after martha

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
Good speech delivery
a. is accompanied by frequent gestures
.b. requires that the speaker have a strong voice.
c. sounds conversational even though it has been rehearsed.
d. draws the attention of the audience away from the message.
e. is best achieved by reading from a manuscript.
c. sounds conversational even though it has been rehearsed.
Good speech delivery
a. has a conversational quality.
b. does not call attention to itself.
c. requires a strong voice.
d. all of the above.
e. a and b only.
e. a and b only.
Communication based on a speaker’s body and voice, rather than on the use of words, is called
a. implicit communication.
b. nonverbal communication.
c. unintentional communication.
d. instinctive communication.
e. physical communication.
b. nonverbal communication.
In which situation would a speaker be most likely to read from a manuscript?
a. a speech accepting an award at a company banquet
b. a speech in honor of a retiring employee
c. a speech on international policy at the United Nations
d. a speech on the activities of a church social committee
e. a speech of welcome to new members of the Rotary Club
c. a speech on international policy at the United Nations
A political candidate is running for office and must give a speech that will lay out the details of her platform. The speech will be widely covered by newspapers and television. What kind of delivery is the candidate most likely to use?
a. manuscript
b. impromptu
c. monotonous
d. colloquial
e. memorized
a. manuscript
When speaking from a manuscript, you should
a. practice aloud to make sure the speech sounds natural.
b. be certain the final manuscript is legible at a glance.
c. work on establishing eye contact with the audience.
d. all of the above.
e. a and b only.
d. all of the above.
In which situation would a speaker be most likely to recite a speech from memory?
a. when making a toast at a wedding
b. when responding to questions during a class lecture
c. when reporting earnings to the yearly stockholders’ meeting
d. when presenting a lengthy proposal to the city council
e. when rallying a group to work for lower tuition
a. when making a toast at a wedding
According to your textbook, the __________ speaker delivers a speech with little or no immediate preparation.
a. colloquial
b. extemporaneous
c. conversational
d. impromptu
e. declamatory
d. impromptu
Which of the following does your textbook recommend when you need to speak impromptu?
a. Maintain eye contact with the audience.
b. Use signposts to help listeners keep track of your ideas.
c. Tell the audience how nervous you are.
d. all of the above
e. a and b only
e. a and b only
Diego needs to make an impromptu response to another speaker at a staff meeting. Your textbook recommends that he should do all of the following except
a. state the point he is answering.
b. state the point he wishes to make.
c. maintain eye contact with the audience.
d. tell the audience how nervous he is about impromptu speaking.
e. use signposts to help the audience keep track of his ideas.
d. tell the audience how nervous he is about impromptu speaking.
The __________ speaker uses only brief notes or a speaking outline to jog the memory.
a. after-dinner
b. commemorative
c. informative
d. extemporaneous
e. persuasive
d. extemporaneous
A speech that is fully prepared in advance but that is delivered from a brief set of notes or a speaking outline is called a(n) __________ speech.
a. extemporaneous
b. declamatory
c. impromptu
d. manuscript
e. vocalized
a. extemporaneous
Speaking extemporaneously
a. gives more control over language than does speaking from memory.
b. is adaptable to more situations than is speaking from manuscript.
c. offers more spontaneity and directness than does speaking impromptu.
d. all of the above.
e. b and c only.
b. is adaptable to more situations than is speaking from manuscript.
Which of the following does your textbook mention as an advantage of extemporaneous delivery?
a. It requires only a minimal amount of gesturing by the speaker.
b. It reduces the likelihood of a speaker making vocalized pauses.
c. It improves a speaker’s ability to articulate difficult words correctly.
d. It requires little or no preparation before the speech is delivered.
e. It allows greater spontaneity than does speaking from a manuscript.
e. It allows greater spontaneity than does speaking from a manuscript.
