amino acid; an important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the lower brain stem and spinal cord(CNS).
An amino acid neurotransmitter, works to excite in the CNS and intermuscular junctions, also involved in memory and inin information transmission throughout the brain.
An amino acid that functions as a CNS excitatory neurotransmitter, also furnishes ammonia for Urea synthesis in mammals.
An Endorphin and neurotransmitter which is generally inhibitory; acts on mu receptor; causes euphoria, dependence, analgesia, and respiratory depression
Biogenic Amines
Neurotransmitter derived from amino acids, and include catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine & norepinephrine) & indolamines (histamine & serotonin)ä
adrenaline; activates a sympathetic nervous system by making the heart beat faster, stopping digestion, enlarging pupils, sending sugar into the bloodstream, preparing a blood clot faster
1)Serotonin= inhibits pain pathways, promotes sleep, and helps control mood 2) Histamine= potent vasodilator released by mast cells of CT and basophils, prozac elevates the concentration of serotonin by inhibiting its uptake after release
A powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid (lysergic acid diethylamide). Produces feelings of euphoria that bind to serotonin and dopamine brain receptors.
Hallucinagenic substance found naturally in peyote cactuses ; Cause very severe side effects and binds to dopamine and serotonin receptors in the brain.
The neurotransmitter that is supposed to be at most of the inhibitory synapses, produces IPSPs BY increasing permeability of the postsynaptic membrane to Cl_. (gamma-aminobutyric acid )
relatively short chains of amino acidsthat serve as neurotransmitters. For Example : Substance P (excitatory in CNS/PNS) and an endorphin Met-enkephalin (generally inhibitory in CNS)
Neurotransmitters that give one a feeling of well-being, euphoria or eliminate pain. They also decrease urine output by stimulating ADH secretion by the hypothalumus. For Example : Met-enkephalin
Carbon monoxide
A neurotransmitter that is synthesized by the enzyme heme oxygenase, In the brain it regulates the release of hypothalmic hormones and acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter , and in the PNS it acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter that hyperpolarizes intestinal smooth muscles.
Nitric Oxide
A biologic effector molecule with a broad range of activities that, in macrophages, function as a potent microbicidal agent that kills ingested organisms, and also increases blood flow.
Sildenafil citrate, inhibits phosphodiesterase type 5 (pde5) from working making leading to less NO breakdown which leads smooth muscle cells in the blood vessels to relax , which then causes the blood vessels to dilate and fill the spongy erictile tissue with blood which produces an erection.. n.
Candace Pert
Along with Solomon Snyder( both of John Hopkins who discovered endoprhins when they found out that the opiates morphine and heroin bind to the same brain receptors.
Heme oxygenase
The enzyme required for the synthesis of Biliverdin, the intermediate between heme and bilirubin. Produces 85% of CO in metabolism
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Fluid in the space between the meninges that acts as a shock absorber that protects the central nervous system, CSF, in the ventricles of the brain. Is formed by filtration of the blood circulates through the the central canal and ventricles then drains into the vein, assisting in the supply of nutrients and hormones to different parts of the brain and in the removal of wastes.
Gray Matter
Brain and spinal cord tissue that appears gray with the naked eye; consists mainly of neuronal cell bodies (nuclei), dendrites and lacks myelinated axons.
White Matter
Peripherally situated; contains large numbers of myelinated and unmyelinated axons organized into tracts into 6 columns(funiculi), each containing tracts (fasciculi)
Central Canal
The hollow center of an osteon, also known as a Haversian canal. lcontains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves. Bone is laid down around the central canal in concentric rings called lamellae.
4 of them , are a series of interconnected cavities within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem filled with cerebrospinal fluid
Three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord (CNS), consisting of the dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid mater, CSF circulating within them protects the brain from shock.
Cranial Nerves
Cranial Nerves
The 12 pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain, part of the PNS, they terminate in mostly in organs of the head and upper body , mostly contain axons of both sendory and motor neurons
Spinal Nerves
Spinal Nerves
31 pairs of nerves arising from spinal cord, all contain sensory and motor neurons which function in sensory input and motor output.
Somatic Nervous System
One of the 2 division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles by carrying signals to abd from the skeletal muscles, mainly in response to external stimuli. Also called the skeletal nervous system and is considered voluntary because it is subject to concious control, although much skeletal activity is actually controlled by reflexes. \”Shivering\”
Autonomic Nervous System
One of the 2 parts of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart) by contracting smooth, cardiac musclr, and other organs. Is generally involuntary. 3 divisions of this part(Enteric, Sympathetic, and Parasympathetic)
Sympathetic division
One of the 3 branches of the the autonomic nervous system, arouses the body to deal with perceived threats (fight or flight)
Parasympathetic Division
One of the 3 branches of the autonomic nervous system , maintains normal body functions; it calms the body ever conserves energy(rest and digest), i.e increased heart rate, glycogen production, enhances digestion, when they inervate the same organ that a sympathetic does they usually act antagonistically.
Enteric Division
One of the 3 branches of the autonomic nervous system, conisists of a network of neurons in the digestive tract, pancreas, and gallbladder, control the secretion of these organs and the activity of smooth muscle that produces peristalsis
Involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving along in one direction through the digestive system
top of the brain which includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex; responsible for emotional regulation, complex thought, memory aspect of personality
the middle division of brain responsible for hearing and sight; location where pain is registered; includes temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and most of the parietal lobe
the posterior portion of the brain including cerebellum and brainstem, containing the medulla, pons, and cerebellum
The anterior portion of the forebrain, including the cerebral hemispheres and lamina terminalis, white matter, basal nuclei, and cerebral cortex.
the posterior division of the forebrain that includes the a Thalumuses amd the Pineal gland, evolved earliest in vertebrate history
the middle part of the brain between the diencephalon and the pons; also called the midbrain(part of brainstem)
the part of the hindbrain that develops into the pons and the gives rise to the cerebellum
caudal part of the hindbrain, includes the medulla oblongata
anterior portion of the forebrain (telencephalon) consisting of two hemispheres, region in which the most profound changes occur during development, after the 3rd month the cerebral cortex extends and surrounds the rest of the brain.
Cerebral cortex
Cerebral cortex
The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body’s ultimate control and information-processing center
the \”little brain\” attached to the rear of the brainstem; its functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance, metencephalon
Medulla Oblongata
Communly called the medulla, ,part of the brainstem that contains centers which control several visceral functions, including breathing, heart and blood vessel activity, swallowing, vomiting, and digestion. The pons does also help regulate breathing as well.
Part of the brainstem, works with the cerebellum in coordinating voluntary movement; neural stimulation studied in activation synthesis theory may originate here
Activation synthesis theory
Theory that dreams reflect inputs from random brain activation originating in the pons, which the forebrain then attempts to weave into a story
Superior Colliculi
Part of the midbrain involved in directing visual attention and controlling eye movements, in nonmammalian vetebrates it takes the form of the most prominent optic lobes and may be the only visual centers.
Inferior Colliculi
midbrain structures that control sound localization
is a state of awarness of the external world, the counterpart of this is sleep.
Reticular Formation
A complex neural network in the central core of the brainstem that contains over 90 separate clusters of cell bodies and is very important in regulating sleep and arousal, includes the RAS
The network in the reticular formation that serves in regulation of sleep and arousal function, It acts as a sensory filter and selects for information that will reach the cereberal cortex, the more information that is recieved the more alert you are.
This molecule is the corepressor in the trp operon; it binds to the repressor which then binds to the operator, also is the amino acid from which serotonin is synthesized in the brain, and is the reason that drinking milk before bedtime(because it conatins large amounts of this) can make you fall asleep.
Hand Eye
Hand Eye
________ -________ coordination is an example of cerebellar control, as it integrates sensory and motor information, if the cerebrum is damaged you will be able to follow something with your eyes but not able to stop them at the place the object stops..0
One of the 3 parts of the diencephalon(posterior forebrain), this part includes the pineal gland, choroid plexus
Pineal gland
Located in the center of the brain, functions to secrete melatonin and serotonin
Choroid plexus
Knots of capillaries inside ventricles , that produce CSF from the blood
One of the 3 parts of the diencephalon(posterior forebrain), , brain structure that receives messages from the sense organs and relays the information to the proper region of the cerebrum for further processing
One of the 3 parts of the diencephalon(posterior forebrain),, a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
Posterior Pituitary
Also called the neurohypophysis it does not produce hormones (like oxytocin and ADH) but stores and releases, acts on the anterior pituitary
Anterior pituitary
Adenohypophysis. Derived from surface ectoderm (Rathke’s pouch). FLAT PiG. FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, ProlatIn, GH. Also melanotropin.
Rathke’s pouch
in the roof of early oral cavity, an upward growth of tissue breaks loose and forms the anterior part of the pituitary glan. Contacts a downward growth of tissue from the brain and forms posterior pituitary gland
Pure Behavior
Behavior that relates to either pleasure or pain.
Circadian Rythms
the regular fluctuation, within a 24-hour and 11 minute period, from high to low points of certain bodily functions and behavior; sleep wakefulness cycle and body temperature
Biological Clock
term for the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in mammals( differes in other types) the hypothalamus that’s responsible for controlling our levels of alertness
Suprachiasmatic nucleus
(SCN) A cluster of neurons in the hypothalamus in the brain that governs the timing of circadian rhythms
Cerebral Hemispheres
the right and left halves of the cerebrum
Basal Nuclei
A group of neutrons located deep within the white matter, are important centers for planning and learning movement sequences, damage at this region can prevent motor commands from being sent to the muscles which will render a person immobile.
the more recently evolved portions of the cortex of the brain that are involved with higher mental functions and composed of areas that integrate incoming information from different sensory organs., consists of 6 parellel layers of neurons running tangential to the brain surface, large convulusions. Consists largely of association areas.
Whales and porpoises are called _____. They also have large convulated neocortices
Corpus callosum
A thick band of axons that enables the communication between the right and left cerebral cortices.
Primary Sensory areas
areas of cerebral cortex that receive most of their input from the thalamic relay nuclei of a single sensory system; most of their output goes to adjacent secondary sensory areas of the same system
Association Areas
areas of the cerebral cortex which have no specific motor or sensory repsonsibilities, but rather are involved in thinking, memory and judgment
Temporal lobe
The portion of the cerebral cortex that is just above the ears and that is involved in hearing, language, smell, processing, and memory, .
Occipital lobe
Portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; visual areas
Parietal lobe
portion behind the frontal lobe, responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch
Frontal lobe
The lobe at the front of the brain associated with movement, speech, problem solving, and impulsive behavior.
Somatosensory Cortex
the cortex that is a band of tissue on the front of the parietal lobe. It receives info about touch in different body areas
Literally, sidedness. The specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain, with one side dominant for each activity. The left side of the brain controls the right side of the body, and vice versa
Pierre Broca
*French neurosurgeon
*Was convinced that the measured shape of the skull was the best indicator of quality of the brain
Wernicke’s Area
Controls language reception- a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe TW
Broca’s Area
Controls language expression – an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech FB.
Limbic System
a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. Includes the hippocampus, amygdala, olfactory bulb, and hypothalamus.
A complex neural structure (shaped like a sea horse) consisting of gray matter and located on the floor of each lateral ventricle, supports explicit recall of events
two lima bean-sized neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion, found within the temporal lobe and can recognize the emotional feeling of facial expressions and lay out emotional memories.
Olfactory bulb
one of two enlargements at the terminus of the olfactory nerve at the base of the brain just above the nasal cavities and the first to recieve information from the nose
Phineas Gage
1823-1860; Field: neurobiology; Contributions: 1st person to have a frontal lobotomy (by accident), his accident gave information on the brain and which parts are involved with emotional reasoning
a now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. the procedure cut the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain
Short Term Memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
Long Term Memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences, requires the hippocampus
Eric Kandel
Eric Kandel
Nobel lauerate from columbia university who tested the cellular basis for learning using the sea hare (Aplysia californica)
Aplysia californica
Species which was used in experiments that provided initial insights into anatomical synapse changes that occur with learning: sensitization and habituation.
Changes during habituation and sensitization:
Decreased # synapses during
habituation and increased #
after sensitization
process of being made sensitive or acutely responsive to an external agent or substance;
Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation
Long Term Potentiation
An increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory, and can last for days or weeks. LTP has been studied mainly at the synapses in the hippocampus where presynaptic neurons release glutamate.
glutamate receptor that also responds to the drug a-amino-3hydroxy-5-methyl-f-isoxazolepropionic acid. learning and memory.first used ionotriopic receptor
a drug that binds a glutamate receptor involved in learning-can mediate plasticity)
Growth Cone
responsive region at the leading edge of a growing axon
The first chemoattractant to be discovered in mammals it is secreted by neurons in the bentral midline of the spinal cord. Helps in axon elongation, and released from the floor plate.
A chemorepellent protein secreted by midline cells that allows axons attracted by netrin to stop moving toward it, also released by floor plate.
Progenitor cells
A cell that has lost the capacity for self renewal and is committed to the generation of a particular cell lineage
A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions, treatment of this disease ceters on pathways that use dopamine as a neurotransmitter.
Parkinsons Disease
Parkinsons Disease
A motor disorder characterized by difficulty in initiating movements, slowness, and rigidity, masked facial expressions, muscle tremors, poor balance, and a shuffling gait.Also increases with the onset of old age, the symptoms of the disease result from the neurons in the midbrain nucleus called the substantia nigra which (normally release dopamine), and the buildup of protein aggregates containing a-synuclein
Bipolar Disorder
A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. (Formerly called manic-depressive disorder.)
Also called Angel Dust is a synthesized drug now used as an animal tranquilizer that can cause stimulant, depressant, narcotic, or hallucinogenic effects similar to those suffered by those people with schizophrenia by blocking NMDA receptors.
A Specific Dopamine receptor than drugs frequently block in order to treat schizophrenia
Atypical antipsychotics
Drugs that treat psychotic symptoms and behavior (schizophrenia, bipolar disease, and other mental illness).
Tardive Dyskenia
Involves involuntary, repetitive movements manifesting as a side effect of long-term or high-dose use of dopamine antagonists, usually antipsychotics used to treat diseases like Bipolar Disorder and schizophrenia, treatment of these disease with these drugs end up giving the patients symptoms similar to Parkinsons.
Alzheimers Disease
Also called dementia ,characteristic physiologic changes are neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques (deposits of protein), found throughout the cortex, which interfere with cells’ ability to transmit impulses, the rate of incidence is directly proportional to age, and as medicine has gotten better there have been an ever increasing number with AD
Beta Amyloid plaques
A structural change in the cerebral cortex associated with Alzheimer’s Disease, in which dense deposits of a deteriorated protein called amyloid develop, surrounded by clumps of dead nerve and glial cells, also called senile plaques, they seem to trigger the death of surrounding neurons.
Neurofibrillary tangles
Tangled bundles of fibers seen in the cytoplasm of abnormal neurons in those areas of the brain (hippocampus, cerebral cortex) most affected by Alzheimer’s disease.
A set of enzymes believed to snip pieces off a longer protein producing fragments of amyloid protein that bunch up and create amyloid protein plaques in brain tissue (the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s)
Pittsburgh Compound-B
A chemical that was synthesized by scientists at the Univ. of Pittsburgh. Helps detect the Beta- amyloid plaques when marked with short lived isotopes, and test the effectiveness of drugs that are used to treat the disease.
substantia nigra
A midbrain structure that provides dopaminergic projections to areas of the forebrain, especially the basal ganglia, in Parkinson’s disease there has been cell death of neuron’s in this region leading to less dopamine and an accumulation of protein aggregates containing alpha
A protein normally found in the presynaptic membrane, where it is apparently involved in synaptic plasticity. Abnormal accumulations are apparently the cause of neural degeneration in Parkinson’s disease.
Lewy Bodies
What is the term for the round intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions containing ɑ-synuclein found in the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra?
Parent molecule for dopamine and is given to parkinson’s disease patient as dopamine cannot cross the blood brain barrier while this parent molecule can cross
Blending Hypothesis
Blending Hypothesis
The idea that genetic material contributed \”mix\” together in a way that blue + yellow make green. Predicts that over many generations a freely mating population would give rise to a uniform population of individuals. Fails to explain how some traits reappear after skipping a generation. Disproved by Gregor Mendel.
Gregor Mendel
Gregor Mendel
Augustinian monk and botanist whose experiments in breeding garden peas led to his eventual recognition as founder of the science of genetics (1822-1884)
Particulate Hypothesis
Also called the \”Gene Idea\”, in this model parents pass on discrete heritable units that retain their separate identities in offspring, proven by Gregor Mendel.
Christian Doppler
Christian Doppler
Austrian mathematician and physicist who observed that the apparent change in frequency and wavelength of a wave as perceived by an observer moving relative to the wave’s source. Also instilled in Gregor Mendel a sense of mathematics to prove his science.
A heritable feature, like color that varies among individuals.
Each variant of a character, For Example : Character = color. This would equal red , white ,blue.
True Breeding
True Breeding
Term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves if allowed to self-pollinate.
The mating of 2 true breeding varities, and the first generation is refered to as the P generation.
P generation
Parental generation, the first two individuals that mate in a genetic cross
F1 generation
The first generation of offspring obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms (P generation) (Now all non-true breeding, heterozygotes)
F2 Generation
The second generation of offspring, obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms; the offspring of the F1 generation, this is the generation that allowed Mendel to figure out the laws of genetics.
Law of Segregation
The two alleles for a heritable character separate (segregate) during gamete formation and end up in different gametes
Law of Independent Assortment
States that for each pair of alleles segregate independently of each other pairs of allelesduring gamete formation.(Applies only to genes(allele pairs) located on different chromosmes(that are not homologus.
Describes a trait that covers over, or dominates, another form of that trait (In Mendel’s case Purple)
Large Sample Size
One of the things that Mendel had that made his experiment a success. A total of about 1000 individuals in the F2 generation.
Cross Pollination
Cross Pollination
A reproductive process in which pollen from one plant is transferred to the stigma of another plant, in order to insure that he could control what he was planting he removed the stamens of a plant before they reproduced pollen and then dusted pollen from another plant onto altered flowers stigma.
A trait that is masked by by the presence of a dominant trait( In Mendels case White)
The color of the pea plants that were dominant in his F1(all individuals) and in the F2 generation with 3/4 of the individuals.
The color of the pea plants that were reccesive in f1(0/4 individuals), and in the F2 generation(1/4 individuals)
One of the main parts of Mendels theory surrounding the law of segregation, alternative versions of _______ account for variations in inherited characteristics. The alternative versions of this are called alleles.
one of a number of different forms of a gene.
Punnet Square
A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross.
One of the main parts of Mendels theory surrounding the law of segregation, for each character, an organism inherits 2 ________, one from each parent. Mendel made this deduction without knowing about the role of chromosomes.
One of the main parts of Mendels theory surrounding the law of segregation, if the two allelles at a locus differ, then one , the dominant allele, determined the organisms appearance, the other ________ allele has no noticeable effect
Term that describes having identical alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci
Term that describes having dissimilar alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci (not true breeding)
what an organism looks like as a consequence of its genotype
an organism’s genetic makeup, or allele combinations
a cross between an organism whose genotype for a certain trait is unknown and an organism that is homozygous recessive for that trait so the unknown genotype can be determined from that of the offspring
Single Character
One of the things that allowed mendel to derive the law of independent assortment, such as flower character.
a hybrid produced by crossing parents that are homozygous except for a single gene locus that has two alleles (as in Mendel’s experiments with garden peas)
Two characters
Allowed Mendel to derive the law of independent assortment ( like flower color , and seed shape)
individuals heterozygous for two characters
The outcome of another event happening(probability) is __________ by a specific result in Mednelian Genetics.
Multiplication Rule
The rule that states that to determine the probability, we multiply the probability of one event by the probability of another
Addition Rule
What probability rule states that any one of two or more mutually exclusive events will occur is calculated by adding together their individual probabilities
Incomplete Dominance
a condition in which a trait in an individual is intermediate between the phenotype of the individual’s two parents because the dominant allele is unable to express itself fully
Complete Dominance
A type of inheritance in which the phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are indistinguishable.
Spectrum of Dominance
Spectrum of alleles show different degrees of dominance and recessiveness in relation to each other phenotype
situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism
Tay Sachs Disease
A human genetic disease caused by a recessive allele for a dysfunctional enzyme, leading to accumulation of certain lipids in the brain. Seizures, blindness, and degeneration of motor and mental performance usually become manifest a few months after birth. At the organismal level it is recessive, lipid metabolizing level(biochemical) it is intermediate(incomplete dominance), and at the molecular level(production of enzyme) they are (codominant)
For any character the observed dominance/ recessivness relationship of alleles depends on the _________ that we examine phenotype. For Example Tay-Sachs: at the oranismal level it is recessive, at the molecular codominant, and at the biochemcal( incomplete dominance)
A congenital anomaly caused by a DOMINANT allele characterized by the presence of more than the normal number of fingers or toes. 1 in every 400 have it.
The control of more than one phenotypic characteristic by a single gene, are responsible for the large range of symptoms in diseases such as cystic fibrosis and sickle cell disease.
Greek for more, many
Greek word meaning stopping, where a gene at one locus alters the phenotypic expression of a gene at a second locus, is the converse of polygenic inheiritence
Quantative Characters
This usually indicates polygenic inheiritance (additive effect of two or more genes on a single phenotypic character), Where the characters in a population vary along a continium. (Height, Skin Color)
Polygenic inheritance
Polygenic inheritance
Process by which several genes interact to produce a certain trait; responsible for most important traits like skin color, eye color, height , CONVERSE of pleitropic. Aids in the development of quantative characters. BELL CURVE on pg. 263 look at it. Enviromental factor like sun exposure would make the bell curve smoother. Has the broadest norm of reaction.
Norm of Reaction
The range of phenotypes produced by a single genotype, due to environmental influences.
Many factors, both genetic and environmental, collectively influence phenotype. Like Quantative just more enviromental.
what an organism looks like as a consequence of its genotype
the genetic makeup of an organism
a diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family
Widows Peak
Controlled by a dominant allele (W). Those with homozygous for the w allele possess a straight hairline
A hereditary condition characterized by a partial or total lack of melanin pigment (particularly in the eyes, skin, and hair), caused by a reccesive allele.
individuals who have one copy of a recessive autosomal allele, have to be heterozygous(if fatal), but don’t if it is not.
Cystic fibrosis
A human genetic disorder caused by a recessive allele for a chloride(Cl-) channel protein; characterized by an excessive secretion of mucus and consquent vulnerability to infection; fatal if untreated (4% whites are carriers – most common lethal genetic disease), Pleiotropic
Sickle Cell Disease
A recessive disorder, sickle shaped cell form when there is a low amount of oxygen, can’t carry oxygen and can clog blood vessels, can cause many problems including paralysis, also like cystic fibrosis it is pleitropic.
Heterozgote Advantage
Occurs when individuals who are heterozygous at a particular gene locus have a greater fitness than the homozgotes. ( Hemoglobin in Sickle Cell Disease). Aggregate benefit balance aggregate harm of the allele.
vectored disease spread by mosquitoes that carry the malaria parasite in their saliva and which kills approximately 150,000 children in the global periphery each month, reason why sickle cell disease is so common in African Descent.
A term meaning descended from the same parent or ancestor, increases the chance of harmfeul reccesive alleles being passed down. Indicated by a double line in a pedigree.
Huntington’s Disease
A human genetic disease caused by a dominant allele(near chromosome 4); characterized by uncontrollable body movements and degeneration (which is both irreversible and fatal) of the nervous system; usually fatal 10 to 20 years after the onset of symptoms. 50 % chance of getting the disorder
A form of human dwarfism caused by a single dominant allele; the homozygous and heterozygous condition is lethal, means that 99.99 % of people are homozgous recessive for the allele.
A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions. Is an example of a disease that is mutlifactorial.
A technique of prenatal diagnosis in which amniotic fluid, obtained by aspiration from needle inserted into the uterus(between 14-16), is analyzed to detect certain genetic and congenital defects in the fetus, such as Tay Sachs, results will be karyotyped. Another method is chronic villus sampling (cvs)
Set of photographs of chromosomes grouped in order in pairs
Chronic Villus Sampling
A technique of prenatal diagnosis in which a small sample of the fetal portion of the placenta is removed and analyzed to detect certain genetic and congenital defects in the fetus
In biology differing characteristics resulting from chromosomal alteration
The transmission of traits from one generation to the next.
Latin for \”heir’\” root word of heredity.
The scientific study of heridity and its variation.
Reproductive cells, have only half the number of chromosomes as body cells(23)
Somatic Cells
All the cells of your body except your sex cells(gametes)
Process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes;the segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
the specific site of a particular gene on its chromosome
Asexual Reproduction
Asexual Reproduction
reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent, eukaryotes like hydra’s, yeast also do it by budding
The reproduction of some unicellular organisms (such as yeasts) by growth and specialization followed by the separation by constriction of a part of the parent
Sexual Reproduction
process in which genetic material from two parents combines and produces offspring that differ genetically from either parent
Life Cycle
Life Cycle
Is a generation to generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism, from conception to production of its own offspring.
A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs
Homologous Chromosomes
Chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have their centromeres in the same posistion, staining power , and that pair during meisosis
Chromosomes that are not directly involved in determining the sex of an individual 22/23 in gametic cells.
A cell that contains two haploid sets of chromosomes
Term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes and therefore only a single set of genes
The union of haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote.
the cell resulting from the union of an ovum and a spermatozoon (including the organism that develops from that cell)
Term that is used collectively for the sex organs, the testes for men, and the ovaries in woman.
Alteration of Generations
The aleration of multicellular haploid and diploid forms, exhibited by plants and some species of algae
The multicellular diploid stage in a plant’s life cycle is called a ___________. And meiosis in these produces spores
Single-celled reproductive bodies highly resistant to cold and heat damage; capable of new organisms
The multicellular haploid form in organisms undergoing alternation of generations that mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation
Meiosis 1
Results in 2 haploid daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as the original cell, the daughter cells have a set of chromosomes and alleles that are different from each other an from the original diploid cell
Meiosis 2
The function of this is to seperate the sister chromatids. each daughter cell ends up with single stranded chromosomes
This phase that is coupled with meiosis still is divided into 3 parts, and during S phase chromosomes do multiply, andthe centrosomes also multipy forming 2 centrostomes
Prophase 1
1st Phase of Meiosis 1, and the longest (90%), chromosomes begin to condense , and homologous proteins line up along their lengths which precisely line up gene by gene. DNA crosses over and nonsister chromatids break and rejoin to the others DNA, there is also a movement of centrosomes, breaksown of the nuclear envelope and dispersal of nucleoli.