Which of the following does your textbook mention as an advantage of using visual aids in a public speech?
a. Using visual aids enhances the clarity of the speaker’s message.
b. Using visual aids reduces the need for eye contact with the audience.
c. Using visual aids can help combat the speaker’s stage fright.
d. all of the above
e. a and c only
e. a and c only
According to your textbook, which of the following is an advantage of using visual aids in a speech?
a. Using visual aids can increase the clarity of a speaker’s message.
b. Using visual aids can increase the audience’s retention of a speaker’s message.
c. Using visual aids can increase the persuasiveness of a speaker’s message.
d. all of the above
e. a and b only
d. all of the above
Visual aids can be very useful to a speaker because they
a. often take the place of statistics.
b. enhance the clarity of a speaker’s ideas.
c. can be passed among members of the audience.
d. do not require a great deal of explanation.
e. all of the above.
b. enhance the clarity of a speaker’s ideas.
Visual aids are often helpful to a speaker because they can
a. enhance the clarity of a speaker’s ideas.
b. make information more interesting to listeners.
c. help listeners retain a speaker’s ideas.
d. all of the above.
e. a and b only.
d. all of the above.
If the object you want to use as a visual aid is not available, the next best option ideally is a
a. model.
b. chart.
c. slide.
d. photograph.
e. drawing.
a. model.
As your textbook explains, if you plan to use a photograph as a visual aid in a speech, you should usually
a. display the photograph with PowerPoint.
b. pass the photograph among the audience so everyone can look at it.
c. use a photograph in an oversize book and hold it where it can be seen.
d. all of the above.
e. b and c only.
a. display the photograph with PowerPoint.
__________ are especially valuable for showing an audience statistical trends and patterns.
a. Models
b. Diagrams
c. Transparencies
d. Blueprints
e. Graphs
e. Graphs
If you were discussing statistical trends in a speech, what kind of visual aid would probably work best to clarify the trends for listeners?
a. a chart
b. a map
c. a diagram
d. a graph
e. a model
d. a graph
A __________ graph is best suited for showing changes in statistics over time or space.
a. pie
b. line
c. distributive
d. parallel
e. ratio
b. line
If you wanted to compare the changes over the last 10 years in the number of people who get their news from newspapers and the number of people who get their news from the Internet, the best kind of visual aid would probably be a
a. pie graph.
b. diagram.
c. chart.
d. line graph.
e. wave graph.
d. line graph.
Which of the following would probably be the best kind of visual aid to illustrate the rising cost of a college degree?
a. a line graph
b. a chart
c. a diagram
d. a bar graph
e. a pie graph
a. a line graph
Which of the following would probably be the best kind of visual aid to show changes in the homicide rate in Washington, D.C., over the past twenty years?
a. a diagram
b. a line graph
c. a chart
d. a bar graph
e. a pie graph
b. a line graph
A __________ graph is best suited for illustrating simple distribution patterns.
a. pie
b. line
c. parallel
d. ratio
e. bar
a. pie
A __________ graph is best suited for illustrating the relationship among parts of a whole.
a. parallel
b. ratio
c. bar
d. pie
e. line
d. pie
Which of the following is an instance of informative speaking?
a. a student urging an instructor to reconsider the due date for an assignment
b. a student sharing ideas about leadership based on a book she has read
c. a student on stage telling jokes during the intermission of a play
d. all of the above
e. a and b only
b. a student sharing ideas about leadership based on a book she has read
Which of the following is an instance of informative speaking?
a. a teacher praising parents for contributing to the school carnival
b. a teacher arguing that phonics is a successful method for teaching reading
c. a teacher explaining the requirements for an assignment
d. all of the above
e. b and c only
c. a teacher explaining the requirements for an assignment
Which of the following is an instance of informative speaking?
a. an ambassador urging changes in international adoption laws
b. a social worker explaining adoption laws to potential parents
c. a scientist convincing colleagues to change their research focus
d. all of the above
e. b and c only
b. a social worker explaining adoption laws to potential parents
Which of the following is an instance of informative speaking?
a. a business manager reporting on next year’s budget
b. a pastor urging parishioners to give to a building fund
c. a teacher lecturing about methods of speech organization
d. all of the above
e. a and c only
e. a and c only
Which of the following is an instance of informative speaking?
a. a lawyer exhorting a jury not to convict her client
b. a teacher urging colleagues to adopt a new curriculum
c. a banker explaining how the stock market operates
d. all of the above
e. a and c only
c. a banker explaining how the stock market operates
Which of the following is an instance of informative speaking?
a. a doctor explaining how antioxidants affect the body
b. a vitamin distributor urging listeners to buy antioxidants
c. a scientist arguing that antioxidants have minimal health benefits
d. all of the above
e. a and c only
a. a doctor explaining how antioxidants affect the body
In an informative speech, the speaker acts as a(n)
a. advocate.
b. entertainer.
c. teacher.
d. motivator.
e. evaluator.
c. teacher.
According to your textbook, the aims of an informative speech include
a. communicating the speaker’s information clearly.
b. communicating the speaker’s information accurately.
c. making the speaker’s information meaningful to the audience.
d. all of the above.
e. a and b only.
d. all of the above.
According to your textbook, the questions listeners ask when judging an informative speech include
a. Is the information communicated clearly?
b. Is the information communicated accurately?
c. Is the information made meaningful and interesting to the audience?
d. all of the above
e. a and b only
d. all of the above
As explained by your textbook, “To inform my audience about the role of 1940s actress Hedy Lamarr in the development of cell phone technology” is a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n)
a. procedure.
b. occurrence.
c. object.
d. function.
e. concept.
c. object.
“To inform my audience about the major achievements of Ronald Reagan” is a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n)
a. object.
b. process.
c. event.
d. concept.
e. function.
a. object.
“To inform my audience about the major parts of a motion-picture camera” is a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n)
a. concept.
b. event.
c. process.
d. object.
e. function.
d. object.
As explained by your textbook, “To inform my audience about the Native Americans who transmitted coded messages for the U.S. during World War II” is an example of a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n)
a. object.
b. function.
c. concept.
d. event.
e. process.
a. object.
As explained in your textbook, “To inform my audience about the steps in creating a rooftop garden” is an example of a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n)
a. concept.
b. process.
c. function.
d. condition.
e. object.
b. process.
Of all the kinds of speechmaking, __________ speaking is the most complex and the most challenging.
a. persuasive
b. after-dinner
c. ceremonial
d. informative
e. commemorative
a. persuasive
Which of the following is an instance of persuasive speaking?
a. a coach reviewing the offensive plays for next week’s game
b. a lawyer explaining the details of a plea bargaining agreement to her client
c. an architectural firm recommending adoption of its building plan
d. a botanist reporting the discovery of a new species
e. an activist honoring past leaders of the labor movement
c. an architectural firm recommending adoption of its building plan
Which of the following is an instance of persuasive speaking?
a. a president of a company presenting an award to an outstanding employee
b. a marketing manager explaining a new product to the company’s sales force
c. a personnel manager defining employee benefits at a meeting of workers
d. a union representative urging management to avoid a strike by raising wages
e. a finance officer reporting sales figures to the board of directors
d. a union representative urging management to avoid a strike by raising wages
Which of the following is an instance of persuasive speaking?
a. a friend offering a humorous toast at a wedding
b. a volunteer convincing a group of citizens to sign a petition
c. an academic advisor explaining the study abroad process
d. all of the above
e. a and c only
b. a volunteer convincing a group of citizens to sign a petition
Which of the following is an instance of persuasive speaking?
a. a United States President praising World War II veterans
b. a history professor lecturing on the rise of industrialism
c. a judge explaining the rules of evidence during a criminal trail
d. a developer urging the city council to build a new convention center
e. a geneticist reporting her research to a professional meeting
d. a developer urging the city council to build a new convention center
According to your textbook, persuasive speakers have an ethical obligation to
a. make sure their goals are ethically sound.
b. learn about all sides of an issue.
c. present their evidence fairly and accurately.
d. all of the above.
e. a and b only.
d. all of the above.
According to your textbook, persuasive speakers have an ethical obligation to
a. learn about all sides of an issue.
b. use visual aids when discussing practicality.
c. present their evidence fairly and accurately.
d. all of the above.
e. a and c only.
e. a and c only.