Methaphase 1
In this 2nd phas of meiosis 1, where the pair of hoologous chromosomes(in the form of tetrads) have been arranged on metaphase plate, and both kinetochores of the chromatins are attatched .
Anaphase 1
3rd Stage of Meiosis 1, stage where the chromosomes move toward the poles guided by the spindle apparatus
Prophase 2
1st stage in Meiosis 2, A spindle apparatus forms, and chromosomes move towards metaphase plate.
Methaphase 2
2nd stage in Meiosis 2 ,chromosomes are posistioned on metsphase plate, and crossing over insures that each chromosme is not alike, also the kinetochores of sister chromatis are attatched to microtubules extending from opposite poles
Anaphase 2
3rd stage in Meiosis 2, the centromeres of each chromosome finally separateand the sister chromastids come appart, which now move as two differentchromosomes towards different poles
Telophase / Cytokinesis 1
At the beginning of the last and final stage of this stage in Meiosis 1, helf of the cell has a complete set, but the chromosmes amount is still diploid.Then_______ occurs simoulteously with the other
Telophase/ Cytokinesis
4th and last stage of Meiosis 2, Where the nuclei form , chrmosomes begin decondensing and cytokinesis occurs
The pairing of replicated homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis that occurs because of a protein complex
The four chromatids in a pair of homologous chromosomes that come together as a result of synapsis during meiosis
Crossing Over
The interchange of sections between pairing homologous chromosomes during the prophase of meiosis
Independent Assortment
the random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes
Recombinant Chromosomes
A chromosome created when crossing over combines the DNA from two parents into a single chromosome
Rudulf Virchow
Physician and biologist who discovered cell division, \”All cells come from other cells\” or \”Omnis cellula e cellula\”
Cell division
Cell division
the process in reproduction and growth by which a cell divides to form daughter cells, also functions in renewal, repair and growth
Spread of cancer cells beyond their original site in the body
The diploid cell resulting from the union of an ovum and a spermatozoon (including the organism that develops from that cell)
Cell Cycle
The regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo.
A cell’s total endowment of DNA, in eukaryotes this consists of a large number of DNA molecules, while in prokaryotes it is just a single long molecule.
thread like structures that have genetic info (DNA) that is passed down from one generation to the next, make the large amount of DNA that is packaged in them very managable. Are named because of the cewrtain dyes that they take up when used in microscopy.
meaning \”body\” in latin
meaning \”color\” in Greek
Somatic Cells
Any cell in multicellular organism EXCEPT an egg or sperm(gametes), they each contain 46 chromosomes made up of two sets of 23.
They are haploid reproductive cells like sperm cells or egg cells 23 chromosomes.
Long strands of DNA found in the eukaryotic cell nucleus; condense to form chromosomes and wrapped around histones.
Globular protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin, helps in the regulation of the first level of DNA packing
Sister Chromatids
Each duplicated chromosome has 2 _____________. , Each conatining an identical DNA molecule attached by adhesve proteins all olong their lengths.
Sister Chromatids
Identical copies of a chromosome; full sets of these are created during the S(DNA replication) subphase of interphase, joined at the middle by the centromere.
a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the sister chromatids are held together to form an X shape
In eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes. 5 Phases
Organic process consisting of the division of the cytoplasm of a cell following karyokinesis bringing about the separation into two daughter cells, involves the formation of cleavage furrow formation.
Process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell, leading to nonidentical daughter cells that have only one set of chromosomes and produces reproductive cells.
Walther Flemming
German scientist who in 1882 developed dyes that allowed him to observe the behavior of chromosomes during mitosis and cytokinesis,
Mitotic Phase
A phase of the cell cycle that include both mitosis and cytokinesis, and is the shortest part of the cell cycle, alternates with interphase and is abreviated (M)phase.
The longest phase of the cell cycle (accounting for 90% of the cycle), it is during this phase that the cell grows and copies its chromosomes in preparation for cell division, divied into 3 phases ( G1 phase(first gap), S phase(synthesis), and G2 phase(second gap), during this phase the single centrosome replicate but stay near the nucleus.
S phase
The phase( and only phase) of interphase in which cell chromosomes are duplicated
A human cell usually undergoes one divisipn every ______ 24 hours. Of this time M phase would last 1 hour, S phase 10-12 hours, and the rest would be split between G1 and G2.
G1 Phase
The most variable in time of the interphase phases depending on the type of cell.
1st Phase of the mitosis where chromatin fiber becomes tightly coiled condensing into chromosomes, the nucleoli disappear, the mitotic spindle begins forming(composed of centrosomes and microtubules), and the centrosomes begin to move away from each other
2nd phase of mitosis, where the nucleur envolope fragments, microtubules go through nucleur area and interact with chromosomes, each of the chromatids of the chromosomes has a kinetochore at the centromere which attacth to the microtubules, amd nonkinetochore microtubules interact with those on opposite pole of spindle.
3rd phase of mitosis, and the longest lasting about 20 minutes, the centrosomes are now at opposite ends of the cell, the chromosomes have now convened at the metaphase plate(imaginary plane that is equidistant between the spindles 2 poles) each chromosomes kinetochore is connected to kinetochore microtubules coming from opposite poles, the entire apparatus is now called a spindle because of its shape.,
4th Phase of mitosis, and the shortest lasting a few minutes, begins when the two sister chromatids suddenly part, making each one a seperate chromosome, which then begin to move to opposite sides of the cell by making their kinetochore microtubules shorten (centromere first), and the cell elongates, and by the end of this phase the two ends hav equivalent and complete collections of chromosomes.
5th and Final phase of mitosis, where two daughter nuclei start to form , and nuclear envolopes begin to form from the fragments of the parents cell’s nuclear envolope and other portion of the endomembrane system, the chromosomes also become less condensed and mitoisis is complete.
Mitotic Spindle
Joined microtubules and associated proteins that form around the nucleus; pushing the centrioles to opposite ends of the cells, begins to form in the cytoplasm during prophase(1st). When it assembles the other microtubules of the cytoskeleton partially disassemble to help provide the material to build this.
A nonmembrane organelle that functions throughout the cell cycle to organize the cell’s microtubules , and is for that reaswon that it is also called the (microtubule-organizing center), usually has a pair of centrioles in the middle of it (although these are not essential for reproduction)
A structure of proteins that are associated with specific sections of chromosomal DNA, each of the 2 sister chromatids have one,=.
Starlike arrangement of microtubules around the poles of the spindles
Metaphase Plate
An imaginary plane during metaphase in which the centromeres of all the duplicated chromosomes are located midway between the two poles
Cleavage Furrow
The first sign of cytokinesis during cell division in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate
In Anaphase, kinetochore microtubules shorten at their kinetochore ends NOT at their spindle pole ends, because as a microtubule depolarizes at its kineochore end it releases _______ subunits.
The ___________made up of a ring of contractile actin and myosin proteins are on the cytoplasmic side of the cleavage furrow, pull on each other and deepen until the two cells have seperated, these _________ are also important in muscle contraction. (Only in Animal Cytokinesis)
Cell Plate
A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis. Actually derived from vesicles of the golgi apparatus which move to the middle os the cell wall and then coalesce forming the __________.
Binary Fission
Type of asexual reproduction in prokaryotes which an organism replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells
Origin of Replication
The specific location on a DNA strand where replication begins.. Prokaryotes typically have a single origin of replication, while eukaryotes have several per chromosome.
Liver Cells
Detoxify poisonous substances like bacteria & certain drugs, reseve the ability to divide until it needs to.
Cell Cycle control system
A cyclically operating set of molecules in the cell that triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle. is regulated at certain \”checkpoints\” like G1, G2 and M1.
A specific point where stop and go signals can regulate the cell cycle.
G1 Checkpoint
The most important checkpoint, dubbed the restriction point in \”mammalian cells\” if as cell recieves the go ahead it will usually complete all other parts of the cell cycle.and divide, but if it doesn’t it will enter the nondividing G0 phase
G0 phase
a non dividing face of the cell cycle consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins(Most cells of the human body are actually in this phase) For Example: Nerve cells, muscle cells, and liver cells.
Enzymes in an inactive form that are present in consistent concentrations over the cell cycle; *most significant enzyme in regulating cell cycle
A group of proteins whose function is to regulate the progression of a cell through the cell cycle and whose concentrations rise and fall throughout the cell cycle, attach to kinase(which are at constant concentration)
Maturation-promoting factor (M-phase-promoting factor); a protein complex required for a cell to progress from late interphase to mitosis. The active form consists of cyclin and a protein kinase. The first Cdk complex that was discovered first., Causes the phosphoryladtion of various proteins of the nuclear lamina.
A substance which increases mitosis; causes a general cell response to a growth signal, such as platelet derived growth factor(PDGF)
A mitogen( growth factor) that is made by blood cells called platelets,is required for the division of fibrolasts in culture(As they have these receptors (which are tryosine kinase) in their plamsa membrane
The type of connective tissue cell that is the most numerous. It secretes fibers and components of the ground substance of the matrix, has receptor molecules in their plasma membrane that are tyrosine kinase which have to bind to PDGF in order to divide.
Density – dependent Inhibition
An external physical factor and phenomena that explains why crowded cells stop dividing, means that the amount of growth factor and nutrients per cewll are more important than number of cells, and when the population of a group of cells reaches a certain density it becomes insufficientto allow cell growth and divison.
Anchorage Dependence
The requirement that a cell must be attached to a substratum in order to divide, experiments have suggested that this type of dependence is signaled into the cell cycle via pathways controling plasma membrane proteins and elements of the cytoskeleton linked to them
HeLa Cells
Cultured cells from cancer patient Henrietta Lacks from 1951 that continue to divide quntil today . they have an immortal cell line and are used to study cancer, actually used by Jonas Salk to test his polio vaccine.
The process by which a normal cell is converted into a cancer cell, the first step of cencer.
A mass of abnormal cells that are within otherwise normal tissue. Must secrete signal molecules that cause blood vessels to grow towards the tumor
Benign Tumor
Benign Tumor
A mass of abnormal cells that remains at the site of origin, do not cause serious problems.
Malignant Tumor
Malignant Tumor
A cancerous tumor that is invasive enough to impair the functions of one or more organs., usually either poliferate to much , metastaze or have an abnormal amount of chromosomes.
The type of treatment that is frequently used with cancer that is non-local, but that has to be limited becasue of the danger that it can have on your body, is used in total with drugs like Taxol which freezes mitotic spindle by preventing microtuble depolymerization.
Anti-cancer drug that prevents depolymerization of microtubules whish effectively stops the cell cycle., found in the bark of pacific yew trees.
Saccharomyces cerevisea
A yeast(Saccharomyces cerevisea) that scientists have tested for milenia to make bread wine and beer, they also identify their mates either a or alpha by signaling.
a factor
In yeast a factor (Saccharomyces cerevisea) secreted by a member of the opposite sex that binds to alpha of the other sex. Which will cause the two of them to grow towards each other, and the fusion will contain both types of cells…
Alpha factor
In yeast a factor secreted by a member of the opposite sex that binds to a cells of the other sex. Which will cause the two of them to grow towards each other, and the fusion will contain both types of cells..
Signal Transduction Pathway
A series of steps linking a mechanical or chemical stimulus to a specific cellular response. Similarities of these in yeast and animals suggest that early versions evolved well before first multicellular organsims.
Local Regulators
A chemical messenger that influences cells in the vicinity., For Example: Growth Factors
Growth Factors
Compounds that stimulate nearby cells to grow and multiply,(divide and differentiation), part of paracrine signaling
Paracrine signaling
Where a molecule secreted by one cell binds to a receptor on or inside (neighboring cells), thereby inducing a pathway for signal transduction to the cell(s) receiving the secreted molecule.
Synaptic Signaling
A specialized type of local signaling that occurs in an animals nervous system. Where an electronic signal triggers the secretion of a chemical signal in the form of neurotransmitter molecules, which then diffuse across the (synapse) to the target cell which is then stimulated and so on and so forth.
The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
Chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect only target cells.
Endocrine Signaling
Endocrine hormones produced in one part of the body are carried to their target by the circulatory system.
Growth Regulators
Also called Plant Hormones , hormones and synthetic chemicals that inhibit or modify plant growth and development
Also known as ethene(C2H4), is the simplest alkene. Is a gas that promotes fruit ripening and helps regulate growth, which can pass through cell walls
Hormone produced by the pancreas that is released when stimulated by elevated glucose levels. This hormone decreases blood sugar levels by accelerating the transport of glucose into the body cells where it is oxidized for energy or converted to glycogen or fat for storage.
Earl W. Sutherland
Man who won the Nobel Prize in 1971 for his work on how chemical messengers act via signal transduction pathways. Studied Epinephrine (stimulates the breakdown of glycogen within liver cells and skeletal muscle cells)
A catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress (trade name Adrenaline), breaks down glucose to glucose 1 phosphate which the cell converts to glucose 6 phosphate (can be used as an intermediate for glycolysis or its phosphates can be released and glucose can go directly into the bod as fuel,, (Collectively explains why it helps mobolize fuel reserves).
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch., When broken down it is released in the form of the sugar glucose 1 phosphate, which is then converted by the cell into glucose 6 phosphate, which can be used by the liver in glycolysis.
Adrenal Medulla
The inner part of adrenal gland; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine (cathecolamines)
Glycogen Phosphorylase
The cystolic enzyme that reacts with epinephrine and helps in the breakdown of glucose, the combination of this and epinephrine( which did nothing) helped convince sutherland that a solution containing both of them could only activate in the presence of Intact cells.
The target cells detection of a signal molecule coming from outside the cell, a chemical signal will be detected when it binds to a receptor protein located on the surface or inside the cell (depending on whether it is lipid soluble or not)
This stage is the conversion of the signal into a form where it can bring out a specific cellular response . For Example: (The binding of epinephrine to a receptor protein in a livers plasma membrane leading to the activation activation of glycogen phosphorylase. May occour in a single step if there is a sequence of changes in a series of molecules.
The 3rd stage of cell signaling, when the transduced sqignal finally recieves its response, helps insure that critical activites occur in the right cells, at the right time, and in the proper coordination with the other cells of the organism.
Relay molecules
The molecules in the pathway trigger specific cellular responses by turning on or off specific genes rearing the cytoskeleton or a specific enzyme
The term for a molecule that specifically binds to another molecule, often a larger one, what the signal molecule behave like, causing a receptor protein to undergo a conformational change.
Nitric Oxide
A biologic effector molecule with a broad range of activities that, in macrophages, function as a potent microbicidal agent that kills ingested organisms.
The most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
Messenger RNA
Abreviated mRNA, what a cell’s DNA is transcribed and processes into, leaves the nucleus and is translated into specific proteins by ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
Transcription Factors
a collection of proteins that mediate the binding of RNA polymerase and the initiation of transcription.
G-protein-linked receptor
A cell surface receptor associated with an intracellular protein that binds and hydrolyzes GTP. When GTP is bound, the protein is active, and can regulate the activity of adenylyl cyclease; this modifies the intracellular levels of second messenger cAMP. When the GTP is hydrolyzed to GDP, the protein becomes inactive again. 60 % of all medicines use this pathway. (smell, vision, embryonic development), (botulism, cholera, pertussis(whooping cough)
G protein
A GTP-binding protein that relays signals from a plasma membrane signal receptor, known as a G-protein-linked receptor, to other signal transduction proteins inside the cell. When such a receptor is activated, it in turn activates the G protein, causing it to bind a molecule of GTP in place of GDP. Hydrolysis of the bound GTP to GDP inactivates this.
Tyrosine Kinase
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from ATP to the amino acid tyrosine on a substrate protein, can trigger more than one signal transduction pathway at once, helping regulate and cooridnate many aspects of cell growth and cell reproduction. If this enzyme is inactivated or abnormal it can lead to cancer.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of major phosphate groups
A compound whose molecules are composed of two identical monomers, (tryosine kinase) after dimerization.
Ligand- gated ion channel
A type of membrane receptor that can act as a \”gate\” when the receptor molecule changes shape, a signal molecule binds as a ligand to the receptor protein, which either allows or blocks the flow of ions \”Ca2+, Na through a channel in the receptor. (Very important in the nervous system)
Most cytoplasmic protein kinases do not phosphorylate tryosine but ________ and theronine, which are widely involvd in signaling pathways in animals plants, and fungi.
Protein Phosphatases
An important part of the phosphorylation cascade, they are enzymes that rapidly remove phosphate groups from proteins, in a process called dephosphorylation, which makes the protein kinases available to reuse.
The rapid removal of phosphate groups from proteins by protein phosphates. Results in inorganic phosphoruous.
Second Messengers
Small non protein water soluble molecules or ions, because they are small these cells can readily spread through a cell by diffusion. For example: cAMP(cyclic AMP and Ca2+)
Also called cyclic adenosine monophosphate, or cyclic AMP, is converted from ATP to this molecule with the help of adenylyl cyclase, in response to an extracelular signal( In Sutherland’s case epinephrine) but is also prominent for Glaucagon etc. .etc.
Adenylyl cyclase
An enzyme that converts ATP to cyclic AMP in response to a chemical signal.
This enzyme is responsible for the breakdown of cyclic AMP to 5′-AMP. Therefore if you inhibit this enzyme, levels of cyclic AMP will remain elevated and protein kinase activity will also be increased. (beta receptor agonism)
Protein kinase A
A serine/threonine kinase which is activated by cAMP (immediate effect), which then phosphorylates other proteins depending on cell type.
Vibrio cholerae
Cholera, colonizes the lining of the small intestine and produces a toxin that chemically modifies a G protein involved in regulating salt and water secretion, the G protein is unable to hydrolyze GTP to GDP and remains in its active form , continually stimulating adenylyl cycase to make cAMP, which causes the intestinal cells to secreate a large amount of water and salt into the intestines which causes extreme diaherra and water loss which can kill you.
Also called cyclic guanine monophosphate, is an important molecule involved in sight, smooth muscle relaxation and penis erection.(Helps increase blood flow to the heart)
Sildenafil-Erectile Dysfunction: Helps to increase blood flow to the penis to maintain an erection. A Phosphodieterase type 5 (PDE5), either by helping with the synthesis of nitric oxide( which acts on another enzyme that helps dilate blood vessels) or by the addition of cGMP.
The most widely used secondary messenger, an increase in the concentration of this ion causes muscle cell contraction, cell division( think of the microfilaments that cause cleavlage furrow formation), in plants an increased concentration can cause greening in response to light
Cleavage Furrow Formation
Drug B blocks function of actin. what aspect of cell cycle would be most distrupted by this drug?
Inositol triphosphate
Abreviated IP3, produced by the cleavage of certain phospholipids (PIP2) in the plasma membrane by phospholilase C, diffuses through the cytosol and binds to an IP3 gate calcium channel in the ER membrane allowing it to open.
Abreviated DAG, and produced by the cleavage of certain phospholipids in the plasma membrane(PIP2) by phospholipase C which activates an enzyme which phophorylates certain proteins
Phospholipase C
Enzyme associated with the plasma membrane that performs a crucial step in inositol phospholipid signaling pathways, cleaves a plasma membrane phospholipid called PIP2 into DAG and IP3.
Scaffolding Proteins
Large relay proteins that several other relay proteins are simultanesly attatched to. Helps make protein kinases and other protein molecule receptors more efficent.
Wiskott- Aldrich Syndrome
An inherited disorder where the absence of signak relay protein leads to a diverse effects such as abnormal bleeding, ezcema, and predispostion to infections and leukemia, which are thought to arise mainly from the absence of the proteins in the cells of the immune system,
WAS Protein
WAS Protein
A protien that is located slighly below the cell surface, it interacts both with microfilaments of the cytoskeleton and with different components of the cell signaling pathways. The absence of this protein leads to Wiskott- Aldrich Syndrome.
Catabolic Pathway
A metabolic process that breaks down complex molecules into simpler compounds; example = cellular respiration because it breaks glucose into carbon dioxide and water; or fermentation the energy that is stored becomes available to do work within the cell
The partial degradation of sugars that occurs WITHOUT the use of oxygen. (Not very efficent)
Cellular Respiration
A process in which oxygen us consumed as a reactant along with organic fuel. Similar to Combustion. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 —-|) 6 CO2 + 6H20 + ENERGY(ATP). Is a cumultative function of three metablic stages Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and oxidative phosphoralytion(ETC and chemiosmosis)
What makes the energy change possible?, in a redox reaction ______ are transferred from one substance to another.
The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction. Done by the Reducing Agent
The addition of electrons to a substance involved in a redox reaction. Done by the oxidizing Agent.
What is reduced in the chemical process of respiration. (Means that is tis the oxidizing Agent)
What is oxidized in the chemical process of cellular respiration. (Means that it is the reducing Agent)
Activation Energy
The minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction, holds back glucose from spontaneously reacting with oxygen.
A coenzymes that recieves the hydrogen atoms from glucose (The Hydrogen is NOT directly transfered to the oxygen). Functions as an oxidizing agent during respiration(because it accepts electrons). Gets the electrons and the H+ with the help of dehydrogenases.
An enzyme that remove a pair of hydrogen atoms from the substrate, thereby oxidizing it. THESE ENZYMES deliver the two electrons along with one proton to its coenzyme, NADH+. The other proton is released as H+ into the surrounding solution.
The reduced form of NAD+; an electron-carrying molecule that functions in cellular respiration. With the help of an electron transfer chain energy can be released into several very small steps.
Electron Transfer Chain
Organized array of membrane-bound enzymes and cofactors that accept and donate electrons in series. It sets up an electrochemical gradient that makes H+ flow across the membrane. The flow energy drives ATP formation at ATP synthases. Abreviated (ETC)
Each downhill carrier has to be more ___________ than its uphill neibhor, with oxygen at the bottom of the chain. Goes from food —–) NADH_——) ETC _——–) oxygen. For Chem buffs.
A catabolic process that occurs in the cytosol, and begins the whole degredation process by breaking up glucose into molecules of a compound called pyruvate.
Citric Acid Cycle
A catabolic process that takes place in the mitochondrial matrix, it completes the breakdown of glucose by oxidizing a derivative of pyruvate and making carbon dioxide. Also called the citric acid cycle. Only 2 ATP is gained from this.
Carbon Dioxide
What epresents the fragments of oxidized organic molecules after the kreb cycle.
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Part of the electron transport chain and chemosmosis . A process occurring in the mitochondria that results in the formation of ATP from the flow of electrons across the inner membrane to bind with oxygen and H+ ions. Accounts for 90% of the ATP generated by respiration.
Substrate Level Phosphorylation
A catabolic mechanism that occurs when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a SUBSTRATE molecule to ADP, rather than adding an inorganic phosphate of ADP as is done in oxidative phosphorylation.
Substrate Molecule
Refers to an organic molecule generated during the catabolism of glucose.
7.3 kcal/mol
The amount of enrgy released by each ATP molecule.
Acetyl CoA
The entry compound for the Krebs cycle in cellular respiration; formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme.( In more detail pyruvates carboxy group is stripped of and given off as CO2, the remaining 2 carbon skeleton is oxidized forming acetate, Then an enzyme transfers the electrons to NAD+ storing it as NADH, then Coenzyme A(sulfourous Vitamin B) is attatched to to acetate which forms this molecule. For each entered into the cycle 3 NAD+ are reduced
What is the net gain of ATP from glycolysis, 2 ATP are spent in the energy invesment phase in order to convert glucose and then cleave it into 2 ( 3 carbon sugars).
Organic compound with a backbone of three carbon atoms. Two molecules form as the end products of glycolysis. Is broken down to 3 CO2 molecules plus the acetyl CoA in the junction between glycolyis and the citric acid cycle.
What compound does acetyl CoA combine with in order to join the kreb cycle, forms citrate when combined. (KREB)
Is what citrate is converted to, and also the isomer of citrate, is right after the addition of Acetyl Coa into the cycle after it combines with oxolacetate, is formed by the removal of H20 and then the addition of another H20. (KREB)
What is lost from the isocitrate, oxidizing the resulting compound and reducing NAD+ to NADH. The next step of the cycle also involves the removal of this.(In Total 2 are lost per cycle). (KREB)
What is lost from alpha-Ketoglutarate( after 1st CO2 is removed, resulting in oxidization of the compound and the reduction of NAD+ to NADH, this is also the step where the resulting compound is attatched to coenzyme A by an unstable bond(Forming succinyl CoA). (KREB)
Phosphate Group
In this step right after succinyl CoA is made, it is displaced by a ______________, which is then transfered to GDP, forming GTP, and then to ADP forming ATP.(Substrate Level Phosphorylation), forms succinate. (KREB)
Right after succinate has been formed(after the substrate level phosphorylation, 2 hydrogens are transfered to FAD, _________ and oxidizing succinate which then forms furmate. (KREB)
The addition of _______ to furmate rearanges its bonds and forms Malate which will then be oxidized which will be then reduce NAD+ to NADH, and regenerate oxaloactetate. (KREB)
In chloroplasts and mitochondria, a process in which the movement of protons down their concentration gradient across a membrane is coupled to the synthesis of ATP
citric acid cycle
The molecules of NADH and FADH2 account for most of the energy extracted from the ________ because only 2 ATP molecules are created. These molecules will link to oxidative phosphorylation.
The foldings of the inner membrane of the mitochondrion are called __________. Provides space for thousands of copies of the chain in each mithochondrion.
Multiprotein Complexes
are numbered I – IV, and make up the ETC, are are also tightly bound to prosthetic groups.
Prosthetic groups
Non protein components essential for the catalytic functions of certain enzymes, they are attatched to the 5 Mutiprotein complexes in the ETC.
What most of the electron carriers between ubiquinone and oxygen are called. Their prostheis group, called a heme group, has an iron atom that accepts and donates electrons.
Molecules in the electron transfer chain that has a prosthetic group called flavin mononucleotide in Complex 1.
Acts as proton (H+) carrier , lipid soluble so can pass thru membrane easily (w/ H+ ions) only one in the ETC that is not a protein.