According to your textbook, persuasion is a psychological process in which listeners engage in a __________ with the speaker.
a. mental dialogue
b. situational disagreement
c. cognitive restructuring
d. feedback loop
e. logical debate
a. mental dialogue
According to your textbook, you should think of your persuasive speech as
a. essentially the same as a commemorative speech.
b. a kind of mental dialogue with the audience.
c. less challenging than speaking to inform.
d. all of the above.
e. b and c only.
b. a kind of mental dialogue with the audience.
As your textbook explains, if you want to persuade a skeptical audience, you need to
a. organize the speech in Monroe’s motivated sequence.
b. urge the audience to take immediate action.
c. circulate an audience-analysis questionnaire.
d. answer the reasons for the audience’s skepticism.
e. focus your speech on questions of practicality.
d. answer the reasons for the audience’s skepticism.
If you want to persuade a skeptical audience, which of the following is it most important for you to do in your speech?
a. Define unclear terms in the introduction.
b. Organize the speech in problem-solution order.
c. Focus the speech on questions of value.
d. Answer the reasons for the audience’s skepticism.
e. Include a call for action in the conclusion.
d. Answer the reasons for the audience’s skepticism.
That part of the audience a speaker most wants to persuade is called the
a. specific audience.
b. designated audience.
c. central audience.
d. special audience.
e. target audience.
e. target audience.
The __________ is that portion of the whole audience that the speaker most wants to persuade.
a. core audience
b. target audience
c. projected audience
d. intended audience
e. focus audience
b. target audience
Luna wanted to convince the technology department at her company to adopt a new database system. Some staff members supported the change, a few were opposed, and most were undecided. Luna realized that the undecided group was her __________ , so she focused most of her effort on them.
a. majority audience
b. target audience
c. projected audience
d. focus audience
e. central audience
b. target audience
What contemporary researchers term credibility, Aristotle termed
a. ethics.
b. logos.
c. ethos.
d. pathos.
e. credos.
c. ethos.
According to your textbook, the two most important factors affecting the credibility of a persuasive speaker are
a. competence and character.
b. prestige and charisma.
c. character and reputation.
d. popularity and intelligence.
e. charisma and competence.
a. competence and character.
According to your textbook, the two most important factors affecting the credibility of a persuasive speaker are competence and
a. logic.
b. charisma.
c. character.
d. pathos.
e. status.
c. character.
As explained in your textbook, the credibility of a speaker before he or she starts to speak is called _________ credibility.
a. initial
b. negative
c. derived
d. original
e. terminal
a. initial
According to your textbook, the credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech is called _________ credibility.
a. final
b. derived
c. concluding
d. terminal
e. acquired
d. terminal
According to your textbook, the credibility of a speaker produced by everything the speaker says or does during the speech itself is called
a. contrived credibility.
b. derived credibility.
c. demonstrated credibility.
d. generated credibility.
e. terminal credibility.
b. derived credibility.
According to your textbook, when is it especially important for a persuasive speaker to establish common ground with the audience?
a. when presenting a plan
b. at the end of the speech
c. when reasoning from specific instances
d. at the beginning of the speech
e. when explaining visual aids
d. at the beginning of the speech
To create common ground with an audience in the introduction of a persuasive speech, your textbook recommends that you
a. show the audience that you share their values.
b. use statistics to show the extent of a problem.
c. confront the audience for failing to do the right thing.
d. all of the above.
e. a and b only.
a. show the audience that you share their values.
Which of the following is recommended in your textbook as a way to enhance your credibility in a persuasive speech?
a. Explain your expertise on the speech topic.
b. Deliver your speeches fluently and expressively.
c. Establish common ground with your audience.
d. all of the above
e. a and c only
d. all of the above
Which of the following is recommended in your textbook as a way to enhance your credibility in a persuasive speech?
a. Establish common ground with your audience.
b. Avoid talking about your personal knowledge of the topic.
c. Relate the topic to the audience in your introduction.
d. all of the above
e. a and b only
a. Establish common ground with your audience.