53 Kcal
The amount of energy drop( change in G) that occurs for electrons traveling from NADH to oxygen.
ATP Synthase
A protein complex in mandy copies that resides in the inner layer of the mithochondrion, makes ATP from ADP and (inorganic) phosphate., it works like an ion pump acting in reverse, by using the energy of an existing power gradient to power ATP synthesis.
One of the 4 Parts of the ATP synthase molecule that is within the inner mitochondrial membrane and spins clockwise when H+ ions flow past its down the H+ gradient.
One of the 4 Parts of the ATP Synthase molecule, is anchored in the membrane and holds the knob stationary.
One of the 4 Parts of the ATP synthase molecule, extends into the knob and spins which causes a conformational change on the knob activating catalytic sites in the knob.
One of the 4 Parts of the ATP synthase molecule, is the location of the three catalytic sites which join inorganic phosphate to ADP in order to make ATP. Protrudes outwards into the inner mitochondrial matrix.
Proton Motive Force
The potential energy stored in the form of an electrochemical gradient, generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions across biological membranes during chemiosmosis.
Peter Mitchell
Peter Mitchell
Awarded the Nobel Prize in 1978 for describing the effects of chemosmosis which helped unify the field of bioenergetics.
32 or 34
The amount of ATP produced in total by oxidative phosphorylation (ETC and Chemiosmosis). Number depends on the carrier that shuttle electrons from NADH to the cytosol, so is not exact
The amount of ATP produced in total by substrate level phosphorylation (Gylcolysis and the Kreb Cycle)
36 or 38
The amount of ATP released per molecule of glucose. Is Substrate level phosphorylation + oxidative phosphorylation.
The percent efficency of respiration. You would get it by multiplying 7.3 Kcal multiplied by 38 moles of glucose divided by 686 kcal per mole of glucose. The remaining percentage is lossed as heat(maintance, sweat)
Alcohol Fermentation
Anaerobic ATP-forming pathway. 2 Ste Pyrupsvate from glycolysis is degraded to acetaldehyde, which accepts electrons from NADH to form ethanol; NAD+ needed for the reactions is regenerated. Net yield: 2 ATP.
Lactic Acid Fermentation
Series of anaerobic chemical reactions in which pyruvic acid uses NADH to form lactic acid and NAD+, which is then used in glycolysis; supplies energy when oxygen for aerobic respiration is scarce.
Faculative Anaerobes
An organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that switches to fermentation under anaerobic conditions. (Humans)
Are Organisms that date back to 3.5 million years ago( when oxygen was very low), and provides the basis of the evidence of the primitive formation of glycolysis(which is also the most widespread pathway
Place that glycolysis takes place in, which implies that it is the most ancient pathway.
What is removed from proteins before they are used for fuel? Ends up being removed as waste in animals. (In the form of Uric Acid, Urea, or Ammonia) Depending on the animal.
Feedback Inhibition
A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway. Is what regulates respiration.
The enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to form fructose-1-6-bisphosphate in the third step of glycolysis. This is the main regulatory step of glycolysis(By controlling this step the cell can speed up or slow down respiration. PFK is an allosteric enzyme feedback-inhibited by ATP or citrate. Also commits the substrate irriversibly to the substrate.
Allosteric enzyme
an enzyme which contains a region to which small regulatory molecules may bind in addition to and separate from the substrate binding site, thereby affecting catalytic activity
the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms, Or the simplest functional part that can truly LIVE.
Emergent Properties
New properties that emerge with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases. (Ultimately everything an organism does comes from the cellular level.
The advance of this enables biologists to study life at different levels, starts in 1590 with the invention of the microscope, and today with modern supercomputers
Light Microscopes
Light Microscopes
Abbreviated LMs, is an instrument where visible light is passed through a specimenand then through glass lenses, where the visible light is then refracted(bend) the light in such a way that magnifies the image of the specimen, limited by the length of shortest wavelength (about 2 micrometers) or 200 nanometers(size of small bacteria). There are 6 different methods: Brightfield(unstained), Brightfield(stained), Phase Comtrast, Nomarski, Fluorescence, and Confocal
Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
In 1665 he was the first to observe \”small chambers\” in cork and call them cells.
One of the two limits of microscopy along with resolution, is the ratio of the objects image to its real size.
One of the two limits of microscopy along with magnification, is the measure of the clarity of the image or the minimum distance that two points can be separated and still be distinguished as two separate points. (Tools that enhance contrast have been one of the great improvements to this). Is inversley related to wavelength.
Shortest Wavelength
Is what limits light miscroscopes from being any better than they are.
Tiny structures that carry out functions necessary for the cell to stay alive, most are too small to be resolved by a light microscope.
Electron Microscope
Electron Microscope
(EM) Introduced in 1950, this tool revolutionized science. It focuses a beam of electrons through a specimen or onto a surface, and since resolution is invesely related to wavelength of the radiation it is much more better. Unveils the \”cell ultrastructure\” (2 BASIC types : SEM and TEM.)
Cell Ultrastructure
Term used by biologists to refer to a cell’s anatomy as revealed by an electron microscope
Scanning Electron Microscope
Scanning Electron Microscope
Abbreviated SEM, is one of the two basic types of EM along with the TEM, this one is useful if you would want to study the surface of a specimen, it SCANS the surface of the sample(which is usualkly coated with Gold)— what a waste of money, the beam then excites electrons on the cell surface, and these electrons are detected by a device that translates the pattern of electrons into an electronic signal
Tunneling Electron Microscope
Abbreviated TEM, is one of the two basic types of EM along with the SEM, this one is used if you want to study the internal structure(ultrastructure) of an organism. It aims an electron beam through a very thin section of the specimen(which has been stained with heavy metals), which enhances the electron densities of some structures more than others, leading to less transmittance, and the image is created through the pattern of transmittance, and through electromagnets which focuse the image onto a screen.
Confocal Method
Confocal Method
One of the 6 LMs methods. is where lasers and optics are used to illuminate a fluorecently stained specimen(in only a sigle plane), resulting in a very sharp image.
Fluorescence Method
Fluorescence Method
One of the 6 LMs methods, is where locations of different structures are isolated by the addition of fluorescent dyes or antibodies, which absorb UV radiation and emit back visible light.
Nomarski Method
Nomarski Method
One of the 6 LMs methods, is also called Differential- interference contrast, similar to phase contrast method, uses optical modification in order to exagerrate differences in density making the image appear almost 3-D.
Phase Contrast
Phase Contrast
One of the 6 LMs methods, enhances contrast in UNSTAINED cells by ampliying variations in density within the specimen, useful for examining living unpigmented cells.
Brightfield (Unstained)
One of the 6 LMs methods, is the simplest, (It is where light is just passeds through the specimen. Has very little contrast unless it is stained( In another method Brightfield(Stained) it is.
Brightfield (Stained)
One of the 6 LMs methods, is the second simplest, Light is passed through a specimen (which has now been dyed) giving the image a lot more contrast which enhances its resolution, but now the organism being observed has to be dead.
The branch of biology that studies the structure and function of cells. This along with biochemistry are the pillars of modern cell biology.
The study of molecules and the chemical proscesses(metabolism) of cells. This along with cytology has created modern cell biology.
Cell Fractionation
Cell Fractionation
A technique that is used to isolate cell components(organelles) based on 2 factors(Size and Density). First the cells are homogenized in a blender, the cell homogenate is then entrifuged at various speeds and for certain periods, which by the end form a series of pellets. These pellets are then used to assign the specific part of acell a specific cell function.
This along with normal centrifuges are used in the technique of cell fractionation. These instruments are capable of spinning as fast as 130, 000 revolutions per second. and apply a force of 1 million G’s.
Plasma Membrane
One of the basic things ALL cells have in common, , thin flexible barrier that regulates what enters and exits the cell; composed of two layers of lipids, whitin it is the cytosol. Fuctions as a selective barrier that allows sufficent passage of oxygen nutrients, and wastes that service qthe entire volume if the cell.
The soluble portion of the cytoplasm, which includes molecules and small particles, such as ribosomes, but not the organelles covered with membranes
Threadlike structure WITHIN the Nucleus and that contains the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next.
The organelles that make Protein NON- membrane bounded organelles responsible for protein synthesis. Made up of rRNA and protein. There are two major types: Free and Bound.
Describes a cell that does not have a nucleus or anyother membrane-covered organelles; also called bacteria or archaea.
A cell characterized by the presence of a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. can be unicellular (protists) or multicellular (fungi, plants and animals). The image on top is of a B-Cell
means before in latin as in pro-karyote
means kernel/nucleus in latin.
means true in latin, as in eukaryote.
The entire region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane.
Surface Area
Surface Area
The ratio of this in cells to volume is very important, because every square micrometer of a cell only a certain amount of things(nutrients, wastes) can diffuse per second. Also explains why organisms do NOT have larger cells just MORE cells.
Tiny hair-like projections of the cytoplasmic membrane located only in the Small Intestine to facilitate absorption by increasing surface area. Illistruate the importance of diffusion maintained by a high surface area to volume.
Area in prokaryotic cells in which DNA is concentrated, though NOT bounded by a membrane.
Long, thin, whip-like structures, with a core of microtubules, that enable some cells to move, DIFFERENT in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. In Eukaryotes a special arrangment of microtubules are responsible for its movement. 9+2 microtubule structure.
A sticky layer that surrounds the cell walls of some bacteria, protecting the cell surface and sometimes helping to glue the cell to different surfaces. First form of defense for a bacterium.
Cell Wall
Cell Wall
Strong layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some BACTERIA. Protects the plant cell, maintain its shape and prevent exessive uptake of water, and at the organismal uphold the plant from the force of gravity. Is made of miscrofibrilsmade up of the polysaccharide celluloseand protein. Have two parts:Primary and Secondary.
Attatchment structures on the surface of bacteria that are very prominent in conjugation.
In bacteria, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined.
A Nitrogenous carbohydrate (because of amino group) that forms part of the exoskeleton of arthropods and other organisms, such as Insects, Crustaceans, Fungi, and some Algae
Is what limits the theoritical size of a cell, because as a cell gets larger its volume grows proportionaly more that its area does.
Bacteria that lack the outer membrane as well as the cell wall. their envelope is made up of the cytoplasmic membrane only, Thet are the SMALLEST CELLS.
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction, SOME Genes are founds in the Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
Nuclear Envelope
Is a DOUBLE membrane(lipid bilayer) which are continous with each other and have certain proteins which is perforated by pores that encloses the nucleus and seperates it from the plasma membrane. Regulated by the \”pore complex\”. Lined by the nuclear lamina.
Pore Complex
Intricate protein structure on the nuclear envelope that regulates the entry and exit of certain large macromolecules
Nuclear Lamina
A netlike array of protein filaments lining the inner surface of the nuclear envelope; it helps maintain the shape of the nucleus.
long strands of DNA found in the eukaryotic cell nucleus; condense to form chromosomes
The number of chromosomes in a typical human cell, do not count for gametes(sex cells) which have 23.
A prominent undividing part of the nuclear membrane. Appears as a mass of densly stained granules and fibers adjoining part of the chromatin. This where rRNA (Ribosomal RNA) Is synthesized.from instructions in the DNA.
Ribosomal RNA
The MOST abundant type of RNA, which together with proteins, forms the structure of ribosomes. Ribosomes coordinate the sequential coupling of tRNA molecules to mRNA codons. Made in the Nucleolus of the Nucleus.
Free Ribosomes
One of the two types of ribosomes along with bound ribosomes, these float in the cytosol to make the proteins that are used there
Bound Ribosomes
One of the two types of ribosomes along with free ribosomes, these ribosomes are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum to make proteins to be exported, to be embedded in membranes, and to be shipped elsewhere within the cell. Found in high concentrations in Pancreas.
Organ located partially behind the stomach in the abdomen, and it functions as both an endocrine and exocrine gland. It produces digestive enzymes as well as insulin and glucagon, has a large amount of bound ribosomes.
Freeze Fracture
A technique which splits a membrane along the middle of the phospholipid bilayer. When viewed with an electron microscope, protein particles are interspersed in a smooth matrix, supported the fluid mosaic model.
Endomembrane System
The collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles.
small membrane sacs that specialize in moving products into, out of, and within a cell
Programmed cell death involving a cascade of specific cellular events leading to death and destruction of the cell, helps destroy webbing, cancer, etc. etc.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Abreviated ER, , an internal membrane system (account for more than 50% of total membrane) in which components of cell membrane and some proteins are constructed, consists of a network of memranous tubules and sacs called cisternae, seperates lumen(internal) from the cytosol. 2 distinct parts: Smooth and Rough
Smmoth Endoplasmic Reticulum
ER important in the synthesis of lipids, including oils, phospholipids and steriods (Sex Hormones), large amount in the testes and the ovaries. Also creates enzymes that help detoxify enzymes by addding hydoxyl groups (OH-), which makes them more soluble in water. They also store Ca2+ ions, which are important in muscle contraction( Calcium ions will move into the cytosol when stimualted by a nerve signal and trigger the contraction of the muscle cell.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
ER important in the secretion of proteins( like Insulin), polypleptide chain grows from a bound ribosome and it is threaded into the ER’s lumen through a pore formed by a protein complex into the ER membrane. Most proteins coming out are glycoproteins which are then separated and transported to the translational ER which ahs vesicles which take the glycoproteins to the golgi apparatus.. Makes lysosomal enzymes as well.
Sacs within the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus (sarcoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus)
Transport Vesicles
A tiny membranous sac in a cell’s cytoplasm and translational ER carrying molecules produced by the cell.
Golgi Apparatus
Golgi Apparatus
Where the gylcoproteins from the ER is modified and stored and then sent to other places, like ER it consists of cisternae( although it is flattened. The cisternae stacks have a distinct polarity( cis(Recieving) located near the ER and trans (Shipping) which gives rise to ves., new researrch has determined this structure to be more dynamic. Is NOT continous.
Cisternal Maturation Model
Recent model for the Golgi apparatus that says cisternae of the Golgi progress from the cis to trans face, dynamically modifying their contents. These also means some vesicles transport proteins back to the Golgi to recycle enzymes.
A membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that an animal cell uses to digest all kinds of macromolecules, works best in acidic solution (like the mouth, saliva tears) , the cytosol limits the effect of the enzymes released by being neutral, but a large amount of leakage can destroy a cell (apoptosis), most made by rough ER or from the budding from the trans face of the golgi apparatus, also carry out phagocytosis. Can also perform autophagy and recycle nutrients
Process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell, done by lysosomes which fuse to a vacoule such as the food vacoule.
A process were by lysosomes recycle the cells organic material, During this process a damaged organelle OR cytosol becomes surrounded by a membrane which then fuses with the lysosome and are dismantled. The Liver cell must recycle half of s macromolecuels per week. Problems with this process or the enzymes can lead to Tay- Sachs disease.
Tay- Sachs disease
A human genetic disease caused by a RECCESIVE allele for a dysfunctional enzyme (lysosomes) , leading to accumulation of certain lipids in the brain. Seizures, blindness, and degeneration of motor and mental performance usually become manifest a few months after birth. Very Rare
Food Vacuoles
A membranous sac (vacuole) formed by phagocytosis.
Contractile Vacuole
Found mainly in freshwater protists, is a vacuole that pumps water and salts out in order to maintain the osmotic balance.
Central Vacoule
Vacoules found in plants, is large and is usually centered in the middle of the cell enclosed buy a membrane called the tonoplast. Develops from the coalescence of smaller vacuoles(which are derived from the ER and Golgi Apparatus. Holds important reserves of organic compounds
A selective membrane that encloses the central vacuole in a plant cell, separating the cytosol from the vacuolar contents, called cell sap; also known as the vacuolar membrane.
Cell sap
A solution of sugars, amino acids and many other substances, found in the central vacuoles of plant cells
Sites of cellular respiration in the cells, the metabolic process that convert sugar, fats and fuels to ATP with the help of oxygen, Has two membranes separating it from the cytosol.. (Like chloroplasts are not part of endomembrane system). Thier Membrane proteins are made by FREE ribosomesin the cytosol and by ribosomes that they have. Has cristea in inner membrane.
Found in plants these organelles are the site of photosynthesis, convert solar energy to chemical energyt and use it to drive the synthesis of several organic compounds from carbon monoxide and water. Has two membranes separating it from the cytosol. ( Like mithochondria is not part of endomembrane system). Their Membrane proteins are made by FREE ribosomesin the cytosol and by ribosomes that they have.
An oxidative organelle that is not part of the endomembrane system, it imports most of its proteins from the cytosol. Is bounded by a single membrane. Contains enzymes that transfer hydrogen(H+) from various substrates to oxygen, producing (H202) as a by product. Use oxygen to break fatty acids down into smaller molecules that can be transported to mitochondria, where they serve as fuel for cellular respiration, in the liver it helps detoxify alcohols (COOH) by removing H+ and adding it to the oxygen, it does contain an enzyme that transfers H202 into water.
Large infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electon transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP. It’s large surface area helps increase productivity of cellular respiratition in the mitochondria.
Mitochondrial Matrix
The compartment of the mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane and containing enzymes and substrates for the Krebs cycle.
A family of closely related plant organelles, which include chloroplasts, amyoplasts(colorless and store amylose in tubers) and chromoplasts (pigmented) to give friuts its color.
Simplest part of starch which is composed long unbranching chain of D-glucose molecules, digestable and slowest acting in metabolic, makes about 20% of starch, the other 80% is made of amylopectin. Stored in amlyoplasts.
Unpigmented plastids that store starch/grain (amylose) in cell stems, tubers, seeds, part of the plastid family.
Found inside the chloroplast, is a flattened interconnected sac of membranes, when they are stacked they are called grana.
A stacked portion of the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast, function in the light reactions of photosynthesis
The fliud outside the thykaloids and within the chloroplasts, contains both the chloroplasts’s DNA, ribosomes and most of its enzymes.
A highly branced polysaccharide that makes up starch with short side chains of about 30 glucose units every twenty or thirty glucose units, makes up about 80% of the starch , the other 20% is amylose. Because it is branched it is quicker to be released.
Specialized peroxisomes found in fat-storing tissues of plant seeds that have enzymes WHICH convert Fatty acids to Sugars; used for energy UNTIL photosynthesis occurs to produce its own sugar.
A network of fibers extend throughout the cytoplasm, help motolize, regulate and give structural support to the cell. Far more dynamic than a animal skeleton.
Cell Motility
A term that encompasses both changes in location and more limited movements of parts of the cell, requires the interaction of the Cytoskeleton with motor proteins.
Motor proteins
Motor proteins
A protein that interacts with cytoskeletal elements and other cell components, producing movement of the whole cell or parts of the cell. Makes cell motility possible, like in cillia and flagella.
A mechanism by which the cytoskeleton (microtubules) provides a way for vesicles containing neurotransmitters (might also be across a Ca2+ diffused channel) which help them migrate to the tips of axons
A part of a neuron that carries impulses away from the cell body.
Hollow tubes of the cytoskeleton, consists of 13 columns of tubulin molecules, are useful in cell motility(Flagella and Cillia), maintance of cell shape(resist compression), chromosome movements during cell division, and organelle movements. largest in terms of size (10-25 nm). Grow out of the centrostome.
2 intertwined strands made out of actin, with each polymer being an actin subunit, are useful in cell shape(tension bearing elements, changes in cell shape, cytoplasmic streaming, cell motility (Pseudopodia), cell divison( cleavlage furrow formation), and muscle contraction. Smallest in terms of size (7 nm)
A cellular extension of amoeboid cells used in moving and feeding, is an example of Microfilaments importance in cell motility.
Muscle contraction
A complex process in which nerve inpulses first reach a neuromuscular junction in the Sarcolemma, which causes the Ca2+ ions to be released; in turn, the Ca2+ ions causes myosin to bind to actin, which then allows the actin(microfilaments baby),myofilaments to slide past the myosin myofilaments; ATP is also needed to supply energy for this type of contraction
A protein present in muscle fibers that aids in contraction and makes up the majority of muscle fiber
The plasma membrane sheath enveloping a muscle fiber
Intermediate Filaments
Fibrous proteins that are supercoiled into thicker cables. Protein that it is made of is from the keratin family, is importan in maintaing cell shape (tension bearing elements), the anchoring of some organelles such as the nucleus, and the formation of the nuclear lamina.( In the middle in terms of size) 8-12 nm. Most permant of the 3 cytoskeletal subunits.
Material present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells, important during cell division(mitosis); is the Microtubule-organizing center. Helps the microtubules function as a compression resisting part of the cytoplasm, unlike the others which are tension resisiting. Within this structure are two pairs of centrioles(composed of 9 sets triplet microtubules arranged in a ring
One of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope; play a role in cell division by replicating and producing spindle fibers. Are composed of 9 sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring. (Technically not essential ijn all eukaryotes)
In eukaryotes this hair like projection is similar to Flagella in that it is composed and directed by a set of microtubules. Unlike Flagella it moves more like an oar and alternates power and recovery strokes by generating a force that is perpindicular to the ciliums axis.9+2 STRUCTURE
Basal Body
A eukaryotic cell organelle consisting of a 9 + 0 arrangement of microtubule triplets; may organize the microtubule assembly of a cilium or flagellum; structurally identical to a centriole.
A large protein that is composed of many polysaccharides, is the motor protei nextending from one microtuble doublet to the next. Responsible for the bending movements of cilia and flagella, which occur when ATP provides the enegy for it to grip the adjacen doublet.
A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist helically about each other, forming microfilaments in muscle and other contractile elements in cells. Are in parelel in a muscle cell.
Globular protein that comes in alpha and beta varieties, that composes microtubules
Cytoplasmic Streaming
A circular flow of cytoplasm within cells, especially common in large plant cells, speeds up the distrubution of materials within the cell.
Primary Cell Wall
A relatively thin and flexible layer first secreted by a young plant cell. Between the layers of adjacent cell are the middle lamella, as the cell matures it will harden or the cells mights secrete a secondary cell wall.
Middle lamella
A thin layer of adhesive extracellular material, primarily pectins, found between the primary walls of adjacent young plant cells.
Sticky polysacharrides that glue plant cells together; found in \”middle lamella\” between primary cells in plants
Secondary cell wall
A cell wall deposited in several laminated layers with a durable matrix which offers protection and support; primary component of wood. Come only after the primary cell wall.
The hard fibrous lignified substance under the bark of trees, primary composed of a plant cells secondary cell wall.
Open channels in the cell wall of a plant through which strands of cytosol connect from an adjacent cell.
Extracellular Matrix
Extracellular Matrix
Found in animal cells and abreviated (ECM), is a structure composed of glycoproteins secreted by cells. The most abundant of which is collagen.
A glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix of animal cells that forms strong fibers, found extensively in connective tissue and bone; the MOST abundant protein in the animal kingdom. Embedded in a network woven from proteoglycans
A glycoprotein consisting of a small core protein with many carbohydrate chains attached, found in the extracellular matrix of animal cells. A proteoglycan may consist of up to 95% carbohydrate. collagen is woven into this network
a protein of the extracellular matrix that connects it to the cell by binding to cell curface proteins called integrins
In animal cells, a transmembrane receptor protein that interconnects the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton, mainly when fibronectin connects to it.
Tight Junctions
A junction where membranes of neighboring cells are actually fused forming continuous belts around cell to prevent leakage of extracellular fluid along a layer of epithelial cells.
Are also called anchoring junctions, fuction like rivets and fasten cells together into strong sheets. (Intermediate Filaments) made of keratin anchor desmosomes in the cytoplasm.
Gap Junctions
Also called Communicating Junctions, provide cytoplasmisc channels from one cell to an adjacent cell. Consists of specialized membrane proteins that surround a pore, necessary for communicatio n in many cells including the heart and animal embryos.
science dealing with the study of living organisms
all the parts of the planet that are inhabited by living things; sum of all Earth’s ecosystems
a specific biological community and its physical environment interacting in an exchange of matter and energy.
a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area.
basic unit of structure and function in living things
a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce food from inorganic compounds; also called an autotroph
organism that relies on other organisms for its energy and food supply; also called a heterotroph
Part of an organism consisting of an aggregate of cells having a similar structure and function
Deoxyribonucleic acid, double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell’s proteins.
Domain Bacteria
Domain Bacteria
a domain of prokaryotic bacteria the consists of cocci, bacilli, and spirilli shaped cells organized into strepto- and staphlo- groups
Domain Archaea
Domain Archaea
A Domain of various single-celled prokaryotes genetically distinct from bacteria, often thriving in extreme environmental conditions
Innate Immunity
The immunity that is present before any exposure to pathogens and is effective from birth till death. Largely unspecific and quickly responding to a broad range of microbes regardless of their prescise identity.(Skin,mucous membranes, macrophages,and other phagocytic cells.
Acquired Immunity
Also called adaptive immunity, it develops only after exposure to inducing agents like (toxins, microbes,). Highly specific.(Lymphocytes,antibodies, cytotoxic lymphocytes.
Process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell. Done by white blood cells (Phagocytes)
Antibacterial enzyme that will digest and breakdown the peptidoglycan bonds found in most bacterial cell walls.Found in saliva, tears, mucus
Viscous flluid that traps microbes and other particles. Lines the digestive, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts.
The process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out. Done by phagocytes.
Nitric Oxide
What is found in the lysozymes that help posion engulfed microbes.
One of the 4 types of white blood cells(leukocyes) , largest group(60-70%). Attracted to infected tissues, engulf microbes, however they tend to die in the process of phagocytosis and as a result thier life span is only a few days
One of the 4 types of white blood cells(leukocyes) , develop fom monocytes(5%) of white blood cells. Cells carrying out phagocytosis sets off internal signaling pathway and are activated. Permanent Residents of the spleen.
An agranular leukocyte that is able to migrate into tissues and transform into a macrophage.
One of the 4 types of white blood cells(leukocyes) , Have low phagocytic activity but are critical against muticellular oparasites (like the blood fluke). Posistions itself beside parasites and discharge destructive ensymes.
Dendritic Cells
One of the 4 types of white blood cells(leukocyes) , Can ingest microbes by phagocytosis, but their main function is to stimulate the development of aqcuired immunity.
Complement System
Made up of 30 antimicrobial proteins, in the absence of infection these proteins are inactive, when these proteins sense some substances on the microbes they trigger a cascade of steps leading to lysis or help trigger inflammation and play a role in acquired defense.