According to your textbook, research has shown that
a. speakers with low initial credibility do not need to use as much evidence as speakers with high initial credibility.
b. the credibility of a speaker is determined above all by how the audience perceives the speaker’s intelligence and prestige.
c. speakers can enhance their credibility by delivering their speeches fluently and expressively.
d. personal appearance is the most important factor in determining a speaker’s derived credibility.
e. a speaker can begin with low terminal credibility and develop high initial credibility as the speech proceeds.
c. speakers can enhance their credibility by delivering their speeches fluently and expressively.
Which of the following statements about speaker credibility is true?
a. A speaker’s credibility is based on her or his reputation rather than on what happens during a speech.
b. Credibility refers to the speaker’s true character and competence, not merely to the audience’s perception of the speaker.
c. A speaker’s credibility is affected by almost every aspect of the speech except delivery.
d. Although credibility is an important factor for professional speakers, it does not matter in classroom speeches.
e. The same speaker can have high credibility for one audience and low credibility for another audience.
e. The same speaker can have high credibility for one audience and low credibility for another audience.
Which of the following statements about speaker credibility is true?
a. A speaker’s credibility is affected above all by how the audience perceives the speaker’s personal appearance.
b. A speaker’s credibility is affected above all by how the audience perceives the speaker’s competence and character.
c. A speaker’s credibility is affected above all by how the audience perceives the speaker’s manner of delivery.
d. A speaker’s credibility is affected above all by how the audience perceives the speaker’s personality and reputation.
e. A speaker’s credibility is affected above all by how the audience perceives the speaker’s intelligence and prestige.
b. A speaker’s credibility is affected above all by how the audience perceives the speaker’s competence and character.
Efram’s audience was persuaded by his speech because they perceived him to be sincere, trustworthy, and to have their best interests at heart. Which factor of credibility influenced Efram’s audience?
a. dynamism
b. charisma
c. expertise
d. character
e. competence
d. character
Which of the following is an example of a speech for a special occasion?
a. a speech presenting an award to a retiring newspaper editor
b. a presentation on marketing strategy at a sales meeting
c. a talk to new college students about how to register for classes
d. a campaign speech by a candidate for the U.S. Senate
e. a lecture by a visiting professor in a college class
a. a speech presenting an award to a retiring newspaper editor
One main purpose of a speech of introduction is to
a. explain why the person being introduced is receiving her or his award.
b. inspire the audience with a sense of the significance of the occasion.
c. create a welcoming climate to build enthusiasm for the main speaker.
d. explain why listeners should pay tribute to a person, idea, or institution.
e. enhance the credibility of the speaker who is making the introduction.
c. create a welcoming climate to build enthusiasm for the main speaker.
Which of the following is recommended by your textbook as a guideline for a speech of introduction?
a. Prepare your speech so it will last between 15 and 20 minutes.
b. Use a quotation at the beginning to secure the attention of the audience.
c. Make sure your remarks about the main speaker are completely accurate.
d. Generate humor with an embarrassing story about the main speaker.
e. Assume that the audience knows nothing about the main speaker.
c. Make sure your remarks about the main speaker are completely accurate.
All of the following are presented in your textbook as guidelines for a speech of introduction except
a. Be brief.
b. Adapt your remarks to the occasion.
c. Bring the speech to life by using a hypothetical example.
d. Try to create a sense of anticipation and drama.
e. Make sure your remarks are completely accurate.
c. Bring the speech to life by using a hypothetical example.
All of the following are presented in your textbook as guidelines for a speech of introduction except
a. Make sure your remarks are completely accurate.
b. Adapt your remarks to the main speaker.
c. Adapt your remarks to the audience.
d. Limit your remarks to ten minutes in length.
e. Try to create a sense of anticipation and drama.
d. Limit your remarks to ten minutes in length.
As your textbook explains, when you give a speech of introduction, you should be sure to adapt your remarks to the
a. occasion.
b. audience.
c. main speaker.
d. all of the above.
e. a and b only.
d. all of the above.
What does it mean to say that a speech of introduction should be “adapted to the main speaker”?
a. The speech should preview what the main speaker’s points will be.
b. The speech should be given in the same style as the person being introduced.
c. The speech should avoid creating discomfort for the main speaker.
d. all of the above
e. a and c only
c. The speech should avoid creating discomfort for the main speaker.
One method recommended in your textbook for creating a sense of drama and anticipation in a speech of introduction is to
a. present a brief biography of the main speaker.
b. save the name of the main speaker until the final moment.
c. use visual aids that focus attention on the main speaker.
d. praise the speaking skills of the main speaker.
e. make sure the introduction is completely accurate.
b. save the name of the main speaker until the final moment.
According to your textbook, the best way to create a sense of anticipation and drama in a speech of introduction is to
a. save the name of the main speaker for last.
b. tell the audience that the main speaker is an excellent orator.
c. use PowerPoint to explain the main speaker’s accomplishments.
d. deliver the speech word for word from a written manuscript.
e. give a detailed biography of the main speaker.
a. save the name of the main speaker for last.
At the annual basketball banquet, Clark is introducing the men’s coach, a man who is well known by everyone in the room. According to your textbook, the best way for Clark to create a sense of anticipation and drama in his speech of introduction is to
a. present a detailed biography of the coach’s life.
b. tell an embarrassing story about the coach’s childhood.
c. be creative by learning about the coach and casting him in a new light.
d. all of the above.
e. b and c only.
c. be creative by learning about the coach and casting him in a new light.
As president of the city’s historical society, Madeline is introducing the guest speaker at the society’s year-end banquet. According to your textbook, the best way for Madeline to create a sense of anticipation and drama in her speech of introduction is to
a. save the name of the guest speaker for last.
b. use PowerPoint to explain the guest speaker’s accomplishments.
c. tell the audience that the guest speaker is an excellent orator.
d. all of the above.
e. a and c only.
a. save the name of the guest speaker for last.
A speaker introducing the president of a university to an audience of prospective students and their families will best accomplish this goal by
a. praising the president as the finest public speaker on campus.
b. presenting a detailed biography of the president’s entire life.
c. discussing the history of the university and its excellent athletic teams.
d. summarizing the president’s major accomplishments at the university.
e. defending the changes in graduation requirements instituted by the president.
d. summarizing the president’s major accomplishments at the university.
According to your textbook, the main purpose of a speech of presentation is to present
a. the main speaker to the audience.
b. thanks for a gift or an award.
c. the reasons why a person deserves commendation.
d. information about the importance of the occasion.
e. a gift or an award to the recipient.
e. a gift or an award to the recipient.
When giving a speech of presentation, you should usually
a. tell why the recipient is receiving her or his award.
b. present the main speaker briefly and accurately.
c. avoid mentioning the losers of the award competition.
d. adapt your presentation to the main speaker.
e. give a brief biography of the main speaker.
a. tell why the recipient is receiving her or his award.
Which of the following is an example of a speech of presentation?
a. a speech presenting a new reporter to the newspaper staff
b. a speech presenting reasons why a new high school needs to be built
c. a speech presenting a famous professor who will lecture on economics
d. a speech presenting a certificate of recognition to an outstanding worker
e. a speech presenting the annual earnings report to stockholders
d. a speech presenting a certificate of recognition to an outstanding worker
According to your textbook, a dyad is
a. a group of two people.
b. a group formed to solve a particular problem.
c. a group organized to present a symposium.
d. a group formed to plan a social event.
e. a group without a leader.
a. a group of two people.
As explained in your textbook, one of the defining traits of a small group is that
a. the group has a predetermined leader.
b. members of the group assemble for a specific purpose.
c. the group succeeds in brainstorming for potential solutions.
d. everyone in the group has a similar frame of reference.
e. the group follows the reflective-thinking method.
b. members of the group assemble for a specific purpose.
As explained in your textbook, which of the following is a defining trait of a small group?
a. the group assembles for a specific purpose
b. the group contains a minimum of three members
c. the group has a designated leader
d. all of the above
e. a and b only
e. a and b only
As explained in your textbook, a group member to whom other members defer because of his or her rank or expertise is called a(n)
a. implied leader.
b. specific leader.
c. emergent leader.
d. designated leader.
e. appointed leader.
a. implied leader.