Bursting or the dissolution or destruction of cells such as blood cells or bacteria
There are two types of these proteins,(alpha and beta) that provide innate defense against viral infection. Secreted by virus infected body cells, and induce neghboring uinfeted cells to produce other substances which help inhibit viral reproduction. Some produce a 3rd type(y) that help macrophages.
Inflammatory Response
Nonspecific defense against infection, characterized by redness, heat, swelling, and pain
A regulating body substance released in excess during allergic reactions causing swelling and inflammation of tissues, stored in the mast cells found in connective tissues.
Mast Cells
A vertebrate body cell that produces histamine and other molecules that trigger the inflammatory response. Trigger dilation and increased permeabilty of nearby capillaries, may also make macrophages nearby to relaease prostaglandins.
A group of bioactive chemicals derived from fatty acids that are released from macrophages and other cells that cause smooth muscle contraction and pain, which leads to inflammation
Small proteins that direct the migration of phagocytes and signal them to increase their production of microbe-killing compounds. Secreted mainly by blood vessel endothelial cells
Endothelial Cells
Endothelial Cells
flattened cells that line every blood vessel
Of or pertaining to the entire body; relating to a system or systems
A systemic response to infection, May occur when certain toxins released by pathogens and substances released by activated macrophages set the body at a higher temperature.
Septic Shock
An overwhelming systemic inflammatory response, characterized by a very high fever and low blood pressure, common cause of death in hospitals.
Natural Killer Cells
Abbreviated (NK) cells, patrol the body and atack virus infected body cells and cancer cells. There are surface receptors on this cell that recognize general features on the surface of its targets. Releases chemicals that lead to apoptosis.
Programmed cell death involving a cascade of specific cellular events leading to death and destruction of the cell
Immune cells that circulate within the hemolymph (insect equivalent of blood). Ingest bacteria and other foreign substances by phagocytosis, or they form a vellular capsule around large parasites.
An enyme that is sometimes released by hemocytes. Converts phenols to reactive compounds that link together in large aggregates, which are deposited around parasites and wounded tissues.
In which invertebrate lineage is the ability to distinguish nonself from self cells. When different cells of the same species are mixed they sort themselves out and reagregate excluding cells from the other individual.
Immunological memory
The ability to respond more quickly to a particular invader or foriegn tissue the second time it is encountered. Most invertebrates do NOT have this. Depends on the clones of long lived T and B memory cells .
Proteins that help activate lymphocytes and other cells of the immune system.
Any foreign molecule that is specifically recognized by lymphocytes and elicits a response from them. Most of the time they are large molecules, either proteins or polysaccharides. Has an epitope(antigenic determinant)
Also called the antigenic determinant. Is the small accessabe part of the antigen which lymphocytes sometimes bind to.
B Cells
One of the two types of lymphocyte cells, both circulate through and are mainly concentrated in the spleen, lymph nodes, and lymph tissues.Each bear about 100,000 antigen receptors(all the same). This has receptors that are Y- shaped(4 polypeptides(2 heavy and 2 light)
T Cells
One of the two types of lymphocyte cells both circulate through and are mainly concentrated in the spleen, lymph nodes, and lymph tissues. Each bear about 100,000 antigen receptors(all the same).
A type of white blood cell that make antibodies to fight off infections in the immune system.
B cell receptor
Is a Y shaped molecule consisting of 4 polypeptide chains(2 identical heavy chains and 2 identical light chains) linked by disulfied bridges. often called membrane antibodies.
Heavy Chains
the larger of the two component polypeptides of an immunoglobulin molecule. Heavy chains come in a variety of heavy-chain classes or isotypes, each of which confers a distinctive effector function on the antibody molecule.
Light Chains
Polypeptide chains of antibodies that pair with heavy chains to form the pole of a functional immunoglobulin molecule that specifically binds to antigens and immunogens.
Variable Regions
Also called V Regions. Located at the tips of the Y in B cell receptors, they are named because their amino acid sequences vary extensively from one B cell to another.(Found in B and T cell receptor)
Constant Regions
Also called C regions. They are below the variable regions located at the tip of the Y molecule. Amino acid sequence varies very little from cell to cell.(Found in B and T cell receptor)
Secreted antibodies are structurally similar to B cell receptors but lack transmembrane regions that anchor receptor in the plasma membrane.
T cell receptor
Consists of two different polypeptide chains(alpha and beta). At the base there is a transmembrane region which anchors the molecule into the cell’s plasma membrane region. Recognizes small segments of antigens called MHC molecules
MHC molecules
Major histocompatibility complex molecules.
Antigen Presentation
The process by which an MHC molecule binds to a fragment of an intracellular protein antigen and carries it to the cell surface, where it is displayed and can be recognized by a T cell.
Class 1 MHC molecules
Found on virtually all nucleated cells, bind peptides derived from foreign antigens that have been synthesized within the cell. Recognized by a subgroup of T cells called cytotoxic T cells.
Cytotoxic T cells.
The subset of T cells that express the CD8 coreceptor and recognize peptide antigen presented by MHC class I molecules.
Class 2 MHC molecules
Made by just a few cell types(mainly dendritic cells,macrophages, and B cells). Bind peptides derived from foreign materials that have been internalized and fragmented through phagocytosis or endocytosis.
The process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell
Antigen Presenting Cells
B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, ingest bacteria and viruses and then destroy them. Class II MHC molecules in these cells collect peptide remnants of this degradation and present them to helper cells.
Helper T Cells
Promote the action of the killer T cells and play key roles in humoral immunity and nonspecific defense. All other T cells are involved in cellular immunity only
A ductless glandular organ at the base of the neck and above the heart that produces lymphocytes and aids in producing immunity. If lymphocytes travel from the bone marrow to the thymus they become T- Cells.
Self Tolerance
The normal situation whereby a person’s immune system does not respond to constituents of the person’s body. A failure in this would let to diseases like multiple sclerosis.
Effector Cells
One of the clone produced by the lyphocytes short-lived cells that combat the same antigen, function depends on whether lymphocytes are helper T cells, cytotoxic cells, or B cell.
Memory Cells
One of the clone produced by the lyphocytes, consists of logn lived cells bearing receptors specific for the same inducing antigen.
Clonal Selection
The antigen driven cloning of lymphocyte., antigens bind to specific receptors, causing a fraction of lymphocytes to clone themselves
Primary Immune Response
The initial acquired immune response to an antigen, maximum effector response appears after a lag of about 10 to 17 days.
Plasma cells
Antibody secreting B cells .
Secondary immune response
The adaptive immune response provoked by a second exposure to an antigen. It differs from the primary response by starting sooner and building more quickly. Typically 2-7 days
Ancient Greek historian, first described the Secondary immune response.
Humoral immune response
The branch of acquired immunity that involves the activation of B cells and that leads to the production of antibodies, which defend against bacteria and viruses in body fluids.
Cell- mediated immune response
The branch of acquired immunity that involves the activation of cytotoxic T cells, which defend against infected cells, cancer cells, and transplanted cells.
a cell-surface glycoprotein on some T cells that recognize antigens presented by MHC class II molecules. CD4 binds to MHC class II molecules on the antigen-presenting cell and acts as a co-receptor to augment the T cell’s response to antigen.
A cell-surface glycoprotein on some T cells that recognize antigens presented by MHC class I molecules. CD8 binds to MHC class I molecules on the antigen-presenting cell and acts as a co-receptor to augment the T-cell’s response to antigen.
One of the 5 classes of immunoblobins, having μ heavy chains. It is the first immunoglobulin to appear on the surface of B cells and the first antibody secreted during an immune response. It is secreted in pentameric form. Very effective in complemt activation.
One of the 5 classes of immunoblobins, has( γ) heavy chains. It is the most abundant class of immunoglobulin in plasma. Only calsss that croses placenta, and conferrs passive immunity on to the fetus,
One of the 5 classes of immunoblobins,, has (α) heavy chains, I antibodies in dimeric form are the antibodies present in mucosal secretions(tears, saliva, mucus, breast milk). In monomeric form is present in the blood. In breats milk passes on passive immunity.
One of the 5 classes of immunoblobins, has (ɛ) heavy chains. It is involved in allergic reactions by triggering the release of histamine from the mast cells.
One of the 5 classes of immunoblobins, has(δ) heavy chains. Appears on surface of mature naive B cells but its function is unknown. Acts as a antifen receptor for clonal selection.
products of many different clonnes of B cells, each specific for a different epitope.
Monoclonal antibodies
Antibodies produced by a single clone of B lymphocytes and that are therefore identical in structure and antigen specificity.
Viral Neutralization
Where antibodies bind to antigens and block their activity by covering surface proteins that may hook to host cell
Where bound antibodies increase macrophage attatchement to the microbes and thus increase phagocytosis.
A clumping of bacteria ,viruses or red cells when held together by antibodies (agglutinins)
The process in which antibodies cross link soluble antigen molecules dissolved in body fliuds, forming immobile aggregates that are disposed by phagocytes.
Membrane Attack Complex
Abreviated MAC, formed by complement proteins that forms a pore in the membrane, Ions and water then ruch into the cell causing it to swell and lyse.
Positive Feedback
What is the type of feedback between the innate and aquired immune system. Contributes to a coordinated, effective response to infection.
Active Immunity
Form of acquired immunity in which the body produces its own antibodies against disease-causing antigens
Also called vaccination, a process of stimulates the body’s immune system to defend against attack by particular contagious disease. a person may acquire these either naturally (by having the disease) or thorugh vaccination (by having an injection, wearing a patch swallowing, or inhaling)
means cow in latin and forms the root word for vaccination.
Edward Jenner
Edward Jenner
English physician who used the sowpox vaccine to help make people immune to smallpox in 1796.
Passive Immunity
An impermanent form of acquired immunity in which antibodies against a disease are acquired naturally (as through the placenta to an unborn child) or artificially (as by injection of antiserum)
Rh factor
The presence, or lack, of antigens on the surface of red blood cells that may cause a reaction between the blood of the mother and fetus, resulting in fetal anemia, usually leads to the production of anti- Rh antibodies that are IgG.
Graft versus host reaction
An attack against a patient’s body cells by lymphocytes received in a bone marrow transplant, is limited if the MHC molecule of the donor and reciepent are well matched.
Substances that cause hypersensitive immune responses(allergies)
IgE class
Which class of the 5 types antibodies most often involve allergies.
Hay Fever
Type of fever that occurs when plasma cells secrete IgE antibodies specific for antigens on the surface of pollen grains.
The emptying of granules from the interior of a mast cell into the extracellular environment.
Anaphylatic Shock
A severe whole body allergic reaction which restricts air flow to the lungs. Develops when widespread mast cell degranulation triggers abrupt dilation of peripheral blood vessels causing a huge drop in blood pressure.
Autoimmune Diseases
Failure of immune tolerance;an immunological disorder in which the immune system turns against itself. activated T cells and antibodies attack the body’s own tissue.
A chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of various parts of the body. In this disease the body generates autoantibodies against a wide array of self molecules.(Ignore the Picture and the Joke( You will only get if you watch HOUSE, it is Lupus)
Rheumatoid Arthritis
A chronic systemic disease characterized by inflammation of the joints, stiffness, pain, and swelling that results in crippling deformities
Mutiple Sclerosis
Most common neurological disease in the world In this disease T- Cells infiltrate the central nervous system and destroy the myelin sheath that surrounds some neurons.
Primary immunodeficiency
Inborn, Caused by genetic or developmental defect in the immune system, SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency)- few or no immune cells produced
Severe combined immuno-deficiency. In this disorder both B-cells and T-cells are absent and therefore such babies are highly susceptible even to minor infections.
Acquired immunodeficiency
Deficiency in the immune system that is acquired after birth due to infections, malnutrition, or therapies that deplete immune cells (AIDS), more susceptable to cancer.
Adinosine Deaminase
An enzyme that is missing in some types of SCID, leading to an accumulation of substances that are toxic to B and T cells
Greek Physician who 2,000 years ago recorded that people suffering from depression were more likely than others to suffer from cancer.
Pneumoctyosis carinii
A ubiquitus(found everywhere) fungus that can cause severe pneumonia in people with AID, but it is succesfully rebuffed by individuals with healthy immune systems. Kaposi’s sarcoma also occurs mainly in AIDS patient.
A retrovirus that gains entry into cells by making use of 3 proteins that participate in normal immune response(mainly CD4 molecule) but it also effects macrophages and brain cells. 2nd protein it requires is co-receptor
A co-receptor protein found on all cell types infected by HIV.
The control of water balance in organisms living in hypertonic, hypotonic, or terrestrial environments.
The bodily process of discharging waste matter
The total concentration of all solute particles in a solution.
solutions have equal numbr of solute particles per unit
Solution has fewer solute particles per unit volume than other solution
An organism that allows its internal concentration of salts to change in order to match the external concentration of salts in the surrounding water(most marine animals).
An animal that must adjust its internal osmolarity, since its body fluids are not isoosmotic with the outside environment. Must discharge excess water if it lives in hypoosmotic environment
Percentage that osmoregulation accounts for of resting metabolic rate.
Animals that can NOT tolerate a substantial shange in external osmolarity. (Can be both isoconformers/ regulators.
Animals that CAN tolerate a substantial shange in external osmolarity. (Can be both isoconformers/ regulators.) Examples are some types of Salmon, Tilapia
wide, broad
In marine fish these organs dispose of excess Calcium, Magnesium, and Sulfate ions while excreting only small amounts of water
Rectal Gland
In Chondrichthyans(cartilaginous animals, Sharks) this organ along with the gills excretes most of the salt.
What do sharks maintain a high concentration of inside thier body in order to make sure that they do not experience a lage osmotic water loss. (Is a Nitogenous base, which requires the shark to use TMAO to protect its body, is also a reason why you have to soak it in water before you cook it.
Trimethylamine oxide
Abreviated TMAO, it is found in Shark tissues and protects against the high Urea cojncentrataion that it must keep in the tissues in order to insure that it does not experience large osmotic water loss.
Dilute Urine
What do many freshwater animals, including perch excete in large amounts in order to maintain a water balance?
The ability to survive in a dormant state when an organism’s habitat dries up; also called cryptobiosis. Exibited by Tardigrades (WATER BEARS), condition might be maintained by large amounts of sugars, like Trehalose
(WATER BEARS) animal that can live without water for up to 10 years; it accomplishes anhydrobiosis
A dissacharide sugar that might help prevent agianst dehydration and make anhydrobiosis possible. Some insects also use it as an antifreeze protectant.
Camel Fur
Camel Fur
Helps insure that camels lose less water by making its skin up to 30 degrees cooler in hot weather.
Transport Epithelium
a layer or layers of specialized epithelial cells that regulate solute movements
The largest of all flying birds, it uses salt glands above its nostrils which secrete saltier water than the ocean and allow it to drink from the oceon or sea.
NH3, a product of the breakdown products of protein and nucleic acid, enzymes remove them in this form, which is very toxic. Most marine animals excrete this in this form(requires less energy), while others secrete Urea or Uric Acid.
Uric Acid
Metabolic nitrogenous base produced by Insects, most reptiles(including birds), nontoxic, insoluble in water , helps maintain water, but more expensive to produce than urea or ammonia.
Prduced by the liver by a metabolic cycle that combines ammonia with carbon dioxide, most land mamals secrete this, Adult amphibians, Sharks, Turtles, Marine Bony Fish. Low toxicity, requires less water, but uses ATP in order to excrete.
The movement of a substance across a membane via pressure. In the kidney, filtration refers specifically to the movement of plasma across the capillary walls fo the glomerulus, into the capsule and tubule of the neprhon. (1st Step)
Selective Reabsorption
process in the kidney that puts useful substances (water, glucose, amino acids) back into the blood (2nd Step)
moves waste from out of the blood & into the urine or excrecetory tubiules. (3RD STEP)
waste matter (as urine or sweat but especially feces) discharged from the body (4TH STEP)
A network of dead end tubules lacking internal openings, they branch throughout the enire body, found mainly in flatworms,rotifers,some annelids, larvae of molluscs, and lancelets. Made of (flame bulb, cillia, nephidopore)
an excretory system found in annelids and worms; contains two internal openings with a network of capillaries, and an internal opening that collects body fliuds,found in each segment, immersed by coelemic fliud. Made of (Nephrostome, capillary, bladder, and collecting tubule).
Malpighian Tubules
An excretory organ that is unique to insects, empties into digestive tract and removes nitrogenous wastes from the hemolymph, also plays a role in osmoregulation.
Renal Artery
an artery originating from the abdominal aorta and supplying the kidneys and adrenal glands and ureters
Renal Vein
blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney and toward the heart
Bean shaped organ about 10 cm long(is a pair in all mammals), principal site of water balance and salt regulation. Only contains 1% of body weight but recieves 20% of its blood.
either of a pair of thick-walled tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
Urinary Bladder
Urinary Bladder
saclike organ in which urine is stored before being excreted
duct through which urine is discharged in most mammals and which serves as the male genital duct
Outer Renal Cotex
Inner Renal Medulla
inner part of the nephron includes the loop of henle and the collecting duct
Functional Unit if the vertebrate Kidney– consists of a single long tubule and a ball of capillaries called the glomerulus, There are about a million of these, with a total length of 80 km.
Bowmans Capsule
The blind end of the tubule(Kidney) which is cup shaped, surrounds the glomerus
A cell with branching tentacle-shaped extensions that constitutes the barrier through which blood is filtered in the glomerulus of the kidney. Filtrate will contain salts, glucose, amino acids, vitamins, urea, and other small molecules.
Proximal Tubule
In the vertebrate kidney, the portion of a nephron immediately downstream from Bowman’s capsule that conveys and helps refine filtrate, The more H+ , the more ammonia that tis tubule has to secrete, reabsorbs about 90% of HCO3-(Ist Section of 3)
Loop of Henle
(2nd Section of 3), The long hairpin turn, with a descending and ascending limb, of the renal tubule in the vertebrate kidney; functions in water and salt reabsorption., dips downward into the renal medulla and sets up a concentration gradient in the kidney such that from the cortex to the renal pelvis osmolarity INCREASES, The descending limb is permeable to water, but not to sodium whereas the ascending limb is permeable to sodium, but not to water (and in fact, actively transports sodium out of the filtrate).
Distal Tubule
Between the loop of Henle and the collecting duct; selective reabsorption and secretion occur here, most notably to regulate reabsorption of water and sodium, plays a key role in regulating K+ and Nacl concentrations, and also contributes to pH regulation by controlled secretion of H+ and reabsorption of bicarbonate (HCO3-)
Renal Pelvis
a structure shaped like a funnel in the outlet of the kidney into which urine is discharged before passing into the ureter
Cortical Nephrons
Approximately 80% of nephrons, have reduced loops of henle and are almost entirely confined to the renal cortex.
Juxtamedullary Nephrons
Approximately 20% of the nephrons, have well developed loops of Henle that extend deeply into the renal medulla. These Nephrons alone allow mammals to produce urine that wis hyperosmotic to body fluids. (Only Mammals and Birds have these Nephrons), the Nephrons of other vertebrates LACK loops of henle.
Afferent Arteriole
The small artery that carries blood toward the capillaries of the glomerulus, and supplies each nephron.
Efferent Arteriole
blood from this structure supplies the peritubular capillaries, which also supply the convoluted tubules, formed by convergence.
Peritubular Capillaries
Tiny blood vessels that travel alongside nephrons allowing reabsorption and secretion between blood and the inner lumen of the nephron.
Vasa Recta
The capillaries that surround the tubules of the nephron. The vasa recta reclaims reabsorbed substances, such as water and sodium ions. Serves the loop of Henle.
Collecting Duct
the location in the kidney where processed filtrate, called urine, is collected from the renal tubules, makes filtrate increasingly concentrated, which contyributes to the high hypermolarity
Australian Hopping Mice
Australian Hopping Mice
Animal that can produce urine at 9,300 mosm/L 9 times as concentrated as seawater and 25 times as concentrated as the animals body fliud.
Concurrent Multiplier Systems
Concurrent Systems that expend energy in order to create concentration gradients.
Antidiuretic Hormone
Abreviated (ADH), hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland(produced in hypothalumus) to prevent the kidneys from expelling too much water(Negative Feedback)
Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
Abreviated (JGA), located near the afferent arteriole, helps regulate blood pressure or volume when pressure drops in the afferent arteriole by realeasing renin which converts a plasma protein called angiotensinogen into angiotensin 2, which raises blood pressure by constricting arterioles
Enzyme that is produced by the kidney; important for blood pressure and volume regulation; catalyzes the conversion of circulating angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
\”salt-retaining hormone\” which promotes the retention of Na+ by the kidneys. na+ retention promotes water retention, which promotes a higher blood volume and pressure
Angiotensin 2
Hormone that stimulates constriction of precapillary arterioles and increases reabsorption of NaCl and water(created by renin)
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
Abreviated (RAAS), , Complex feedback circuit that functions in homeostasis to conserve salt and water by regulating blood pressure. (Good if you have diaherriaas the ADH will not be realesaed because osmorality will not change.
Atrial Natriuretic Factor
Abreviated (ANF), opposes the RAAS(Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), hormone that is secreted by atria reduces blood pressure, and inhibits the realease of renin from the JGA, which inhibits NaCl reabsorption by the collectingducts, and reduces aldosterone release from the adrenal glands.
A chemical signal that is secreted into the circulatory syystem(usually the blood) and communicate regulatory messages within the body. May reach all cells , BUT only target cells are equiped to respond.
Target Cell
any cell that has a specific receptor for antigen or antibody or hormone
Nervous System
the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication system, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
the body’s \”slow\” chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
Endocrine Glands
Refered to as ductless glands because they secret chemical messengers DIRECTLY into extracellular fluid, then they diffuse into circulation.
Neurosecretory Cells
Specialized nerve cells that show the blurred lines between the endocrine and nervous system, by releasing hormones. Found in Hypothalamus, the hormones released are called neurohormones.
hormones produced by specialized nerve cells, produced by neurons and function as hormones
adrenaline; activates a sympathetic nervous system by making the heart beat faster, stopping digestion, enlarging pupils, sending sugar into the bloodstream, preparing a blood clot faster(FIGHT OR FLIGHT) also a neurotransmitter between neurons.
Also called a sensor, detects the stimulus and sends the information to the control center. Usually found in plasma membrane
Control Center
this determines the next action in a feedback system by sending output to an effector, gets information from the Receptor.
provides the means for the control center’s response to the stimulus, gets a signal from the control center.
Efferent Signal
nerve impulses carried away from the central nervous system to effectors such as muscles or glands, which will elicit a specific physiological or developmental changes.
Negative Feedback
Negative Feedback
A primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a physiological variable that is being monitored triggers a response that counteracts the initial fluctuation.
Positive Feedback
when a change in some condition triggers a response that intensifies the changing condition (EX: warmer Earth – snow melts – less sunlight is reflected & more is absorbed, therefore warmer earth)
neurohormone(released by pituritary gland, that induces contraction of the uterine muscles during childbirth and causes the mammary glands to eject milk during nursing
Example of positive feedback.
odorless chemicals that serve as social signals to members of one’s species
Occurs when the signal molecule binds to a specific receptor protein in or on the target cell.
Signal Transduction
the function of membrane proteins that allow proteins to have binding sites with specific shapes that fit chemical messengers; external messengers may cause a shape change in protein that relays a message to the inside of the cell, usually by binding to a cytoplasmic protein
A change in the cell behaviors.
Signal Transduction Pathway
A mechanism linking a mechanical or chemical stimulus to a specific cellular response.(Usually in cellular protein.
Skin cells , 8% of epidermis cells, produce dark brown pigment melanin, contributes to skin color, absorbs damaging UV light
Membrane bound vesicles that move around the cell, containing melanin that can block other colors
Along with Progesterone, this hormone helped prove that receptors for some hormones are found inside target cells. The studies showed that these two hormones accumulated only in the nuclei of rats, not outside it.(The female sex hormone.)
Along with estrogen, this hormone helped prove that receptors for some hormones are found inside target cells.The studies showed that these two hormones accumulated only in the nuclei of rats, not outside it. (Helps uterine lining in females)
Transcription Factor
A regulatory protein that binds to DNA and stimulates transcription of specific genes.
found in egg whites and is a good ex of a protein that, when denatured, will never return to its original state, estrogen in birds helps stimulate the production of this.
hormone produced by the thyroid glands to regulate metabolism by controlling the rate of oxidation in cells of humans, but in frogs it also triggers the metamorphosis of a tadpole into an adult.
Local Regulators
A chemical messenger that influences cells in the vicinity. Can act in milliseconds
Paracrine Signaling
a molecule secreted by one cell binds to a receptor on or inside neighboring cells, thereby inducing a pathway for signal transduction to the cell(s) receiving the secreted molecule.
A peptide/ protein local regulator, which plays a role in immune response., chemicals released by T helper cells that stimulate B cells
Growth Factors
chemicals that stimulate the division and differentiation of new cells during growth (Peptide/ protein)
Nitric Oxide
A local regulator that is a gas, when blood oxygen falls, endothelial cells in the blood vessels synthesixe and release this gas, which then activates an enzyme which relaxes the neibhoring smooth muscles, which in turn will dilate the vessels and improve blood flow to tissues. (Also plays a role in male sexual function, Viagra works because of this) It also functions as a neurotransmitter and helps kill bacteria and cancer cells in body fliuds.
A group of (local regulators) bioactive, hormone-like chemicals derived from fatty acids that have a wide variety of biological effects including roles in inflammation, platelet aggregation, vascular smooth muscle dilation and constriction, cell growth, protection of from acid in the stomach, and many more. Aabreviated (PGs)
Sildenafil citrate, Sildenafil-Erectile Dysfunction: Helps to increase blood flow to the penis to maintain an erection by interfering to the breakdown of NO. A Phosphodieterase type 5 (PDE5).
Prostaglandins E
Prostaglandins that reacts antagonistically to Prostaglandins F, it signals the muscle cells to relax, which then dilates the blood vessels serving the lungs.
Prostaglandins F
Prostaglandins that reacts antagonistically to Prostaglandins E, signals the muscle to contract which constricts the blood vessels and reduces blood flow to the lungs.
Brain stucture that acts as a control for recognition and analysis or hunger thirst fatiuge anger and body temp.
a common drug along with Ibuprofen which reduces pain, especially headaches, fever and swelling by stopping the synthesis of PGs(Prostaglandins)
A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that targets the mammary glands stimulating them to produce breastmilk.(Protein) (Endocrine System) Regulated by hypothalamic hormones. Abreviated (PRL).
Pituitary Gland
The endocrine system’s most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus it regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Abreviated (FSH) released from the anterior pituitary gland to target the ovaries & testes. In females it stimulates the development of follicles in the ovaries and in males it promotes the development of sperm cells (and stimulates the interstitial cells of the testes to produce testosterone).(Glycoprotein) (Endocrine System)
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
(TSH) Produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland & bind to receptors on cells of the thyroid gland, which in turn stimulates the synthesis of thyroxin. Regulated through a negative feed back loop. (Glycoprotein) (Endocrine System) Regulated by Thyroxine (T3)
Produced by the thyroid gland and decreases the blood calcium levels by stimulating calcium deposit in the bones. The antagonist of the parathyroid hormone. (Peptide) (Endocrine System) Regulated by calcium in blood.
Hormone secreted by the isles of Langerhans in the pancrea ,released in response to high blood glucose following a meal. Insulin promotes the use and storage of glucose by the body’s tissues (Protein) (Endocrine System) (Regulated by Glucose levels in blood)
The antagonist of insulin. Its release is stimulated by low blood glucose levels. It stimulates the liver, its primary target organ, to break down its glycogen stores to glucose and subsequently to release glucose to the blood. (Protein) (Endocrine System) (Regulated by Glucose levels in blood)
Luteinizing Hormone
A protein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates ovulation in females and androgen production in males. (Endocrine System) Regulated by Hypothalamic hormones.
T3, thyroid hormone similar to thyroxine but with one less iodine atom per molecule and produced in smaller quantity, more brief but stronger. Helps maintain metabolic processes.(Amine) (Endocrine System) Regulated by TSH
A group of hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex. They regulate electrolytes and fluid volume in the body. Aldosterone is an example of a mineralocorticoid. Promote reabsorption of Na+ and excretion of K+. (Endocrine System) Regulated by K+ in blood.
helps body resist long-term stressors; increases blood glucose levels; controls effects of inflammation from edema, realeased from adrenal cortex. (Endocrine System). Regulated by ACTH.
neurotransmitter that is involved in arousal and the fight-or-flight system (also mood, sleep, and learning)(From the adrenal medulla of the Adrenal Glands) (Endocrine System)
Support sperm formation; development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics(Steroid), regulated by (FSH, and LH) as are all important steroids like estrogen and progesterone. (Endocrine System)
Hormone released by the pineal gland in response to daily cycles of light and dark and effects the onset of puberty.(Amine) (Endocrine System) Regulated by Light/Dark cycles.
Pineal gland
Located in the center of the brain, functioning to secrete melatonin and serotonin(Endocrine System)
located partially behind the stomach in the abdomen, and it functions as both an endocrine and exocrine gland. It produces digestive enzymes as well as insulin and glucagon
Adrenal medulla
inner part of adrenal gland; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.(Endocrine System), are derived from the neural crest during embryonic development
Adrenal Cortex
the outer part of the adrenal gland that secretes many hormones, including Gluccocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids.(Endocrine System)
Parathyroid Hormones
Abreviated (PTH) A hormone produced by the parathyroid glands that regulates the amount of calcium(osteocysts) and phosphorus in the body. (Peptide) (Endocrine System) Regulated by calcium in blood. ACTS to increase blood calcium levels
organs that produce gametes, testes and ovaries
Parathyroid Glands
there are four and they are embedded in the surface of the thyroid, function in the homeostasis of calcium ions. They secrete Parathyroid hormone (PTH), which raises blood levels of calcium and thus has an effect opposite to that of the thyroid hormone calcitonin.
the posterior lobe of the pituitary body, extension of the hypathalamus that grows downward during embryonic development.Releases 2 Oxytocin, and Antidiuretic Hormone
anterior portion of the pituitary gland, develops from a fold of tissue at the roof of the embryonic mouth, consists of cells that synthsize at least 6 chemicals directly into the blood.
Tropic Hormones
Hormones that have other endocrine glands as their targets and that are particularly important to our understanding of chemical coordination. (TSH, ACTH,LH, FSH)
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
Abreviated (ACTH), A peptide hormone released from the anterior pituitary, it stimulates the production and secretion of steroid hormones by the adrenal cortex.(Endocrine System)
Portal Vessels
Blood vessels that form an unusual vascular agreement that connects the hypothalamus and anterior lobe of the pit gland.
Any of several hormones produced in the brain and anterior pituitary that inhibits pain perception
Growth Hormone
Substance secreted by the anterior pituitary; controls size of an individual by promoting cell division, protein synthesis, and bone growth, only hormone that acts as both a tropic and nontropic hormone
proteins that have carbohydrates covalently bonded to them examples are FSH, AND TSH
The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and leutenizing hormone (LH) are referred to collectively as: because they act on the gonads
Insulin Like Growth Factors
Abreviated (IGFs), These are produced by the liver, their production is stimulated by growth hormone. They are also called somatomines. They directly stimulate the growth in tissues. mainly in bones and cartilage
disease characterized by enlarged features, especially the face and hands, caused by hypersecretion of the pituitary hormone after puberty, when normal bone growth has stopped; most often caused by a pituitary tumor
Graves Disease
Multisystem autoimmune disorder characterized by pronounced hyperthyroidism usually associated with enlarged thyroid gland and exophthalmos (abnormal protrusion of the eyeball)
condition of congenital hypothyroidism in children that results in a lack of mental development and dwarfed physical stature; the thyroid gland is either congenitally absent or imperfectly developed
Vitamin D
Works with calcium and phosphorus to build bones and teeth, is a steriod derived molecule obtained from food or synthesized in the skin. Active form acts directly on the intestines stimulating the uptake of Ca2+ from food.
denoting a gland that secretes outwardly through ducts
Islets of Langerhans
clusters of endocrine cells that secrete two hormones directly into the circulatory system. Each islet has a population of alpha cells, which secrete the peptide hormone glucagons, and a population of beta cells, which secrete the hormone insulin.
Diabetes Mellitus
diabetes caused by a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin and characterized by polyuria(2 major types)
Type 1 Diabetes
Also called insulin dependent Diabetes,, a metabolic disorder characterized by an absence of insulin production and secretion from autoimmune destruction of the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas.(Autoimmune disorder)
Type 2 Diabetes
Also called noninsulin dependent Diabetes,, a metabolic disorder characterized by the relative deficiency of insulin production and a decreased insulin action and increased insulin resistance. Excess body weight and lack of excercise significantly increases this risk. 90% of people with diabetes have this type.
Neural crest
group of cells that develop from the nerve cord and can form portions of the brain & skull, certain sense organs and nerve fibers(like the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland)
hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla that affect the sympathetic nervous system in stress response like (epinephrine, norepinephrine)
steroid produced by the cortices of the adrenal glands, cortisol, aldesterone
which include progesterone, are primarily involved in preparing and maintaining the uterus, which supports the growth and development of an embryo.
Suprachiamatic Nucleus
The main target of the hormone melatonin, this functions as a biological clock as melatonin is usually secreted at night.
A mollusc that has specialized nerve cells that secrete hormones that help lay thousands of eggs and inhibit feeding and locomotion.
Brain Hormone
A hormone, produced by the neurosecretory cells in the insect brain, that promotes development by stimulating the prothoracic glands to secrete ecdysone.
A steroid hormone, secreted by the prothoracic glands, that triggers molting in arthropods.
Juvenile Hormone
hormone in arthropods, secreted by the corpora allata glands, that promotes the retention of larval characteristics
Corpora allata
In insects. Pair of small glands behind the brain. Secretes Juvenile Hormone.
Study of the structure of an organism.
Study of the functions an organism performs.
Groups of cells with a common structure and function.(Derived from the Latin word meaning Weave. 4 main subdivisions.
Epithelial Tissue
Membranous tissue covering internal organs and other internal surfaces of the body.Closely joined, many of these are riveted together in tight junctions.Also acts against mechanical injury, microbes, and fluid loss.
Glandular Epithelia
Type of epithelia that absorbs and secretes chemical solutions(like the ones found in the lumen of the digestive and respitory tracts forms a mucous membrane.
Simple Epithelium
Epithelia with a single layer of cells. Based on the two criteria(# of layers and shape of cells on the exposed surface)
Stratified Epithelium
Epithelia with multiple teirs of cells(# of layers and shape of cells on the exposed surface)
Connective Tissue
Tissue that holds organs in place and binds different parts of the body together. Has a sparse population of cells scattered throughout an extracellular matrix. Three different types of fibers(collagenous,elastic,and reticular), and six major types(adipose,fibrous,cartilage,bone,and blood).
Collagenous fiber
One of the 3 fibers of connective tissue, Fibers made of collagen that are tough and flexible but resist stretching.
Elastic fiber
One of the 3 fibers of connective tissue, long fibers made of the protein elastin which allow strretching and recoiling complements collaganeous fibers.
Reticular fiber
One of the 3 fibers of connective tissue, very thin branched collagen fibers coated with glycoprotein, is continous with collagenous fibers with which they form a tightly woven fabric that joins connective tissues to adjacent tissues.
Connective tissue cells that secrete fibrous components of extracellular matrix like collagen and elastin
a type of amoebid cells that consumes dead or foreign pathogens that have been killed by antibodies by phagocytosis
the process by which a cell(macrophages) engulfs foreign substances or other cells
100’s to 1000’s per cell; cylidrical (1-2 mm in diameter); attached to sarcolemma at each end; contraction shortens entire cell; made of myofilaments (protein fibers) actin and myosin
Skeletal Muscle
Vouluntary, striated muscle that moves bones, works in pairs and is attatched to bones by tendons.
Smooth Muscle
Smooth Muscle
A muscle type that contracts without conscious control and found in walls of internal organs such as stomach and intestine and bladder and blood vessels (excluding the heart)
Cardiac Muscle
Striated, involuntary muscle found only in the heart, generates its own electrical signals.
Nervous Tissue
Tissue that receives messages from the body’s external and internal environment, analyzes the data, and directs the response, made of neurons and is centralized in the brain.
Group of tissues that carry out specialized jobs within an organ system.
The mucus-secreting epithelia that line the respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital tracts. The conjunctiva of the eye and the mammary glands are also in this category. 1st layer
Layer of connective tissue superficial to the mucosa which contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves.2nd layer
Two layers of muscle surrounding the digestive tube that produce wavelike, rhythmic contractions, called peristalsis, that move food material. Found beneath the Submucosa. 3rd layer
Outer layer or convering of the alimentary canal, made of visceral peritoneum; its function is protection and secretion of serous fluid to reduce friction. Beneath the muscularis. 4th layer
Thoriac Cavity
Also known as the chest cavity or thorax surrounds and protects the heart and lungs. Separated from the lower abdominal cavity by the muscular diaphragm.
Abdominal cavity
Space below the chest containing organs such as the liver, stomach, gallbladder, and intestines; also called the abdomen
Organ Systems
a group of organs that work together in performing the major vital body functions of most animals
the study of how energy flows through living organisms.Limits animals growth behavior, and reproduction and determines how much food it needs.
Metabolic Rate
amount of energy used in the body in a given period of time (kcal/hr or kcal/day)- measured indirectly by oxygen consumption, by heat loss(using a calirometer), must account for the energy lost in waste.
Animals warmed by the heat generated by their metabolisms and whose body temperatures stay within a narrow range. Is a high energy strategy permitting intense long duration activity over a large range of enviromental conditions. Think birds, humans
Animals that gain heat by external sources, requires much less energy.Think Lizards,Can deal with a greater variation in internal environment.
The relatioinship between metabolic rate and size of an animal is what?
Basal Metabolic Rate
The rate at which energy is used in an endotherm with an empty stomach not experienceing stress. For Humans this averages about 1,600 to 1,800 a day.
Standard Metabolic Rate
The rate at which energy is used in an ectotherm with an empty stomach not experienceing stress, must be deermined in this case at certain temperatues..
Interstital Fluid
Fluid in the spaces between cells of vertebrates. Exchanges nutrients and wastes with blood contained in calliparies. This fluid becomes lymph when it enters lymph capillaries.Discovered by french physiologist Claude Bernard. His \”constant internal milleu\” also is known as homeostasis.
Dynamic metabolic equilibrium actively maintained by several complex biological mechanisms that operate via the autonomic nervous system to offset disrupting changes. Started by Claude Bernard constant internal milleu\”
An organism that uses internal control mechanisms to control its internal environment in the face of external fluctuations. Example Fish
An organism that allows its internal conditions to vary with external conditions. Example Spider Cubs
One of the 3 parts of the homeostatic system. Detects the change in some variable of the animals internal environment
Control Center
One of the 3 parts of the homeostatic system. Processes the information iy recieves from the receptor and directs a response to the efector .
One of the 3 parts of the homeostatic systems. Responds and formulated best respomse.
Negative Feedback
A primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a physiological variable that is being monitored triggers a response that counteracts the initial fluctuation.
Positive Feedback
A primary mechanism of homestasis, whereby a variable change trigeers mechanisms that amplify the change. (Example baby’s head pressure on receptors of Uterus wall heightens contractions and helps bring childbirth to completetion.
The maintenance of body temperature within a range that enables cells to function efficiently. The rates of most enzyme-mediated reactions increase 2 to 3 times for every 10 degree celsius change.
Animals whose internal temperatures vary widely. This has fallen out of use and endo/ecto therm is perfered. REMEBER Ecto/Endo Therms are not classified by internal temperatutre, BUT by the SOURCE of the heat.
Animals that mantain relatively stable internal environments.This has fallen out of use and endo/ecto therm is perfered. REMEBER Ecto/Endo Therms are not classified by internal temperatutre, BUT by the SOURCE of the heat.
One of the 4 ways an organism loses heat, Is the emission of electromeganetic waves by all objects warmer than absolute zero. Can transfer heat indirectly to objects not in contact.
One of the 4 ways an organism loses heat, Is the removal of heat from the surface of a liquid that is losing some of its molecules as a gas. Has strong cooling effect
One of the 4 ways an organism loses heat, is the tranfer of heat by movement of air oe liquid past a surface(breeze) or movement of body heat from core to extremeties.
One of the 4 ways an organism loses heat, is the direct transfer of thermal motion(jeat) between molecules of objects in direct contact with each other.
Integumentary System
The outer covering of the body consisting of the skin, hair and nails(claws or hooves in some species)Fuctions as a thermoregulatory organ that houses nerves,sweat glands, blood vessels, and hair follicles, consists of 3 layers(epidermis, dermis, hypodermis.
The outermost skin layer of the integumentary skin system, composed of mainly dead epithelial cells that continually flake and fall off.
2nd outerist skin layer, supports the epidermis, contains hair follicles, oil and sweat glands, musclus, nerves, and blood vessels.
Innerist skin layer, contains adipose tissue which (includes fat storing cells and blood vessels). Provides a good deal of insulation(depends on species).
Another thing that provides insulation for certian organisms, though this effect depends on how much hair is trapped, and if it is not wet(because the transfer of heat to air is 50 to 100 times slower than the transfer of heat to water. ,
An increase in the diameter of superficial blood vessels(near body surface) triggered by nerve signals that relax the muscle of vessel walls. Alters the amount of blood flowing between body core and skin.
A decrease in the diameter of superficial blood vessels triggered by nerve signals that contract the muscles of the vessel walls.
Concurrent Heat Exchanger
Traps heat in body core,thus reducing heat loss from the extremeties,heat in the arterial blood is transfered directly to the returning venous blood instead of being lost to the enironment.
Nonshivering Thermogenesis
The increased production of heat in some mammals by the action of certain hormones that cause mitochondria to increase their metabolic activity and produce heat instead of ATP.
Brown fat
Found in the neck and between the shoulders, this tissue is specailized for rapid heat production.
Brain stucture that acts as a control for recognition and analysis or hunger thirst fatiuge anger and body temp, controls homeostasis.
Physiological adjustment to a change in an environmental factor over a period of days or weeks.In endotherms usually occurs by adjusting amount of insulation, while in ectotherms(often at cellular level) or by using cytoprotectants involves compensating for temperature change.
Antifreeze compounds used by some ectotherms in order to better acclimatize.
Heat Shock Proteins
A class of stress-induced proteins that rapidly accumulate when there is a larger temperature increase, help maintain the integrity of proteins that would otherwise be denatured.
A physiological state in which activity is low and metabolism decreases. Is an adaptation that helps animals save energy.
Long term topor that is an adaptation to winter cold and food scarcity. Some animals lower body temperatures into supercooled(unfrozen) states.
Beldings Ground Squireell
(Spermophilus beldingi) A favorite animal used to research hibernation, lives in the mountains of california and is active only during spring and summer.
Summer topor, also has low activity and metabolism, enables animals to survive periods of high temperatures and small water supplies, triggered by seasonal changes in the length of daylight.
Daily Topor
Exhibited by many small birds and mamals, seems to be adapted to feeding habits.
Suspension Feeders
Animals that shift food particles from water, example humback whale uses (baleen) to strainsmall animals andinvertebrates from large amounts of water.
Fluid Feeders
Animals that suck neutrient fliuds from a living host. (Think Mosquitos) ,and Aphids
Substrate Feeders
Animals that live in or on the food source
Bulk Feeders
Animals that eat relatively large amoun of food at onw time,have adapted diverse instruments(fangs, claws jaws, teeth/
This will occour if you do not eat enough calories, occurs when glycogen and fat are depleted.
Results from excessiver food intake.
Hormone produced by adipose tissue that supresses appettite as its level increases
Hormone that is secreted from the small intestine after every meal and works to suppress appettite and counters appettite stimulant ghrelin.
Hormone that is secreted by stomach wall that triggers feeling of hunger as maltime approaches
Hormone secreted , supresses apppettite by acting on the brain.
Essential Nutrients
substances the body requires for normal growth and health but cannot manufacture in sufficient amounts: they must be obtained in the diet.
Referring to an animal whose diet is missing one or more essential nutrients(DO not confused with undernourishment(refers to calories), is much more common as well.
Amount of amino acids animals need to make protein, essenial ones must be obtained from their diet.
Severe malnutrition in children resulting from a diet excessively high in carbohydrates and low in protein is Ghanan for \”rejected one\”.
Essential nutrients that do not yield energy, but that are required for growth and proper functioning of the body. So far 13 have been found.
Substances(simple inorganic) that the body cannot manufacture but that are needed for forming healthy bones and teeth and regulating many vital body processes
1st act of food processing(first stage)
2nd stage of food processing, process of breaking down food into molecules small enough for body to ansorb.(Think Cleaves)
Enzymatic Hydrolysis
the process in digestion that splits macromolecules from food by the enzymatic addition of water
3rd Stage of food processing, the animal cell absorbs small molecules such as anubo acids and simple sugars from the digestive compartment.
4th and last stage of food processing, Undigested material passes out of digestuve compartments(in the form of feces)
Intracellular Digestion
Digestion within cells, begins when a cell engulfs food bny phagocytosis or pinocytosis Done by newly formed food vacoules fused with lysosomes. (Sponges are the only animals that rely only on intercellular digestion.
A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes.
Extracellular Digestion
Digestion outside of cells, occurs within compartments that are continous with the outside of the animals body. This enables an animal to devour much larger animals.
Gastrovascular Cavity
A central cavity with a single opening(funcions as both mouth and anus) in the body of certain animals that functions in both the digestion and distribution of nutrients.
Gastrodermal Cells
Also called nutrive muscular cells, they line the inside of the intestine and absorbs nutrients from the food digested in the lumen of the intestine
The dorsal fold found in the intestine of an eathworm that increases the surface area for nutrient absorption.
Complete Digestive Tract
Also called an alimentary canal,most animals have this digestive tract, , continuous tube with a separate mouth and anus where food only moves in one direction. Allows most animals to ingest additional foods before earlier meals have been completely digested.
Rythmic waves of contractions by smooth muscle in the wall of the canal that helps move food.
Ringlike valves of muscular layer of the digestive tube that close off the tube like drawstrings, regulating the passage of material between chambers of the canal
Accesory Glands
What the 3 salivary glands, the pancreas, the liver, and the gallblader(stores digestive juices).
A glycoprotein(carbohydrate-protein complex) dissolved in saliva that protects the soft lining of the mouth from abrasion/lubricates food
Salivary Amalyse
Enzyme produced in the oral cavity, hydrolyzes starch and glycogen, which is broken down into smaller polysaccharides and the dissacharide maltose.
A term used to describe food after it has been chewed and mixed with saliva(usually into the form of a ball).
A cartiliginous flap that blocks the glottis(the opening) of the trachea when we swallow.
The muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach and conducts food to the stomach by peristalsis(Because only the muscles at the top are striated(volantary), while the rest are smooth(involuntary).
Organ that stores food and performs perliminary steps of digestion. Located in the upper abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm, can stretch to hold 2 L of food at a time.
Gastric Juices
Secreted by the epithelium lining numerous deep pits in the stomach wall.
An enzyme present in gastric juice that begins the hydrolysis of proteins. Is secreted in an inactive form(Pepsinogen) by cheif cells in the stomach. The activation of pepsinogen is an example of positive feedback.
Parietal Cells
Cells in the stomach that secrete HCl.
Chief Cells
Cells in the stomach that secrete pepsinogen(an inavtive form of pepsin.
Mucus Cells
Cells in the stomach that secrete mucus which lines and lubricates the wall of the stomach.
Heliobacyer Pylori
Acid tolerant bacteria found in the stomach, which cause the majority of gastric ulcers.
Acid Chymes
The result of the gastric juices and the food mixing into a nutrient broth
Pyloric Sphincter
Opening of the stomach into the duodenum (begining of small intestine), helps regulate the passage of chyme into the intestine, one squirt at a time taking about 2 to 6 hours after a meal for the stomach to empty.
Small Intestine
Small Intestine
More than 6 meters long in humans, the longest section of the alimentary canal.General name refers to its diameter, most of the ezymatic hydroylsis and nutrient absorption occur here,
First 10 to 12 inchesof small intestines, most digestion takes place, chemicals released from liver, gall bladder, and pancreas
a digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder, contains bile salts that aid in digestion and abosrption of fats. Later eliminated in the feces.
Bile Salts
Substances found in bile, which emulsify fats in the duodenum.
Middle portion of the small intestine between the duodenum and illieum
Last part of the small intestine
The surface area of the small intestine(in m squared), about the surface area of a tennis court.
Fingerlike projections that help increase surfave area(also have microvill) that are exposed to the lumen(basis for term brush border)
Secreted by doudenum, this enzyme stimulates the pancreas to release NaHCO3(sodium bicarbonate), which neutralizes acid chyme from the stmach.
Secreted by doudenum, this inhibits peristalsis and acid secretion by the stomach and slowing digestion whenever acid chyme rich in fats enters the duodenum.
Stimulates the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile
Time vs. Diffusion
The relationship between these two things is proportional to the square of the distance.
The cirulatory fluid, one of the three requirements for the two types of circulatory system(along with blood vessels, and a heart). Termed hemolyph in open circulatory systems
Blood vessels
Blood vessels
A set of tubes through which the blood moves ,one of the three requirements for the two types of circulatory system(along with blood, and a heart).
The muscular pump that pushes blood through the blood vessel, one of the three requirements for the two types of circulatory system(along with tge blood vessels and blood). Uses metabolic energy to elevate the hydrostatic power pressure of the blood which theb flows down a pressure gradient through its circuit and back to the heart.
What blood is termed in an open circulatory system.
Spaces surroundin the organs, also the place where the heart pumps the blood, and chemical changes occur.
Cardiovascular System
The body system that consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood, and that carries needed substances to cells and carries waste products away from cells.
The chambers that recieve blood returning to the heart
The chambers that pump blood out of the heart.
100,000 km
The estimated total distance of the blood vessels which consist of the Arteries, Veins, and Capillaries.
Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart, branches into arterioles which give blood to the calliparies, one of the three main kinds of blood vessels.
Blood vessels that carry waste containing blood from the tissues back to the heart,
Small microscopic vessels with very thin porous walls. When in networks it is called callipary beds, they converge into venules at their \”downstream\” end. One of the three main kinds of blood vessels.
Capillary beds
organized networks of capillaries. THere are anywhere from 10-100 capillaries supplied by a single metarteriole, infiltrate every tissue.
Small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins
The differences between veins and arteries are defined in this way, NOT by the charecteristics of the blood they contain. Arteries carry blood from the heart to the capillaries, while Veins carry blood from the capillaries back to the heart
Hepatic Portal Vein
A vein connecting the capillary bed of the intestines with the capillary bed of the liver. This allows amino acids and gluocse absorbed from the intestines to be delivered first to the liver for processing before being transported throughout the circulatory system., vein that collects blood from the liver capillaries and returns it to the heart
gill circulation
flow of blood through gills, fish have a two chambered heart. Picks up oxygen and disposes of CO2 acros capillary walls.. Blood must pass through 2 capillary beds.
Pulmocutaneous Circuit
amphibians; circuit of blood flow that lead to the gas exchange tissues (in the lungs and skin in a frog); this is where the blood gets oxygen by flowing through capillaries(left atrium)
Double Circulation
A circulatory system consisting of separate pulmonary and systemic circuits, in which blood passes through the heart after completing each circuit.
Pulmonary Circuit
circuit of blood flow that carries blood between the heart and lungs
Divides the right and left chambers of the heart, results in less mixing of oxygen rich and oxygen poor blood.
Bone that lies on top of the heart .
Cardiac Cycle
the alternating contractions and relaxations of the heart
the contraction of the chambers of the heart (especially the ventricles) to drive blood into the aorta and pulmonary artery
the widening of the chambers of the heart between two contractions when the chambers fill with blood
Cardiac Output
The volume of blood per minute that the ventricle pumps OUT into the SYSTEMIC cicuit. Depends on 2 Factors(the heart rate, and Stroke volume). Can increase by as much as 5 during excercise.
Stroke Volume
The amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in each contraction(Avg is about 75 mL.)
Atrioventricular Valve
A valve in the heart between each atrium and ventricle that prevents a backflow of blood when the Ventricles contract. Is anchored by strong fibers that [revent it from turning inside out.
Semilunar Valve
A valve located at the two exits of the heart, where the aorta leaves the left ventricle and the pulmonary artery leaves the right ventricle.