The person who assumes a leadership role in a small group because of her or his ability, personality, or talkativeness is termed a(n)
a. specific leader.
b. implied leader.
c. emergent leader.
d. insistent leader.
e. designated leader.
c. emergent leader.
According to your textbook, a small group that meets for only one session should almost always have a(n) __________ leader.
a. implied
b. designated
c. elected
d. emergent
e. dynamic
b. designated
As the vice president for employee relations, Manuel is the only member of his company’s executive team attending informal small group meetings where employees are considering proposals to revise the company’s personal leave policies. Beginning at its very first meeting, the group looks to Manuel for leadership. What kind of leader is Manuel?
a. task leader
b. emergent leader
c. authoritative leader
d. maintenance leader
e. implied leader
e. implied leader
Miriam is the only member of her small group with professional experience on their subject, so her group naturally looks to her to guide the project. What kind of leader is Miriam?
a. implied leader
b. maintenance leader
c. emergent leader
d. designated leader
e. task leader
a. implied leader
Rochelle was appointed by her boss to chair a small committee to draft a policy statement on personal use of the office computers. She called a meeting of the group for 9 a.m. Wednesday morning. According to your textbook, what kind of leader is Rochelle?
a. emergent leader
b. designated leader
c. implied leader
d. dominant leader
e. task leader
b. designated leader
Randall is talkative and offers his opinions freely during small group meetings. Because he participates more than the other members, he has assumed a leadership role within the group. What kind of leader is Randall?
a. task leader
b. implied leader
c. emergent leader
d. designated leader
e. accidental leader
c. emergent leader
As explained in your textbook, the leadership needs faced by all problem-solving small groups include
a. task needs.
b. maintenance needs.
c. procedural needs.
d. all of the above.
e. a and c only.
D. All of the above
According to your textbook, what are the three kinds of leadership needs faced by all problem-solving small groups?
a. agenda needs, task needs, and consensus needs
b. decision needs, maintenance needs, and personal needs
c. procedural needs, agenda needs, and participation needs
d. research needs, schedule needs, and judgment needs
e. task needs, procedural needs, and maintenance needs
E. Task needs, Procedural needs, and maintenance needs
Which of the following is a procedural need of a problem-solving small group?
a. keeping the group from going off on a tangent
b. conducting research to help the group analyze the problem
c. maintaining good interpersonal relations among the group
d. reserving a room for the group’s next meeting
e. helping the group reach consensus on its final decision
D. Reserving a room for the group’s next meeting
Which of the following is a procedural need of a problem-solving small group?
a. deciding when and where the group will meet
b. helping the group reach consensus on its final decision
c. maintaining good interpersonal relations among the group
d. conducting research to help the group analyze the problem
e. keeping the group focused on achieving its objectives
A. Deciding when and where the group will meet
According to your textbook, each of the following is a procedural need of a small group except
a. analyzing the issue facing the group.
b. deciding where the group will meet next.
c. preparing and distributing handouts for the group’s meeting.
d. summarizing the group’s progress at the end of the meeting.
e. setting the agenda for the group’s meeting.
A. Analyzing the issue facing the group
T F Good speech delivery should call attention to itself.
F
T F Good speech delivery conveys a speaker’s ideas without calling attention to itself.
T
T F Nonverbal communication is based on a person’s use of voice and body, rather than on the use of words.
T
T F One of the advantages of speaking from a manuscript is that it frees a speaker from the need to establish eye contact with the audience.
F
T F Speaking from a manuscript allows for greater spontaneity and directness than does speaking extemporaneously.
F
T F A manuscript speech is written out word for word and read to the audience.
T
T F Speaking from a manuscript requires very little skill.
F
T F When speaking from a manuscript, you should strive for the same directness and sincerity in your voice as in an extemporaneous speech.
T
T F Speaking from memory is most effective when a speaker wants to be very responsive to feedback from the audience.
F
T F When speaking impromptu, you should do your best to look calm and confident no matter how nervous you may be feeling.
T
T F Impromptu speaking gives more precise control over thought and language than does extemporaneous speaking.