The rhythmic contraction and expansion of the arteries caused by the the powerful contractions of the ventricles with each beat of the heart
May be the most elite long distance animal. Found in the grasslands of North America(for about 4 million years. Capable of running as fast as 100 km per hour. Studied by Stan Lindstendt. Higher surface area in lungs, higher muscle mass, high density of mitochondrium, and high heat temperatures.
Wedell Seal
Studied among diving animals. High ability to store large amount of O2 is key to thier success. Holds only 5% of O2 in lungs and 70% in blood, has a huge spleen that can hold 24 Liters of blood that contracts when the seal dives, also has large concentration of myoglobin( the O2 storing protein.
A globular protein found in muscle tissue that has the ability to bind oxygen. Myoglobin helps to store oxygen in the muscle for use in aerobic respiration (it does not move, just stays there). Muscles that participate in endurance activities (including cardiac muscle) have abundant supplies of myoglobin.
Bohr Shift
A lowering of the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen, caused by a drop in pH; facilitates the release of oxygen from hemoglobin in the vicinity of active tissues.
Carbonic Anhydrase
An enzyme present in erythrocytes (as well as in other places) that catalyzes the conversion of CO2 and H2O into carbonic acid (H2CO3).
A type of respiratory pigment that uses copper as its oxygen-binding component. Hemocyanin is found in the hemolymph of arthropods and many molluscs.(Blue)
iron-containing hemoprotein in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body. Consists of
Dissociation Curve
A chart showing the relative amounts of oxygen bound to hemoglobin when the pigment is exposed to solutions varying in their partial pressure of dissolved oxygen, pH, or other characteristics.
Partial Pressure
The contribution of an individual gas to the total ppressure of a mixture of gases. Partial pressures are used to describe the amounts of the various gases carried in the bloodstream.
Negative pressure breathing
A breathing system in which air is pulled into the lungs.(humans)
Large, flat muscle at the bottom of the chest cavity that helps with breathing
Tidal Volume
The amount of air a mammal inhales and exhales with each breath. Averages about 500 mL in resting humans.
Vital Capacity
The maximum tidal volume during forced breathing.
Residual Volume of Air
left in lungs after maximal expiration
A site of gas exchange in bird lungs. Parabronchi allow air to flow past the respiratory surface in just one direction.
voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords
membranous tube with cartilaginous rings that conveys inhaled air from the larynx to the 2 bronchi
the smallest tubes of the bronchus. Coming from the bronchi that contain clusters of alveoli at each end.
Concurrent Exchange
flow is in the same direction
Respiratory Medium
The source of oxygen. It is typically air for terrestrial animals and water for aquatic organisms.
Respiratory surface
the part of an animal where gases are exchanged with the environment
A blood protein essential to blood clotting. The conversion of fibrinogen to its active form (fibrin) is among the final steps in clot formation, and is triggered by thrombin.
sex-linked recessive disorder defined by the absence of one or more proteins required for blood clotting
a stationary clot. When it has grown enough to close off a blood vessel, this dangerous event is a thrombosis
low-density lipoprotein(bad)
High Density Lipoprotein good
hardening of the arteries, arteries become clogged, and restricts blood flow which increases blood pressure
Passive Transport
Diffusion of solutes down their gradients and across a membrane, does NOT require energy.
Active Transport
Pumping of soultutes across a membrane against the electrochemical graident, requires energy usually in the form of energy.
Electrochemical Gradient
The combined effects of the concentration gradient of solute and the voltage.
Charge difference
Transport Proteins
Proteins embedded in the phosopholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane of a cell. Some bind selectively to a solute on one side of the membrane and release the solute on the opposite side. Others provide selective channels across the membrane. For Example: (K+) (Na-) channel.
Proton Pump
Most important active transport protein in the plasma membrane of plant cells. Uses energy from ATP to pump hydrogen ions(H+) out of cell creating a proton gradient with a higher (H+) concentration out of the cell than inside. In contrasqt to ATP synthases they run in reverse.
Potential Energy
The form of energy that the proton graident is. Occurs because hydrogen ions tend to diffuse\”downhill\” back into the cell, and this flow of H+ can be harnessed to do work, also contributes to voltage known as membrane potential
Membrane Potential
A separation of opposite charges across a membrane created by the pumping out of H+ ions out of a cell. Makes the inside of a cell negative and outer more positive. Also a form of potential energy. Contributes to the uptake of K+ ions by root cells.
Mechanism in which a transport protein couples the downhill passage of one solute to the uphill passage of another. In plants it is responsible for the uptake of sucrose by plant cells. Happens when membrane protein cotransports sucrose with the H+ that is moving down its gradient through the protein.
An proscess involving a transmembrane proton gradient, which links energy releasing proscess to energy consuming proscesses in cells.
The passive transposrt of water across a membrane.
Water Potential
Represented by Greek letter psi (ψ). Is the combined effects of solute concentration and physical pressure. Determines the direction of movement of water. However water that is not bound to solutes moves from regions of higher water potential to regions of lower water potential.
Abreviated (MPa). Are thye units in which water potential(ψ) are measured in. Pure Water = 0 MPa. 1 MPa = approximately 10 Atmospheres.
Pure Water
Has a water potential of 0 MPa when in a container open to atmosphere under standard temperature and pressure.
Pressure exerted by an imaginary column extending through the entire height of the atmosphere.
Water Potential Equation
ψ= ψS + ψP. ψ = water potential, ψS = solute potential(osmotic potential) and ψP = pressure potential.
Osmotic Potential
Also called the solute potential because solutes affect the direction of osmosis. Adding solutes always lowers water potential because solutes bind to water molecules reducinf the number of free water molecules and lowering the capacity of the water to do work.
Pressure Potential
The physical pressure on a solution. Can be positive or negative. Air in a ballon and the water in living cells would be under positive pressure, while water in dead cells(like xylem would be under negative pressure.
Turgor Pressure
The pressure produced when the cell contents press the plasma membrane against the cell wall.
limp, not firm; lacking vigor or effectiveness, when this type of cell is put in a solution of higher solute concentration( more negative solution potential) , water will leave the cell by osmosis and the cell walls protoplast will plazomolyze. However if this type pf cell is placed in pure water (lower water potential) then water will enter this cell producing a turgor pressure.
To shrink and pull away from a cell wall, or when a plant cell protoplast pulls away from the cell wall as a result of water loss.
The dropping of leaves and stems as a result of cells becoming flaccid.
Channel proteins that ficilitate the passage of water molecules through biological membranes, does not effect gradient or direction, but the RATE at which water diffuses down its water potential gradient.
Also known as the vacuolar membrane. Regulates molecular traffic betwen the CYTOSOL and the VACUOLAR contents(cell sap), its protein pump expels H+ from cytosol into the vacoule, which is then used to move other ions across the vacuolar membrane by chemiosmosis.
Open channels in the cell wall of a plant through which strands of cytosol connect from an adjacent cell. Forms a continous pathway for transport of certain molecules between cells.
The continium of cell walls conected by plasmodesmata plus extracellular spaces.
The part of the cytoplasm that includes molecules and small particles, such as ribosomes, but NOT themembrane-bound organelles. Located WITHIN the plasma membrane but outside intracellular organelles.
In plants, the continuum of cytoplasm connected by plasmodesmata between cells. Do NOT confuse with the Apoplast ( which is this plus extracellular)
Lateral Transport
Short distance transport that is usually along the radial axis of plants(Rather than up and down). Used by root hairs to transport water and minerals to vascular cylinder in the root.(3 different routes). In the tranmembrane route a substance moves out a cell across the cell wall into the next cell, which continues to move in the same way for each cell. The symplast route requires crossing just 1 plasma membrane, and then the substance can move cell to cell by plasmodesmata. The apoplast route ddoes not require using a protoplast and movement os water and solutes occurs along the byways provided by continuim of cells.
Bulk Flow
Long distance transport driven by pressure. In this water and solutes move through the trachieds, vessels of the xylem, and through the seive tubes of the phloem(high positive pressure forces substances to diffuse to other side. In xylem it is tension(negative pressure) that drives long distance transport(by pushing xylem sap through the roots). Volume of flow in container is also determined by internal diameter.
Water flow from Soil
Pases through EPIDERMIS, then ROOT CORTEX, Vascular Cylinder, and then flow up tracheids and vessels to the shoot system.
Root Tips
Place where much of the water absorption occurs, its where the epidermis is permeable to water and where root hairs are located.
Root Hairs
Extensions of epidermal cells which help increase the surface area of the root and bring in more water and nutrients.
The innermost layer of cells in the root cortex which surrroounds the vascular cylinder and functions as the last checkpoint for the selective passage of minerals from the cortex into the vascular tissue.
Casparian Strip
Found in the transverse and radial belts of every Endodermal cell. Is made of Suberin making it impervious to water and dissolved mineralss, forces water to enter vascular tissue via the apoplast ,and insures no minerals can reach vascular tissue without being selectively screened
The loss wof water vapor from leaves and other arial parts of the plants.
The exudation of water droplets, caused by root pressure(an upward push of xylem sap) in certain plants. Usually is very minor in a plant and can only force water up a few meters. (NOT the same as DEW)
The small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move. Leads to a maze of internal airspaces that expose mesophyll cells to CO2 they need for photosynthesis
Blockages of the water cavities of the xylem. Rapid expansion of this produces clicking noises that can be heard by placing sensitive microphones at the stem.
Parenchyma Cells
Most abundant, unspecialized, with only primary walls that are thin and flexible. Function: food storage, photosynthesis, aerobic respiration. Can differentiate into any other plant cell type. Make internal surface area of a leaf 10 to 30 times thesurface area on the external leaf. (Found in Stomata(Structure Fits function)
Morphological adaptations for growing in the darkness, found in potatoes mainly sprouting from their auxillary buds.
Informally known as greening, this occurs when a plant shoot reaches the sunlight. In this proscess the elongation of the stem slows, leaves expand, roots elongate, and the shoot produces chlorophyll.
A modified stem(think Potatoe)
A photoreceptor that is also found in the detiolation proscess. Occurs in the cytoplasm unlike most receptors which are found in the plasma membrane
A type of \”gold\” tomatoe which has lower than normal levels of chlorophyll that scientist study in order to demonstrate the plants requirement for phytochrome, is a close relative of potatoe
Second Messengers
Small, internally produced chemicals that transfer and amplify the signal from the receptor to other proteins that cause the response.
This along with cylic GMP increases when a conformational change caused by light attatching to phyochrome. Are second messengers. This can increase to 100 times its level with phtochrome.
cylic GMP
Can lead to ionic changes within ion channels and can also activate protein kinases(Phosphoralaytiion which influeces other enzymes)`
Transcriptional Regulation
This involves stimulating transcription of mRNA for the enzyme. Some require Ca and others cGMP. Think Arabdopsis mutants.
One in a class of plant hormones that stimulates (among other things) cell elongation, secondary tissue growth, and fruit development, also make stem length decrease. In detiolation. Together with BRASSINOSTEROIDS. Was purified by Keneth Thimann and was determined to be indoleactic acid(IAA). tRANSPORTED DROM THE SHOOT APEX at about 10mm/hour, directly or Parenchyma tissue, and ony moves from shoot to base(Polar Transport)
Chemical signals that coirdinate the growth of organisms, produced by one part of the body then transported to another. Even small amounts can produce tremondous changes in the organisms.
A growth response of a plant toward or away from a stimulus
Positive Phototropism
Growth of a shoot towards light. Mainly known from gras seddlings(oats)
A sheath that a shoot of a sprouting grass would be in. Charles Darwin and Son Francis Darwin did experiments like this.
Frits Went
Placed in agar identified how a growth producing chemical causes a coleptile to bend towards light. (Dark side had a higher concentration of auxin
Polar transport
unidirectional transport from the apical to the basal end through cell to cell, not gravity dependent but does require energy. At high concentrations it may produce Ethylene which inhibits cell elongation.
Acid Growth Hypothesis
H comes into nest of microfibrils, pH up, connections broken, reduced turgor pressure, allows H2O into cell, also activates expansins which break down the cross links(hydrogen bonds) between cellulose.
A synthetic auxin that is used as a herbidicis, elimates eudicots in particuklar such as dandieloions. Auxin also produces secondary growth in vascular cambium and influences differentation of secondary xylem.
Found by OVERBEEK, is a modified form of adenine. Stimulate cell division, the most common is zeatin discovered first in maize. Produced in actively growing tissue, often act with auxin to influence the pathway of cell division
A cluster of undiferentiated cells
Discovered by Kurowasa caused by a fungus genus gibillera, also function in stem growth, fruit growth and seed germination;. Cause cell wall loosening
(Thomas seedling grapes), stimulates a-amylase to mobilize stored nutrients
Chemically similar to steroids, induce cell elongation nd division in stem segments..(CHORY)., Growth promoting capacity, influence seed germination, flowering, absission, maturation and senescene, confers resistance to plants against abiotic stress
Abscisic Acid
Plant hormone that Inhibits cell division in buds and vascular cambium(ABA). No longer thought to play a major role in bud dormancy or leaf abcission. May increase 100 fold during seed germination(to try and INHIBIT germination). Helps plants withstand drought, BY causes an increase in outwardly directed potassium channels(K+) in the plasma membrane of guard cells.
The only gaseous plant hormone, responsible for fruit ripening, growth inhibition, leaf abscission, and aging.(), can lead to programmed cell death(Apoptosis),; Leaf abscission, and fruit ripening. C2H4
Triple response
Growth maneuver that enables the shoot to avoid an obstacle; includes (1) slowing of stem elongation, (2) thickening of the stem, and a (3) curvature that causes the stem to start growing horizontally. Caused by the gas hormone (ETHYLENE)
Effects of light on plant morphology
Action Spectrum
A graph that depicts the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of radiation in driving a particular process. 660 nm best. 730 nm (far red) INHIBITS germination. The LAST(Ultima) flash determined the seeds response.
Cicadarian Rythms
Cycles lasting about 24 hours And 11 minutes and common to all eukaryotic life. Is endogenous
A flowering signal, not yet chemically identified, that may be a hormone or may be a change in relative concentrations of multiple hormones.
The coupling of the \”downhill\” diffusion of one substance to the \”uphill\” transport of another against its own concentration gradient.
Produced within the body
the most prevalent cytokinin(a cell division stimulant in higher plants that also act with auxin) (e.g. coconut endosperm has a lot)
water potential is measured in what, 1 MPa is equal to about 10 atmospheres of pressure
Endodermal Cell
The casparian strip is found in every radial and transverse ________________.
Solute potential
A component of water potential that is proportional to the number dissolved solute molecules in a solution and measures the effect of solutes on the direction of water movement; also called somotic potential, it can be either zero or negative.
To shrink and pull away from a cell wall, or when a plant cell protoplast pulls away from the cell wall as a result of water loss.
Vacuolar Membrane
A membrane that encloses the central vacuole in a plant cell, separating the cytosal from the vacuolar contents, called cell sap; also known as the tonoplast. (90%) of the protplasts volume
Bulk Flow
The movement of water due to a difference in pressure between two locations. Is Solar Powered BECAUSE IT DEPENDS ON THE ACTIVE TRANSPORT OF SUGAR AT THE CELLULAR LEVEL.
Many hyphae tangled together into a thick mass; which comprise the bodies of multicellular fungi, when a plant is enowed with this it enables older roots to gain more water and soil than they could reach by themselves
Fatty WAXY material found in the cell walls of cork tissue and in the Casparian strip of the endodermis
Process by which plants that release water into the atmosphere from small pores on their leaves known as stomata
one of a family of closely related proteins that regulate the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
An enzyme that phosphorylates something else. Are frequently used in regulatory pathways, phosphorylating other enzymes.
Cyclin-dependent kinases. A protein kinase that is active only when attached to a particular cyclin. Activity rises and falls depending on the concentration of the cyclin partner.
Root Pressure
The upward push of water within the stele of vascular plants, caused by active pumping of minerals into the xylem by root cells, Usually happens at night when transpiration is very low to zero.
the neurotransmitter substance that is released at the synapses of parasympathetic nerves and at neuromuscular junctions, acts to activate muscles by releasing Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electon transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
ATP Synthase
A cluster of several membrane proteins found in the mitochondrial cristea (and bacterial plasma membrane) that function in chemiosmosis with adjacent electron transport chains, using the energy of a hydrogen ion concentration gradient to make ATP. Provide a port through which hydrogen ions diffuse into the matrix of a mitrochondrion.
The coupling of the \”downhill\” diffusion of one substance to the \”uphill\” transport of another against its own concentration gradient. Is responsible for the Uptake of Surose by plant cells
CAM Plant
A plant that uses crassulacean acid metabolism, an adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions, first discovered in the family Crassulaceae. Carbon dioxide entering open stomata during the night is converted into organic acids, which release CO2 for the Calvin cycle during the day, when stomata are closed.
PEP Carboxylase
An enzyme that adds CO2 to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to form oxaloacetate in C4 plants. It acts prior to photosynthesis.
Ribulose carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 to RuBP, or ribulose bisphosphate) in C3 Plants.
C3 Plants
A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate. (95% of the plants on Earth)
Glucose 1 Phosphate
This molecule is initially released from the end of a glycogen molecule in the process of glycogenolysis
colorless plastids that store starch
branches in starch to help with packing branches consist of alpha 1-6 linkages between glucose molecules and branched starches (70%)
Plants that have adapted by altering their physical structures. Often have few or no leaves(which if found , which reduces water loss.
movement of sugars from photosynthesis from the leaves through the phloem of a plant , mainly through the sieve tube members.
Sieve Tube Members
The MAIN cconducting cells in the phloem tissue that lack a nucleus, but are long and cylindrical for conducting sugar water(acting to maximize the cross sectional area).
Sugar Source
A plant organ in which sugar is being produced by either photosynthesis or the breakdown of starch. Mature leaves are the primary __________ of plants
Sugar Sink
A plant organ that is a net consumer or storer of sugar. Growing roots, shoot tips, stems, and fruits sugar sinks supplied by phloem.
Transfer Cells
A companion cell with numerous ingrowths of its wall, increasing the cell’s surface area and enhancing the transfer of solutes between apoplast and symplast.
Van Helmont
Conducted an experiment to find out if plants grew by taking material out of the soil; concluded that most of the mass was gained from the water–he was partially right (WRONG) CO2
Stephen Hales
suggested that conserving green plants preserved rainfall. His ideas were put into practice in 1974 on the Caribbean island of Tobago, where about 20% of the land was marked as ‘reserved in wood for rains’ (1)
Rafflesia Arnoldii
the world’s largest flower, with a blossom 3 feet wide,found only in Asia
The multicellular diploid form in organisms undergoing alternation of generations that results from a union of gametes and that meiotically and produces haploid spores that grow into the gametophyte generation.
The multicellular haploid form in organisms undergoing alternation of generations that mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation.
single-celled reproductive bodies highly resistant to cold and heat damage; capable of new organisms
Alteration of Generations
a life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte
Part of a plant that contains male sex cells. Mendel removed these from some pea plants to be sure his plants would cross-pollinate and not self-pollinate
A structure that develops within the ovary of a seed plant and contains the female gametophyte.
The ovule-producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary.
the female ovule-bearing part of a flower composed of ovary and style and stigma
A modified leaf in angiosperms that helps enclose and protect a flower bud before it opens
The stalk of a flower’s carpel, with the ovary at the base and the stigma at the top.
sticky portion at the top of the style where pollen grains frequently land
The base of a flower; the site of attachment of the 4 floral organs to the stem.
a structure containing egg cells; the base of a pistil in a flower
Floral Organs
Modified leaves because of
-genetic manipulation of FLORAL GENES
-Similar architecture between some floral organs and leaves
A segment of a plant stem between the points where leaves are attached
Complete Flowers
a flower that has all four basic floral organs: sepals, petals, stamens, and carpals
Incomplete Flowers
a flower in which one or more of the four basic floral organs are either absent or nonfunctional
Superior Ovary
sepals, petals, stamens attached below the ovary
Sem Inferior Ovary
Whaen an ovary is on the same line as stamen, petals, and sepals
Inferior Ovary
in this floral morphology, the ovary is seated below the stamens, petals, and sepals
flower clusters, borne together on a stem (as opposed to roses, which have one flower per stem))
Referring to a plant species that has staminate and (Arrowhead)carpellate flowers on separate plants.
A plant in which the staminate and pistillate flowers are separate, but borne on the same individual.(Maize)
sporangium that produces spores that give rise to male gametophytes.Are very notable in spikemosses, and a minority of ferns. In Gymnosperms and Flowering plants, the microsporangium is contained within a pollen grain
found in microsporangium; divides by meiosis, producing 4 haploid microspores; which then develops into a pollen grain (a male gametophyte enclosed within the pollen wall). These are also called Microspore Mother Cells
A spore from a heterosporous plant species that develops into a male gametophyte. As it undergos mitosis and cytokinesis it produces two separate cells, (The Generative Cell and Tube Cell)
Generative Cell
A cell of the male gametophyte or pollen grain in seed plants that divides to give rise directly or indirectly to sperm.
Tube Cell
That nucleus of a pollen grain believed to influence the growth and development of the pollen tube. Also known as tube nucleus.
a single cell, which grows in the sporangium. grows and undergoes meiosis to produce four haploid megaspores, one of which will become an egg
two very short lived cells that flank the egg cell and function in the attraction and guidance of the pollen tube to the embryo sac
the transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures to female reproductive structures in plants
Layers of sporophyte tissues that contribute to the structure of an ovule of a seed plant.
Self incompatability
the ability of a plant to reject its own pollen and sometimes the pollen of closely related individuals, Usually involves S Genes
Pin Flowers
long stigma and short anthers
Thrum Flowers
thrum (high male…caleb)
pin (stigma high…everything else low…low female…coco)
a mechanism to avoid self-fertilization
S Genes
Help in the recognition of the alleles for self incompatibilty, and bl=ock pollen tube growth if an ellele from pollen is recognized.
Double Fertilization
A mechanism of fertilization in angiosperms in which two sperm cells unite with two cells in the female gametophyte (embryo sac) to form the zygote and endosperm.
A nutrient-rich tissue formed by the union of a sperm cell with two polar nuclei during double fertilization, which provides nourishment to the developing embryo in angiosperm seeds.
in the ovules of seed plants, the opening in the integuments through which the pollen tube usually enters
Zea Mays
Zea Mays
Varieties of corn evolved from Teosinte. Originates in Mesoamerica and is a prominent staple in the diet of New World cultures
Douglas Fir
n. A tall evergreen timber tree (Pseudotsuga menziesii formerly P. taxifolia) of northwest North America, having short needles and egg-shaped cones.
Green Algae that are the closest relatives of land plants. Shares 4 ultra structural features with land plants. (Rose Shaped Complexes,Peroxisome enzymes, Structurally same flagellated sperm, Formation of a phragmoplast.)
Alignment of cytoskeletel elements and Golgi-derived vesicles across the midline of the dividing cell.
Deep Green
An international initiative focusing on the deepest phylogenetic branching within the plant kingdom to identify and name the major plant clades.
A durable polymer mainly found in charophyceans that prevents the zygote from drying out.
from the bark of the cinchona tree, is used to treat fever and relieves muscle spasm, also prevents malaria
A covering on the epidermis of many plants made out of polysters and waxes,helps waterproof the plant while at the same time providing some protection from microbial attacks,
Secondary Compounds
Chemicals synthesized by plants that are the product of secondary metabolic pathways,usually poisonous, irritating, or bad-tasting.
Apical Meristems
One of the 5 derived traits of plants, defined as localized regions of cell division at the tops of roots and shoots that conttinue thegrwth of plants throughout its lifetime.
Multicellular Gametangia
Multicellular organs in which gametes are produced. Is one of the five derived traits of land plants.
Female gametangia, is vase shaped and produces a single egg retained within the base of the organism.
Male gametangia, produce and release sperm into the environment, in many plants egg has flagella that swim to the egg through water films.
Placental Transfer Cells
One of the 5 derived traits of plants, enhance the transfer of nutrients from parent to embryo through elaborate ingrowths of the wall surface
Another name for land plants, recognizing that land plants share the common derived trait of multicellular, dependent embryos.
One of the 5 derived traits of plants,multicellular organs in plants that that produce spores. Can generate up to 50 million spores. Also called the capsule.
Nonvascular plants – examples are liverworms, hornworts, and mosses.
One of the 5 derived traits of plants, A diploid cell, also known as a spore mother cell, that undergoes meiosis and generates haploid spores.
Vascular Tissue
Cells that are joined into tubes that transfer water and nutrients throughout the plant body
An embryo packaged with a supply of nutrients and a protective coat. Those plants having this can be divided into two groups: Gymnosperms and Angiosperms.
Phylum Lycophytes
Oldest group of seedless vascular plants that includes club mosses, spike mosses and quillworts, clade of vascular plants-club mosses and their relatives(lack seeds)
Phylum Pterophyta
Group of seedless vascular plants(Ferns and their relatives), can be broken down into 3 groups (Psilotum nudum(Whisk Fern) , Stenophyta (Horsetails), and pterophya(ferns)
PhyNaked seed plants because their seeds are not contained in chambers.
Huge clade consisting of all flowering plants, seeds develop within chambers called ovaries, which originate within the flowers and mature within fruit.
Phylum Hepatophyta
Small plants commonly called liverworts because the flattened body of the plan resembles the lobes of an animals liver.Has longer and larger gametophytes than sporophytes.
Phylum Anthocerophyta
Hornworts; a gametophyte seedless plant that has horn-shape saprophytes and has to get its own water.Has longer and larger gametophytes than sporophytes. Mainly grows horizontally.
Phylum Bryophyta
The formal taxonomic name for the phylum that consist solely of mosses.Has longer and larger gametophytes than sporophytes. Out of the three phylum of non vascular plants grows more vertically than horizontally.
A mass of green, branched, one cell thick filaments typically produced by germinating moss spores. Has large surface area that enhances absorption of water and minerals, and in favorable conditions produces one bud per apical meristem.
A bud with apical meristems that is produced by protomema in favorable conditions.
Long Tubular single cells (in liverworts and hornworts) or filaments off cells (in mosses) that anchor the gametophyte., are not composed of tissue and lack specialized conducting cells, so they do not play a role in water and mineral absorption.
Elongated Stalk that conducts materials to the sporangium. In most mosses becomes elongated and enhances spore dispersal by elevating the capsule.
Structure embedded in the archegonium which absorbs nutrients from the gametophyte.
A stimulant added to look-alikes and diet pills, and found in herbs such as ma huang; has caused heart attacks, strokes, seizures, and death, especially combined with caffeine. Alos a decongestant
A protective cap of gametophyte tissue that protects the immature capsule, and is shed when the capsule becomes mature.
Toothlike structures found on the upper part of the capsule that gradually releases spores and also takes advantage of periodic wind gusts so that it can carry spores a long distance.
The small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move. Found in all vascular plants and also in hornworts and mosses.
A wetland moss genus(peat moss) that forms extensive deposits of partially decayed organic material known as peat. Has resistant phenolic compounds which it secretes that limit bacterial growth and in its cell walls that impede decay. There are about 400 billion tons of this which help stabilize global atmospheric CO2 concentrations
One of the two types of vascular tissue. Conducts most of the water and minerals and include tracheids.
Tube shaped cells that carry water and minerals up from the roots. Are actually dead cells- only the walls remain and provide a system of microscopic water pipes.
A phenolic polymer that strengthens or lignifies the cell walls of water conducting tissues.
One of the two types of vascular tissue. Includes living sugar conducting cells arranged into tubes that distribute sugars, amino acids, and other organic products.
Organs that anchor vascular plants and enable them to absorb water and nutrients from the soil.
Organs that increase the surface area of vascular plants, thereby capturing more solar energy for photosynthesis.Can be classified as either megaphylls or microphylls
Rose Shaped Complexes
One of the 4 ultra structural things shared between land plants and charophyceans, is a rose shaped complex that they use to synthesize their cellulose, in differs from other linear arrays found in most noncharophycean algaea.
Peroxisome enzymes
Organelle containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen , producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide., is one of the 4 ultra structural features shared between a charophycean and a land plant.
Flagellated Sperm
Found in seedless vascular plants and are restricted to moist environments, one of the 4 ultra structural traits between charophycean and land plants.
Formation of a phragmoplast
Particular details of cell division occuring only in land plants and certain charophytes (chara and Coleochaete); is an alignment of cytoskeletal elements and golgi derived vesicles.
Alteration of Generations
a life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte, one o the 5 derived traits of land plants
A type of secondary compoun, found in black-eyed peas, grapes, lentils, red and white wine, tea

Act as antioxidants; may inhibit carcinogenic activation and cancer promotion

Drugs that prevent chromosome spindle formation, used to treats cancers
antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, sedative, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, weakly estrogenic and stabilization of capillary permeability.
Vascular Tissue
Lack of this puts a limit on the Phyum Byrophytes possible functional size.
in mosses, the part that contains spores; in bacteria, a protective layer of polysaccharides around the cell wall, in its immature stage it has a sticky layer called the calypra on it
In lycophytes, a small leaf with a single unbranched vein. According to the current model of evolution these were the result of the outgrowth of stems.
a leaf with a large highly branched vascular system, characteristic of vast majority of vascular plants; Complex leaves
Modified leaves that bear sporangia, an evolutionary milestone, in a cluster they produce clusters known as Sori usually on the bottom side, may also form cones(strobili)
clusters of reproductive cells on the underside of a Sporophyll
The technical term for clusters of sporophylls known commonly as cones, found in most gymnosperms and some seedless vascular plants.
Referring to plants in which a single type of spore develops into a bisexual gametophyte having both male and female sex organs. (Most Seedless Vascular Plants)
A term referring to a plant species that has two kinds of spores: microspores that develop into male gametophytes and megaspores that develop into female gametophytes. (ALL Seed plants and a few seedless)
A mature ovary of a flower that protects dormant seeds and aids in their dispersal. Only develops after fertilization
A spore from a heterosporous plant that develops into a female gametophyte bearing archegonia.
A spore from a heterosporous plant that develops into a male gametophyte with antheridia.
Carboniferous Period
Carboniferous Period
300 MYA, CO₂=200ppm dropped by a factor of 5 causing global cooling that resulted in widespread glacial formation., woody plants, cold, high O₂, formation of fossil fuels, the formation of the first very large trees, whisk ferns are living fossils from this peroid.
a protective later of cells that covers the megasporangium, open at one end- micropyle
a structure that develops within the ovary of a seed plant and contains the female gametophyte
Pollen Grains
male gametophytes developed from microspores of seed plants.
the transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures to female reproductive structures in plants
series of events that results in the growth of a plant from a seed
in the ovules of seed plants, the opening in the integuments through which the pollen tube usually enters
gymnosperm; cone-bearing plants; most are evergreen
Phylum Cycadophyta
Phylum Cycadophyta
2nd largest group of gynosperms, they have large cones and palmlike leaves, only about 130 species survive but this species thrived in the mesozoic era.
Phylum Ginkgophyta
Phylum Ginkgophyta
A phylum of gynosperms taht has only has 1 species,(Ginkgo Biloba) has dedoucious leaves that turn gold in autumn,, tolerates air pollution well.
Phylum Coniferophyta
Phylum Coniferophyta
The largest phylum of gymnosperms, consisting of at least 600 species of conifers(Redwoods, Yew, Bristlecone Pine, Junipers), most are evergreens, and retain their leaves throughout the year
Mesozoic Era
from 230 million to 63 million years ago, al;so known as the age of Dinosours or the Age of Cycads
Phylum Gnetophyta
A gymnosperm phylum consisting of 3 genera (Gnetum, Ephedra, and Welwitdchia, some of which are tropical while others live in deserts,
A curious plant of arid regions of southwestern Africa having a yard-high and yard-wide trunk like a turnip with a deep taproot and two large persistent woody straplike leaves growing from the base
Devonian Period
Period from 408 million through 360 million years ago. Seas rise and fall over what is now North America. Age of fishes begans as sharks and fish with scales and bony skeletons become common. Trilobites and corals floors in the ocean. Lungfish develope. First amphibians reach land.
first trees. they had wood which allowed them to grow taller, and they could grow far away from water, did not bear seeds, was a transistional species known as a progymosperms.
Transitional species of seedless vascular plants
Permian Period
from 280 million to 230 million years ago, the boundary between New Life and Old Life.
reproductive organ of angiosperm plants especially one having showy or colorful parts
green, leaflike part of the plower that covers and protects the flower bud before it opens (Sterile)
modified leaves which are usually bright in color to attract pollinators. Located above the sepals (Sterile)
The pollen-producing male reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and filament. Give rise to pollen grains containing male gametophytes
stalk that supports the anther
The terminal pollen sac of a stamen, inside which pollen grains with male gametes form in the flower of an angiosperm.
The female reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary.
sticky portion at the top of the style where pollen grains frequently land
the narrow elongated part of the pistil between the ovary and the stigma
a structure containing egg cells; the base of a pistil in a flower
The base of a flower; the part of the stem that is the site of attachment of the floral organs.
the female ovule-bearing part of a flower composed of ovary and style and stigma
the thickened wall of a fruit, used to be the ovary.
succulent and watery at maturity, ie tomato
Cross Pollination
a reproductive process in which pollen from one plant is transferred to the stigma of another plant
Double Fertilization
A mechanism of fertilization in angiosperms, in which two sperm cells unite with two cells in the embryo sac to form the zygote and endosperm. Is supposed to synchronize the development of food storage in the seed with the development of the embryo.
Evo Devo
Evolutionary developmental biology; a field of biology that compares developmental processes of different multicellular organisms to understand how these processes have evolved and how changes can modify existing organismal features or lead to new ones.
Pollen Grain
Small structure produced by the male reproductive organs of a seed plant. Has a water-resistant coat, contains gametophyte parts that will produce sperm. Including 2 haploid cells (A generative cell that divides forming new sperm, and a tube cell that produces pollen tubes.
Generative Cell
In gymnosperms: divides to form the sterile and spermatogenous cells. In Angiosperms: divides to form 2 sperm.
Tube Cell
the cell from a male plant that grows down the style to the opening of the micropyle; grows a pollen tube
A nutrient-rich tissue formed by the union of a sperm cell with two polar nuclei during double fertilization, which provides nourishment to the developing embryo in angiosperm seeds. Triplod
first leaf or first pair of leaves produced by the embryo of a seed plant
Mostly Male Hypothesis
A hypothesis proposed by Frochlich in which the ancestor of angiosperms had seperate pollen producing and ovule producing structures, but then a mutation ovules developed on some microphylls, which then evolved into carpels. Evidence inculdes comparisons of genes that give rise to flowers and cones
A group of angiosperms that have single cotyledons (embryonic seed leaf). Flower parts in 3s or multiples of 3s, vascular tissue in scattered bundles, fibrous root system, and leaves with parallel veins.
Member of a clade consisting of the vast majority of flowering plants that have two embryonic seed leaves, or cotyledons.
A group of angiosperms with two cotyledons. Flower parts in fours or fives, vascular tissue in (distinct) bundles arranged in a circle, taproot system, leaves with netted veins. Now divided into 3 groups itself ,Basal, Eudicots, and Magnolids
are the prominenet primary roots from which secondary roots grow.
They divide, become fleshy, and often penetrate deeply into the soil.
Fibrous Root System
Root systems common to monocots consisting of a mat of thin roots that spread out below the soil surface.
Basal Angiosperms
Basal Angiosperms
The most primitive lineages of flowering plants, including Amborella, water lilies, and star anise and relatives
A flowering plant clade that evolved later than basal angiosperms but before monocots and eudicots. Extant examples are magnolias, laurels, and black pepper plants.
the process in which species exert selective pressure on each other and gradually evolve new features or behaviors as a result of those pressures
found in bitter almonds and many fruit pits, Yields hydrogen cyanide when mixed with acids or hydrolytic enzymes
Used as a base to be reworked for aspirin. A glycoside. In WILLOW BARK
Blocks acetylcholine in muscarinic receptors. Has no effect on nicotinic receptors. Causes dilationof the pupil (mydriasis) and increase in heart rate as well as dry mouth.
Anti-cancer drug found in the pacific yew that prevents depolymerization of microtubules.
periwinkle plant derivative used as an antineoplastic drug (trade name Velban) that disrupts cell division by stopping microtube formation and is thus used to treat Lukemia
a lotion containing menthol which gives it a mint flavoring
One of the three most common forms of prokaryotes. (Sphere)
One of the three most common forms of prokaryotes. (Rods)
One of the three most common forms of prokaryotes. (Spiral).
a network of modified sugar polymers cross linked by short polypeptides. Encloses the entire bacterium and anchors other molecules that extend from its surface. Archea lack this and instead have a different variety of polysaccharides.
Gram Stain
Gram Stain
A technique developed physician Hans Christian Gram and is used to classify bacteria into two groups based on cell wall composition.
Gram Positive
Gram Positive
Bacteria with simpler walls and a very large amount of peptidoglycan.
Gram Negative
Bacteria with more structurally complex(have outer membrane with lipopolysaccharides).Have relatively less peptidoglycan. Generally more threatening in termx of pathogenic ability.
A drug whose effectiveness lies in its inhibition of peptidoglycan cross linking thus preventing formation of functional cell wall, particularly in gram positive bacteria.
A sticky layer of polysaccharides or protein. Enables prokaryote to adhere to their substrate or to other individuals in a colony. Can also shield prokaryotes from attacks from hosts immune system.
Hairless appendages that prokaryotes use to adhere to a substrate. Usualkly more numerous and shorter than pilli.
Flagella of Prokaryotes
These differ from those of eukaryotes in both structure and propulsion. One-Tenth the width and are not covered by an extension of the plasma membrane.
Movement towards or away from a stimulus.
Positive Chemotaxis
the movement towards nutrients or oxygen
Negative Chemotaxis
the movement away from a toxic substance.
Resistant cells formed by some bacteria when essential nutrients are lacking in the environment. The original cell first produces a copy of its chromosome and surround it with a tough wall. Water is removed and metabolism stops, and the original cell then disintegrates
Organisms that obtain energy from chemicals
Organisms that need only CO2 as a carbon source.
Organisms that need at least one organic molecule, to make other organic compounds
Organisms that obtain energy from chemicals
Photosynthetic organisms that capture light and use it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from CO2. (EXAMPLES: Cyanobacteria, Plants, Algae)
Organisms that also need CO2, but instead of using light for energy, they oxidize inorgaanic substances.
Organisms that use light for energy, but must also obtain carbonic in organic form.
Organisms that must consume organic molecules for both energy and carbon.
Obligate Anaerobes
Organisms that use O2 for cellular respiration, and cannot grow without it.
Facultative Anaerobes
Organisms that use O2 if it is present -but can also grow by fermentation in an anaerobic environment.
Obligate Anaerobes
Organisms that are poisioned by O2. Some live exclusively on fermentation.
Anaerobic Respiration
Respiration in which other substance other than O2 are used to accept electrons at the downhill end of ETC.
Nitrogen Fixation
a process in which certain prokaryotes convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia(NH3).
Specialized cells in a filament that carry out nitrogen fixation. Surrounded by thickened cell wall that restricts entry of oxygen produced by neighboring photosynthetic cells..
Surface coating colonies which secrete signalling molecules that recruit nearby cells causing the colony to grow. These cells also produce proteins that adhere to substrate and allow nutrients to reach the center and for wastes to be expelled.
Markers used by scientists to test for evolutionary relationships. Led to the discovery of Archea.
First prokaryotes to be classified into the kingdom Archaea. Include Extreme Halophiles, Methanogens, Thermophiles
Extreme Thermophiles
Extreme Thermophiles
Archaea that thrive in very hot water. Some are used in biotechnology as a source of DNA Polymerase for the (PCR) technique. Belong to the clade called Crenarchaeota.
Extreme Halophiles
Archaea that live in highly saline enviroments. Some actually require an environment several times saltier than seawater. Along with Methanogens are members of a clade called Euryarchaeota.
Archaea that are named because they use CO2 to oxidize H2, releasing methane as a waste product.(Anaerobes) Along with Extreme halophiles are members of a clade called Euryarchaeota.
The oldest lineage in the domain Archaea. Discovered in 1996 in Yellowstone National Park.
Organisms that act to break down corpses, dead vegetation, and waste products, and unlock supplies of carbon, nitrogen and other elements.
An ecological relationship between organisms of different species that are in direct contact.
The larger organism in the symbiotic relationship.
The smaller organism in the symbiotic relationship.
A symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit.
A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits, while neither helping or harming the other organism in a significant way.
A relationship in which one organims(the parasite ) benefits at the expense of the host.
Poision released from prokaryotes that can harm other organisms even if the prokaryote is not present.
Lipopolysaccharide components of the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria. Only released when prokaryote dies.
The use of organisms to remove pollutants from soil, air , or water.
A diverse assortment of tiny unicellular organisms. Used to be classified (In the 5 Kingdom system) as its own kingdom, however systematics has determined that is is in fact paraphyletic and the kingdom crumbled.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Dutch tradesman and scientist who is known as the first micobiologist and discovered protists.
Organisms that combine photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition.
A process in which certain unicellular organism engulfed other cells, which became endosymbionts and ultimately organelles in the host cell. FOR EXAMPLE (The first eukaryotes acquiring mitochondria by engulfing alpha proteobacteria)
Secondary Endosymbiosis
A clade of protists that lack plastids, and their mitochondria do not have ETC, DNA, or enzymes that are needed for the citric acid cycle. Have two equal sized nuclei and multiple flagella.
A clade of protists that lack plastids, and their mitochondria do not have ETC, DNA, or enzymes that are needed for the citric acid cycle. Has a undulating membrane(plasma membrane). Include protists called Trichomonads.
A clade of protists that includes heterotrophs, autotrophs, and parasites, Main feature is the presence of a spiral or crystalline rod of unknown function inside its flagella. Also have disk shaped mitochondrial cristae. Include Kinetoplastids and Euglenids.
Protists with a single large mitochondrion that contains a mass of organized DNA called a kinetoplast. Include Trypanosoma which causes sleeping sickness in humans and Chagas disease witch can lead to congestive heart failure.
Bait and Switch
Technique used by some protists to evade immune system detection. The surface (which is coated with million copies of one protein) is replaced by every new generation with a slightly different structure, which prevent the host from developing immunity.
Protists with a pocket at one in which one or two flagella emerge. Usually has a glucose polymer known as paramylon. Usually autotrophic but can become heterotophic and absorb organic nutrients from their environment or engulf prey by phagocytosis.
A clade of protists that are characterized by alveoli (membrane bound sacs under the plasma membrane). Scientist hypothesize that the alveoli may help stabilize the cell surface or regulate water and ion csontent. Include 3 groups: a group of flagellates (dinoflagellates), a group of parisites (apicomplexans), and cilia moving protists (ciliates).
Protists that have characteristic shape reinforced by internal plates of cellulose , in which two flagella are located in perpendicular grooves. Most are unicellular and some are bioluminescent.
Protists which are parasites who spread infection through sporozites, which contain a complex of organelles specialized for penetrating host cells and tissues. Most have intricate sexual life cycles with both sexual and asexual stages. Examples includes Plasmodium(malaria) which also uses bait and switch methods.
Protist are a varied group of protists who use their cilia to move and feed. The cilia may cover the surface or may be clustered in a few rows. Have distinct feature of a large macronucleus and a small micronucleus. Each macronucleus contains dozen of copies of chromosomes, but the genes are not in the chromosomes. Usually reproduce asexually by binary fission, and genetic variation results from conjugation.
short structures projecting from a cell and containing bundles of microtubules that move a cell through its surroundings or move fluid over the cell’s surface
A sexual process in which two individuals exchange haploid nuclei. May help protists such as ciliates remove transposons and selfish DNA.
Clade consisting of heterotrophs and certain groups of algae. Usually has hairy flagellum paired with fine flagellum. In some stramenopiles, the only flagellated cells are motile reproductive cells. Include Oomycetes,Diatoms,Golden Algae, and Brown Algae.
Golden Algae
Called Chyrosphytes. Their color results from yellow and brown carteniods. Cells are typically biflagellated. When cell density reaches a certain level they form resistant cysts that can survive for decades.
Brown Algae
The largest and most complex algae. Also called Phaeophytes. Common in temperate coasts were water is cool.In cludes many of the species commonly called seaweed.
Term that refers to a seaweed body that is plant like. It lacks true roots, stems and leaves, and instead consist of a rootlike holdfast, and a stemlike stipe, which support leaflike blades.
Unicellular algae that have unique glass like wall made of a hydrated silica embedded in an organic matrix. Can survive an immense amount of pressure, because of its lacework holes and grooves in the wall. Mostly reproduce asexually by mitosis.
Include water molds and mildews.Have multinucleate filaments that resemble fungal filaments. Cell wall consists of cellulose.
Alternation of Generations
An alternation of multicellular haploid and diploid forms. This term only applies to life cylcles in which both haploid and diploid stages are multicellular.
Meaning that the sporophytes and gametophytes of a protist are structurally difficult.
In which the sporophytes and gametophytes look similar but differ in chromosome number.
Clade which conatians organisms formely called amoebas. Those belonging to this clade have a threadlike pseudopodia. Include Foraminiferans, Chlorarachniophytes
Have porous holes called tests, which are multi-chambered and are hardened by Calcium Carbonate. 99% are known from fossil record, and are also used to correlate ages of rocks in different paarts of the world.
Mainly marine protists whose tests are fused . The axopodia, radiate from, the central body and are reinforced by microtubules, which are covered by a layer of cytoplasm.
A clade that has a lobe shaped rather than threadlike pseudopodia. Include Gymnamoebes, entamoebas, and slime molds.
Large and varied group of protists that are usually heterotrophs. Some actively seek bacteria and feed on detritus.
Protists that are parasites that infect all classes.
Slime mold
Called Mycetozoans, and where once thought to be fungi. Have diverged into two branches (plasmodial, and cellular.
Plasmodial Slime Molds
Usually bright,form a mass called a plasmodium. Not multicellular.
Cellular Slime molds
A protist in which the feeding stage is likely to consist of solitary fcekks that function individually. Haploid organisms with no flagellated stages.
Red Algae
Also known as Rhodophytes, are red because of Phycoerythrin which masks the green color ogf the chlorophylls
Green Algae
Protist with grass green chloroplasts. Closeley related to plant kingdom.
Heterotophic organisms that feed by absorption.
branching, threadlike tubes that make up the bodies of multicellular fungi
A tough but flexible nitrogen containing polysaccharide in the cell walls of fungi and exoskeletons of arthropods.
An interwoven mass of hyphae that functions as the feeding structure of a fungus by infiltrating the material on which the fungi feeds. Also acts to maximize surface to area volume.
Cross walls that divide hyphae. They generally have pores big enough to allow ribosomes, mitochondria, and nuclei to flow from cell to cell. Not all fungi have septa
Coenocytic Fungi
Fungi that lack septa, and consist of a continuous cytoplasmic mass containing hundred or thousands of nuclei. This results from the repeated division of nuclei without cytoplasmic division.
Powerful hydrolytic enzymes secreted by a fungus outside its body to digest food.
Mutually symbiotic relationships between fungal hyphae and plant roots. Fungi can deliver phosphat ions and other minerals to plants in exchange for organic nutrients.
Ectomycorrhizal Fungi
Fungi that form sheaths of hyphae over the surface of a root and also grow into the extracellular spaces of the root cortex
Endomycorrhizal Fungi
Fungi that extend their hyphae through the root cell wall and into tubes formed by invagination of the root cell membrane.
Sexual signaling molecules in fungi that are released by ther mycelia. If fungi are of different mating types these will bind on the squrface of another, and they will grow towards each other and eventually fuse.
The union of the cytoplasms of two parent mycelia.
Mycelium where parts of the mycelia contain coexisting, genetically different nuclei that do not fuse right away. Some become mosaics with different nuclei restricted to different part of the cell.
Referring to a fungal mycelium with two haploid nuclei per cell, one from each parent. As it grows the two nuclei divide in tandem without fusing
Next stage in the sexual life cycle of a fungi where the haploid nuclei contributed by the two parents fuse, producing diploid cells
A rapidly growing, asexually reproducing fungus. They can also reproduce sexually if they come in contact with proper mating types.
A unicellular fungus that lives in liquid or moist habitats, primarily reproducing asexually by simple cell division or by budding of a parent cell.
No known sexual stage is not always observed, therefore their only mean of reproducing is asexual…they only produce conidia and they grow as molds or yeast Also called imperfect fungi
Organisms from an ancestor with posterior flagellum (includes fungi, animals, and some protists). Name refers to posterior (opistho) location of the flagellum.
Phylum of fungi that live in aquatic habitats or soil, presence of a single, posterior flagellum, zoospores, not monophyletic group. Molecular evidence indicates that they diverged earliest in fungal evolution.
A phylum of fungi that is not very pathogenic; complex life cycle consisted on sexual and asexual fungal groups…fungi spend most of their time as haploids For Example: black bread mold;
Unicellular parasites of animals and protists that molecular comparisons suggest may be most closely related to zygomycete fungi.
A phylum of fungi that is characterized by a distinct branching form of endomycorrhizae called arbuscular mycorrhizae. 90% of all plants have a symbiotic relationship with this phyla.
A phylum of fungi whose sexual spores occur in even numbers. asexual spores (conidia) often are found in chains. They produce sexual spores in saclike asci, and are commonly called sac fungi. Also bear their sexual stages in fruiting bodies or ascocarps.
A phylum of fungi bearing sexually produced spores on a basidiocarp.Commonly called club fungi. The group includes puffballs, shelf fungi, rusts, smuts, and mushrooms.
Are a symbiotic association of millions of photosynthetic microorganisms held in a mass of fungal hyphae. Photosynthetic partners are typically green algae or cyanobacteria
Small clusters of hyphae with embedded algae
any abnormal condition or disease caused by a fungus
Skin Mycoses
Fungal infections that appear as circular red areas on the surface of the skin.
Systemic Mycoses
Fungal infection deep within the body that cause very serious illnesses For Example: Coccidioidomycetes..
The succession of rapid cell divisions by mitosis without significant growth during early embryonic development that converts the zygote to a blastula
The hollow ball of cells marking the end stage of cleavage during early embryonic development.
A series of cell and tissue movements in which the blastula-stage embryo folds inward, producing a three-layered embryo, the gastrula that will develop into adult body parts..
The immature form of an animal that looks very different from the adult,usually eats different food, and may even have a different habitat
Neoproterozoic Era ( 1Billion – 542 million Years Ago)
The era in which the first accepted animal fossils (known as the Edicarian fauna). Also 570 million year old embryos in this era closely resemble animal embryos today.
Paleozoic Era (542-251 Million Years Ago)
Era of mass animal diversification( Cambrian Explosion) took place. Diversification thought to be because of new predator prey relationships, or increased atmospheric oxygen.
Mesozoic Era (251-65.5 Million years Ago)
Era in which animal phyla began to spread into new ecological niches.The first coral reefs formed. Large Dinosaurs appeared, and so did mammals(tiny nocturnal insect eaters.
Bilateral Symmetry
Body plan in which only a single, imaginary line can divide the body into two equal halves; characteristic of worms, arthropods, and chordates. Mostly present in animals that move actively.
A group of animal species that share the same level of organizational complexity. Not necessarily equivalent to clades.
Body Plan
In animals, a set of morphological and developmental traits that are integrated into a functional whole.
Radial Symmetry
Symmetry about a central axis, in which any imaginary slice through the central axis divides the animal into mirror images. Most present in animals that are sessile(unmoving)
An evolutionary trend toward the concentration of sensory equipment at the anterior end of the body, along with the central nervous system.
Germ Layers
Tissues layers in the embryos of all animals except sponges, which have no true tissues that form the various tissues and organs of the body.
The outermost of the three primary germ layers in animal embryos; gives rise to the outer covering and, in some phyla, the nervous system, inner ear, and lens of the eye
The innermost of the three primary germ layers in animal embryos; lines the archenteron and gives rise to the liver, pancreas, lungs, and the lining of the digestive tube.
The endoderm-lined cavity, formed during the gastrulation process, that develops into the digestive tract of an animal.
Term for animals with just two germ layers – the ectoderm and endoderm. Include Cnidarians and comb jellies.
Term for animals possessing three germ layers: the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm.
The middle primary germ layer of an early embryo that develops into the notochord, the lining of the coelom, muscles, skeleton, gonads, kidneys, and most of the circulatory system.
Body Cavity
A fluid-containing space between the digestive tract and the body wall. The fluid helps prevent internal injury, and also enables the internal organs to grow independently of the outer body wall.
An animal that possesses a true coelom (a body cavity lined by tissue completely derived from mesoderm).
An animal whose body cavity is not completely lined by mesoderm, and is instead is formed from the blastocoel. The pseudocoelom is a fully functional cavity.
An animal that lacks a coelom. Acoelomates, which include the flatworm, fluke, tapeworm, and ribbon worm, exhibit bilateral symmetry and possess one internal space, the digestive cavity.
Protostome Development
A developmental mode in animals with the development of the mouth from the blastopore, schizocoelous development of the body cavity and spiral cleavage indeterminate cleavage.
The opening of the archenteron in the gastrula that develops into the mouth in protostomes and the anus in deuterostomes
Deuterostome Development
A developmental mode in animals characterized by the development of the anus from the blastopore, enterocoelous development of the body cavity and by radial indeterminate cleavage.
Animal Phylogeny Agreement
1. All animals share a common ancestor
2. Sponges are basal animals
3. Eumetazoa is a clade with true tissues
4. Most animals phyla belong to the clade Bilateria
5. Vertebrates and some other phyla belong to the clade Deuterostomia.
A horseshoe-shaped or circular fold of the body wall bearing ciliated tentacles that surround the mouth.
The periodic shedding of the cuticle in arthropods or the outer skin in reptiles.
Animals that lack a backbone. Account for 95% of all known species and all but one of the 35 animal phyla.
Phylum of animals that includes sponges. Are simple,sessile animals, that live as suspension feeders.
Animal phylum that consists of only one species Trichoplax adhaerens, which consists of a few thousand cells arranged in a double-layered plate 2 mm across; can reproduce by budding
Animal Phylum with organisms that are all less than 1 mm long, have a body consisting of 13 segments covered in plates, and a spine-ringed mouth that can be retracted into the body
Animal phylum of flatworms (tapeworms, planarians, flukes)which have bilateral symmetry , a central nervous system. They have NO body cavity or organs for circulation.
Animal phylum with specialised organ systems (alimentary cannal [digestive tract]). They feed on microorganism suspended in water.
Animal phylum of marine worms. they live in tunnels in the sea floor, and extend their tentacles out of the tunnel opening to trap food particles.
Animal phylum that includes corals, jellies, and hydras. Have distinct body plan that includes gastrovascular cavity with a single opening that serves as both mouth and anus.
Animal phylum that includes lamp shells. Have unique stalk that anchors them to their substrate
Animal phylum, that include proboscis worms. Lack a true coelom, but they have an alimentary canal.
Animal phylum that includes snails,clams, squids, and octopuses. Have a soft body that is usually protected by a hard shell. Visceral mass, muscular foot, and mantle.
Animal phylum that includes comb jellies that are diploblastic. Have a set of 8 combs of cilia that propel them through the air.
Animal phylum that includes segmented worms. For example: Earthworms. Found in marine and freshwater.
Animal phylum that includes radially symmetrical marine invertebrates starfish and sea urchins and sea cucumbers. They move and feed by using a
Animal phylum in which more than 90% are animals with backbones. However it also includes 3 groups of invertebrates: tunicates, lancelets, and hagfishes.
Animal phylum to which the vast majority of known animal species belong. Include insects, crustaceans, and arachnids. All have segmented exoskeleton and jointed appendages.
Large central cavity of sponges where water travels through to the osculum
A large opening on a sponge through which filtered water is expelled.
Tubular cells that allow water to flow from the outside of the sponge to its central cavity
Specialized cell in sponges that uses a flagellum to move a steady current of water through the sponge. Also known as collar cells.
A gelatinous region between the two layers of cells of a sponge
Animals that produce sperm and egg in the same body and function as both a male and female. Most sponges can sequentially function as this.
Cells that move using pseudopods and perform different functions in different animals and wander in the mesohyl within the body wall of a sponge and crawls around and delivers nutrients from choanocytes to the rest of the body.
The sessile variant of the cnidarian body plan. Is a cylindrical form that adheres to a substrate by the aboral end of the body.and extend their tentacles waiting for prey.
The flattened, mouth down version of a polyp. It is motile and moves freely in the water by passive drifting and contractions of its bell shaped body.
Capsule like stinging cells unique to cnidarians that function in defense and prey capture. Found on the tentacles.
Small capsules that contain a toxin which is injected into prey or predators. Found in cnidarians.
Group of cnidarians, mostly marine, both polyp and medusa stages, polyp stage is often colonial. Can reproduce asexually by budding in unfavorable conditions. (Portuguese Man of War, Hydras)
Group of cnidarians,all marine, polyp stage is greatly reduced, free swimming medusae is up to 2 m in diameter. (Jellies,sea nettles)
Group of cnidarians, all marine, box shaped medusae, complex eyes, (Box Jellies, Sea Wasps)
Group of cnidarians, all marine , no medusae stage, mostly sessile and colonial.(Sea anemones, most corals, sea fans)
Group of Platyhelminthes, mostly marine, commonly called planarians, body surface ciliated.(Free living flatworms)
Group of Platyhelminthes, Marine and freshwater parasites, most infect external surface of fish, simple life history, ciliated larva starts infection on host.(Monogeneans)
Group of Platyhelminthes, parasites of vertebrates, have two suckers that attach to host, most life cylces include intermediate hosts.(Flukes)
Group of Platyhelminthes, parasite of vertebrates, scolex attaches to host, proglottids produce eggs and break after fertilization, no head or digestive system, life cycles with one or more intermediate hosts.(Tapeworms)
Asexual reproduction in which an unfertilized gamete (usually female) produces female offspring.
Closed Circulatory System
A circulatory system in which blood is confined to vessels and is kept separate from the interstitial fluid.
Visceral Mass
Area beneath the mantle of a mollusk that contains the internal organs
A fold of tissue that encloses the vital organs of a mollusk, makes the mollusk’s shell(if one is present), and performs respiration
Mantle Cavity
A water-filled chamber that houses the gills, anus, and excretory pores of a mollusc.
A straplike rasping organ used by many mollusks during feeding
Group of Molluscs, known as polyplacophora, Marine, shell with 8 plates,foot used for locomotion, radula, no head.
Group of Molluscs. marine, freshwater or terrestrial, asymmetrical body, usually has a coiled shell,shell is reduced or absent in some. foot for locomotion, radula, Torsion. (Snails, Slugs)
Group of Molluscs, marine and freshwater, flattened shells with two valves, reduced head, paired gills, NO radula, most suspension feed, mantle forms a siphon. (Clams, Mussels, Scallops, Oysters)
In gastropods, a developmental process in which the visceral mass rotates up to 180°, causing the animal’s anus and mantle cavity to be positioned above its head.
Group of Molluscs, Marine, head with graspling tentacles, usually with suckers, shell eternal, internal or absent, mouth with or without radula, locomotion by jet propulsion using siphon made from foot. (Squids, Octopuses, Cuttlefish, Chambered Nautiluses)
Free-swimming ciliated larval stage of an aquatic molluscs and annelids.
Shelled cephalopod animals that were the dominant invertebrate predators for millions of years ending with the mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous period.
Group of Annelids, freshwater, marine, and terrestrial segmented worms,alimentary canal reduced head, no parapodia, but chaetae(brustles made of chitin) present. (Earthworms)
Chitinous, bristle-like structures embedded in the body wall of oligochaetes and polychaete annelids which provide traction for burrowing.
Group of Annelids, well developed head, each segment has parapodia with chaetae, tube dwelling and free living.(Mainly marine freshwater worms)
Group of Annelids, flattened body, reduced coelom and segmentation, chaetae absent, suckers at anterior and posterior end, parasite, predators and scavengers. (Leeches)
The fleshy paddle like appendages found in polychaetes.
Animal Phylum commonly known as roundworms, are abundant and divers in the soil and aquatic habitats.Has a very tough cuticle that coats the body, and alimentary canal. Nutrients are transported though fliud in the pseudocoelom.
An extinct arthropod that lived in the Paleozoic Era with pronounced segmentation and appendages that varied little from segment to segment.
A body covering made of the polysaccharide chitin and layers of protein, that provides support and protection.
Open Circulatory System
A circulartory system in which fluid called hemolymph bathes the tissue and organs directly and there is no distinction between the circulating fluid and the interstitial fluid.
First major group of reptiles to emerge, mostly large, stocky quadrupedal herbivores; died out in the late Triassic period
Organisms with bodies that are warmed by heat generated by metabolism. This heat is usually used to maintain a relatively stable body temperature higher than that of the external environment.
Organisms with bodies where the main source of body heat is the absorption external energy.
An extremely diverse group of ancient reptiles varying in body shape, size, and habitat, that died out 65 million years ago.
A group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs. Included the T.Rex as well as the ancestors of birds.
Reptiles possessing a skull with two pairs of openings behind each eye socket; includes squamates, birds, crocodiles, and dinosaurs
The reptilian group that includes crocodiles, alligators, dinosaurs, and birds.
First tetrapods to exhibit flight, wings consisted of bristle covered membranes stretched between the trunk or hind leg and a very long digit on the foreleg. Well preserved fossils suggest that pterosaurs could dynamically adjust their membranes to assist their flight.
The reptilian group that includes lizards, snakes, and two species of New Zealand animals called tuataras.
Group of flightless birds with small wings and flat breastbones – red meat like beef. Ostrich, Emu, Rhea
Group of amniotes that have single temporal fenestra, a hole behind the eye socket on each side of skull (Humans, Mammals)
Mammals that have hair and mammary glands but reproduce by laying eggs. Platypus and 2 species of Echidna.
Mammals whose immature offspring complete their development in an external pouch.
The vascular structure in the uterus of most mammals providing oxygen and nutrients for and transferring wastes from the developing fetus
Opposable Thumb
An arrangement of the fingers such that the thumb can touch the ventral surface of the fingertips of all four fingers.
A member of a primate group made up of the apes (gibbon, orangutan, gorilla, chimpanzee, and bonobo), monkeys, and humans.
Complete Metamorphosis
The transformation of a larva into an adult that looks very different, and often functions very differently in its environment, than the larva. (4 stages)
Incomplete Metamorphosis
type of insect development characterized by a similar appearance throughout all stages of the life cycle(3 stages)
Malpighian Tubules
An excretory organ that is unique to insects, empties into digestive tract and removes metabolic nitrogenous wastes from the hemolymph, also plays a role in osmoregulation.
An early extinct carnivorous cheliceriform also called a water scorpion that grew up to 3 meters long.
Pair of mouthparts in chelicerates that contain fangs and are used to stab and paralyze prey
Subphlum of Arthropod. Include insects and their relatives; more species than all other forms of life combined (beetles the most); have a ventral nerve cord
Subpylum of Arthropoda. Distinct head bearing antennae and chewing mouthparts; terrestrial; millipedes are herbivores and have 2 pairs of walking legs per trunk segment; centipedes are carnivorous and have one pair of walking legs per trunk segment and poison claws on first body segment.
Subpylum of Arthropoda, Body of two or 3 parts, antennae present, chewing mouthparts, 3 or more pairs of legs. Mostly marine and freshwater.
(Crabs, Lobsters, Shrimp
Class of Insects, oval flattened body, usually brown or black, head covered by the thorax, long antennae, has a short apical cerci, incomplete metamorphosis (Cockroaches)
Class of Insects , Largest group of species, front wings are hard and leathery, antennae have many segments, chewing mouthparts are very large, complete metamorphosis. (Beetles)
Class of Insects, flattened soft body,nocturnal scavengers,some are wingless, front wings are thick and leathery, pincer like structure, incomplete metamorphosis. (Earwigs)
Class of Insects, One pair of wings. The second pair of wings are modified to help balance and are called halteres, large and mobile head, mouthparts are adapted for sucking, piercing or lapping. (Fly)
Class of Insects, (True Bugs) front wings are thick, hind wings are membranous, have triangles on back, piercing or sucking mouthparts, undergo incomplete metamorphosis. (Bed bugs, chinch bugs)
Class of Insects, Highly social insects, two pairs of membranous wings, mobile head, and chewingt or sucking mouthparts. Females have posterior stinging organ. (Ants, Bees, Wasps)
Class of Insects, Widespread social insects that produce enormous colonies, some have two pairs of membranous wing, others are wingless, feed on wood with aid of microbial symbiont carried in a specialized chamber in their hindgut. (Termite)
Class of Insects,, 4 membranous wings, mostly covered with scales, has a proboscis, a sucking tube, complete metamorphosis. (Butterfly and Moths)
Class of Insects., 4 membranous wings with veins, antennae are very short, bristle like, elongated abdomen, large compound eyes, incomplete metamorphosis (Dragonflies, Damselfies)
Class of Insects, Very long, thick hind legs used for jumping; usually 2 pair of wings(one leathery, and one membranous) segmented, hair-like antennae, incomplete metamorphosis. (Grasshopers, Crickets)
Class of Insects, mimics of plants, some eggs even resemble seeds of plants. Cylindrically or dorsoventrally flattened, lack forewings, but have fanlike hind wings.. Mouthparts adapted for chewing or biting. (Stick Plants)
Class of Insects,ectoparasite feeding on the hair or feathers of a single hosts. legs equipped with clawlike tarsi for clinging. lack wings and have reduced eyes. Incomplete metamorphosis. (Lice)
Class of Insects, Wingless, laterally compressed; adults are ectoparasites on birds and mammals; piercing and sucking mouthparts; jumping legs; complete metamorphosis. (Fleas)
Class of Insects,elongated soft body, wingless, antennae are long, reduced eyes, live in litter or under bark, may become pests (Silverfish)
Class of Insects, Two pairs of hairy wings; chewing or lapping mouthparts; complete metamorphosis; aquatic larvae build silken nets or cases (of sand, gravel, and wood) bound together by silk. (Caddisfly)
Class of Mammals, lay eggs, no nipples, young suck milk from fur of mother.
Class of Mammals, Long muscular trunk, thick, loose skin, upper insciors elongated as tusks. (Elephants).
Class of Mammals, Reduced teeth or no teeth, herbivorous(sloths) or carnivorous(anteaters, armidillos).
Class of Mammals, Chisel like incisors, hind legs longer than forelegs and adapted for running and jumping. (Rabbits, Hares, Picas)
Class of Mammals, Sharp pointed canine teeth and molars for shearing, carnivorous (Dogs, Wolves, Bears, Cats)
Class of Mammals, Aquatic, streamlined body, paddle like forelimbs and no hind limbs, thick layer of insulating blubber, carnivorous.
The evolutionary history of a species or group of species.
Molecular Systematics
The caparison of DNA, RNA, and other molecules to infer evolutionary relationships between individual genes and entire genomes.
Fossil Record
Fossil Record
is based on the sequence of fossils which have accumulated in the strata. It is a substantial but incomplete chronicle of evolutionary change.
Analogous structures that have evolved independently.
Meaning two parts
First part of binomal system (to which to species belong)
Specific Epithet
Second part of binomial system.(Refers to one species within the genus.
Phylogenetic Tree
A branching diagram that depicts hypotheses about evolutionary relationships
a diagram which depicts patterns of shared characteristics. By itself does not imply evolutionary history.
a group of species that includes an ancestral species and ALL of its descendants.
The analysis of how species may be grouped into clades.
The TRUE clade, consisting of the ancestral species and all of it’s descendants.
Classification of a clade when lacking information, consists of an anscestral species and some, but not all of it’s descendants.
A grouping of several species that lack a common ancestor.
Shared Primitive Character
A character that is shared beyond the taxon we are trying to define.
Shared Derived Character
A character that is unique to a particular clade. Example (Hair for the Mammalian Clade)
Added as a basis of comparison to a cladogram. Consists of species that are closely related to the ingroup(THE SPECIES THAT WE ARE STUDYING). However it is known to be less closely related then the members of the ingroup.
Natural Selection
The basic mechanism for the evolutionary process.
Evolutionary Adaptation
Result of natural selection, an accumulation of inherited characteristics which enhance organisms ability to survive and reproduce.
Change over time in the genetic composition of a population. Can also mean the gradual appearance of all biological diversity.
Young Earth Theory
Belief that the earth was only a few thousand years old, and had been populated by forms of life that were created.(Was very popular in Darwin’s time).
Greek philosopher who recognized certain \”affinities\” among living things and believed that animals could be arranged on a scale of increasing complexity. Viewed species as unchanging.
Scala Naturae
Life forms arranged in order from lesser to increasing complexity.(Based of Aristotle)
Carolus Linnaeus
Carolus Linnaeus
Swedish botanist and physician who classified lifes
diversity and is the founder of taxonomy . Believed that relationships represented pattern of creation.
Branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying organisms. Two part binomial system which groups similar species into increasingly general categories.
Remains or traces of organisms frorm the past, usually found in sedimentary rocks.
Superimposed layers of rock
The study of fossils, largely developed by George Cuvier.
Geoge Cuvier
French scientist who developed paleontology. Opposed idea of gradual evolutionary change. Advocated catastrophism.
Idea that each boundary between strata represents a catastrophe which killed many species, and that because they were confined to local areas they were quickly repopulated by other species.
Idea that profound changes can take place through cumulative effects of a slow but continuous processes.
James Hutton
Scottish geologist and farmer who proposed that geologic features could be explained in terms of gradual mechanisms that were currently operating.
Lord Kelvin
Irish physicist(developed basis of absolute zero) who also resisted on the basis of energy calculations involving the age of the sun. At that time the principles of radioactive decay were not known. His idea was later refuted because of principle of radioactive dacay.
Charles Lyell
Charles Lyell
British geologist who incorporated gradualism into a more comprehensive theory known as uniformitarinism.
Theory that states that the geologic processes operating today are the same as those operating today, and at the same rate.
Lamark’s Evolution
Theory published in 1809 which proposed two incorrect mechanisms for evolution(Use and Disuse) and (Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics.)
Use and Disuse
Incorect idea that parts of the body that are used extensively become larger and stronger, while those that are not used deteriorate.
Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics
Idea that organism can pass on acquired modifications to its offspring. (No evidence that acquired traits can be inherited.
On The Origin of Species
On The Origin of Species
Charles Darwin published this book on 24 November 1859. Main idea is that evolution account for lifes diversity and that natural selection is a cause of adaptive evolution.
Descent with Modification
Phrase that Darwin used instead of evolution. Means that over millions of years ancestral organisms accumulated diverse modifications that fit them into a specific way of life.
Artificial Selection
The modification of species by humans over many generation by selection and breeding individuals that posses desired traits.
Smallest unit that can actually evolve.
Drug Resistance
(Fill in the blanks) Drugs do not create ______ ________ it selects for resistant individuals already present in the population.
Underlying similarity in related species resulting from a common ancestor.
Anatomical Homology
Comparison of body structures(called homologous structures) resulting from common ancestor. usually showing same arrangement of bones.
Comparative Embryology
The comparison of early stages of animal development. (For example at one point all vertebrate embryos have post anal tails, and pharyngeal structures(throat).
Vestigial Structures
Structures of marginal importance to animals, that once served important functions in organism’s ancestors
Molecular Homologies
Similarities among organisms at the molecular level(DNA, rRNA, proteins)
The geographic distribution of species
Exclusively native to a particular area
Change in genetic make-up of a population from generation to generation
The Modern Synthesis
Comprehensive theory of evolution that integrates ideas from many other fields.
Population Genetics
The reconciliation of Mendelian and Darwinian ideas. The study of how populations change over time.
Localized group of individuals that are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.
Gene Pool
Total aggregate of genes in a population at any given time, consisting of all the alleles at all gene loci in all individuals of the population. (If only one gene exists at a particular locus in a population if is fixed.)
Hardy-Weinberg Theorem
Theory that measures properties of genes pools that are not evolving. States that frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a populations gene pool remain constant provided that only Mendelian segregation and recombination of alleles are at work.
Hardy Weinberg equilibrium
States that at a locus with two alleles the 3 genotypes will appear in following proportion (p2 + 2pq + q2 =1).
Conditons for Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
LARGE Population size
No Gene Flow
No Mutation
Random Mating
No Natural Selection
Changes in nucleotide sequence of DNA. Usually harmful but can be harmless or beneficial.
Point Mutation
Change of one base in a gene. Usually harmless because of redundancy of genetic code.
Gene Duplication
Important source of variation. Usually involves the duplication of chromosomes(which are often harmful). But if the duplicated segment does not have severe effects it can persist over generations and exon shuffling might produce new genes. (Example is what happened to Olfactory Receptor Genes in mammals)
Avg. Mutation Rates
Animals and plants 1 in ever 100,000. In microogranisms is much larger .
Sexual Recombination
Far more important than mutation in sexually producing populations on a generation to generation time scale.
Genetic Drift
Deviations from expected results in population that helps explain how allele frequencies can fluctuate unpredictably. Over time this tends to reduce genetic variation through the losses of the alleles.
The Bottleneck Effect
Where a natural disaster drastically reduces the size of the population and makes gene pool not reflective of original populations gene pool. Does not depend on fitness of individuals.
The Founder Effect
Name for what occurs after a few individuals become isolated and establish new population. Accounts for a large amount of inherited disorders among isolated populations.
Gene Flow
Genetic additions or subtractions from a population resulting from the movement of fertile gametes. Tends to reduce differences between populations
Discrete Characters
Colors such as red, blue, green, or white (usually determined by single gene locus with different alleles that produce distinct phenotypes.
Quantative Characters
Heritable variation that varies along a continuum.(MOST COMMON HERITABLE VARIATION). Usually result from the influence of two or more genes on a single phenotypic character.
Different forms differing in discrete characteristics.
Phenotypic Polymorphism
When two or more distinct morphs are represented in high enough frequencies to be readily identifiable.
Genetic Polymorphism
polymorphisms for alleles that influence height at the several loci.
Average Heterozgosity
Determined by measuring gene variability and nucleotide variability. Two Humans differ about 0.1% of nucleotide bases.
Geographic Variation
Differnces between gene pools of separate populations or populations subgroups.
A graded change in a trait along a geographic axis. (May represent graded region of overlap where individuals of neighbouring populations are interbreeding.
Contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation relative to the contributions of other individuals.
Relative Fitness
contribution of a genotype to the next generation compared to the contribution of a alternative genotype at the same locus.
Directional Selection
Type of selection that happens when a population’s environment changes or when members of a population migrate to a new habitat with different environmental conditions. Favours variants at one extreme of population.
Disruptive Selection
Type of selection that occours and favors individuals on both extremes of a phenotyphic range.
Stabilizing Selection
Type of selection that act against extreme phenotypes and favours intermediate variants. Works to reduce variation and mantain status quo.
Balancing Selection
Type of selection that occurs when natural selection retains stable frequencies of two or more phenotypic forms in a population(called Balancing Polymorphism). Depends on Heterozgote Advantage and frequency dependent selection.
Heterozgote Advantage
Occurs when individuals who are heterozygous at a particular gene locus have a greater fitness than the homozgotes. ( Hemoglobin in Sickle Cell Disease). Aggregate benefit balance aggregate harm of the allele.
Neutral Variation
Variation that has little or no impact on reproductive success, and natural selection doesn’t affect those alleles.
Sexual Selection
Natural selection for mating success. Can result in sexual dimorphism.
Sexual Dimorphism
Differences between the sexes in secondary sexual characteristics which are not directly involved in reproduction. Include size, color, and ornamentation. In veterbrates Males tend to be showier sex
Intrasexual Selection
Sexual selection that occurs \”within\” the same sex is direct competition between individuals of one sex for mates of the opposite sex. (For Example : patrolling)
Intersexual Selection
Intersexual Selection
Sexual selection occuring \”between\” the sexes. May include: showiness,bright plumage
Evolutionary Enigma of Sex
Inferiority to asexual reproduction in population expansion. Theoretical advantages is the process of meiotic recombination and fertilization generate genetic variation. Especially resistance to bacteria and pathogens that infect host by attaching to receptor particles.
The origin of new species
evolutionary change above the species level that can be used to define higher taxa.
Called branching evolution. Is the splitting of a gene pool into two or more seprate pools, which give rise to one or more new species. Promotes biological diversity by increasing number of species.
Called phyletic evolution. Is the accumulation of changes that gradually transform a given species into a species with different characteristics.
Biological Species Concept
Proposed in 1942 by Enst Mayr. Defines species as a population or group of populations whose members have the potential to produce viable, fertile offspring with members of other populations.
Reproductive Isolation
The existence of biological factor that prevent members of a species from producing viable fertile offspring.
Prezygotic Barriers
Impedes mating between species or hinder fertilization.
Postzygotic Barriers
May occur if sperm cell overcomes prezygotic barriers. Will prevent the hybrid zgote from developing into a viable fertile adult.
Morphological Species Concept
Characterization of a species by body shape, size, structure and other features. In practice it is how most scientists distinguish species.
Paleontological Species Concept
Characterization of a species based on morphologically distinct species known ONLY from fossil record.
Ecological Species Concept
Characterization of a species based on ecological niche(role in biological community)
Phylogenetic Species Concept
Characterization of a species based on unique genetic history. Made by comparing its physical characteristics or its molecular sequence with those of other organisms. Sometimes reveal existence of sibling species.
Allopatric Speciation
Occurs when gene flow is disturbed when population is divided into geographically isolated subpopulations.
Sympatric Speciation
Speciation that occurs in geographically overlapping population. Include Chromosomal changes and non random mating that reduce gene flow.
Result of an accident in cell division which results in an extra set of chromosomes.
An individual that has more than two chromosome sets, all derived from a single species.
Adaptive Radiation
The evolution of many diversely adapted species from a common ancestor upon introduction to various environmental opportunities and challenges.
Punctuated Equilibrium
Championed by Stephen Jay Gould and describes periods of apparent stasis punctuated by sudden change.
Simple Eyes
Patches of light sensitive photoreceptor cells. Commonly found in Limpets(Phylum Mollusca).
Help animal distinguish light from dark.
An evolutionary change in the rate of timing of developmental events.
Allometric Growth
Proportional growth that helps body its specific form.
When a species retain body features that were juvenile structures in the ancestral species.(Many salamnders have this).
Homeotic Genes
Genes that control of placement and spatial organization of body parts.
Hox Genes
A class of homeotic genes that provide positional information in animal embryo. Prompts structures to develop into structures appropriate for a particular location.