F
T F An impromptu speech is delivered with little or no immediate preparation.
T
T F Speaking impromptu and speaking extemporaneously are essentially alike.
F
T F An extemporaneous speech is carefully prepared and practiced in advance.
T
T F Research has shown that an average speaker who uses visual aids will come across as more credible and better prepared than a speaker who does not use visual aids.
T
T F Research shows that an average speaker who uses visual aids effectively will come across as more professional than a dynamic speaker who does not use visual aids.
T
T F One of the reasons to use visual aids in a speech is that you can break eye contact with the audience while discussing the aids.
F
T F Research has shown that visual aids can increase both the clarity and the persuasiveness of a speaker’s message.
T
T F Research has shown that using visual aids can increase the audience’s retention of a speaker’s message.
T
T F Using visual aids can help a speaker combat stage fright.
T
T F If the object you want to speak about is too large, too small, or unavailable to use as a visual aid, you have little choice but to change the topic of your speech.
F
T F If the object you want to speak about is too large, too small, or unavailable to use as a visual aid, you may be able to use a model instead.
T
T F Models are the best type of visual aid for presenting statistical information.
F
T F Because a picture is worth a thousand words, it is a good idea to pass photographs among the audience in order to illustrate your point.
F
T F To be effective as visual aids, photographs must be large enough to be seen easily by everyone in the audience.
T
T F The best way to show drawings and photographs is to pass them around the room during your speech.
F
T F If you were giving a speech about how to lift weights, the most effective visual aid would probably be a drawing.
F
T F If you were showing statistical trends in a speech, the best visual aid to use would probably be a pie graph.
F
T F Your textbook discusses four kinds of informative speeches—speeches about objects, speeches about concepts, speeches about processes, and speeches about events.
T
T F In an informative speech, the speaker acts as an advocate.
F
T F A lawyer urging a jury to acquit her client is an example of informative speaking.
F
T F When an informative speech about a process has more than five steps, the speaker should group the steps into units so as to limit the number of main points.
T
T F Informative speeches about processes are usually arranged in chronological order.
T
T F An informative speech about a process that has as many as ten or twelve steps is one of the few times it is acceptable to have more than five main points.
F
T F If the specific purpose of your informative speech is to recount the history of an event, you will usually arrange the speech in chronological order.
T
T F Informative speeches about events are usually arranged in spatial order.
F
T F Speeches about concepts are often more complex than other kinds of informative speeches.
T
T F Informative speeches about concepts are usually arranged in spatial order.
F
T F Informative speeches about concepts are usually arranged in topical order.
T
T F “To inform my audience about the role of Nikola Tesla in the discovery of electricity” is a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about an object.
T
T F “To inform my audience how to create their own blog” is a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a process.
T
T F “To inform my audience about what happened at the Civil War Battle of Manassas” is a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about an event.
T
T F Persuasion is the process of creating, reinforcing, or changing people’s beliefs or actions.
T
T F Because everyone knows that a persuasive speaker’s goal is to influence the audience’s beliefs or actions, questions of ethics are less important in persuasive speaking than in other kinds of speaking.
F
T F Persuasive speakers should aim to construct speeches that are both convincing and ethically sound.
T
T F Even though a persuasive speaker’s goal is to influence the audience’s beliefs or actions, she or he still has an ethical obligation to present evidence fairly and accurately.
T
T F One way for a persuasive speaker to uphold the ethical obligations of speechmaking is to learn about all sides of an issue.
T
T F Of all the kinds of public speaking, persuasion is the most complex and the most challenging.
T
T F Moving listeners from being strongly opposed to a speaker’s position to being only moderately opposed would be a sign of a successful persuasive speech.
T
T F As your textbook explains, persuasion takes place only if the audience is strongly in favor of the speaker’s position by the end of the speech.
F
T F As your textbook explains, when faced with an audience that strongly opposes your point of view, you can consider your persuasive speech a success if it leads even a few listeners to reexamine their views.
T
T F Your success in a persuasive speech will usually depend on how well you adapt to the attitudes, beliefs, and values of your audience.
T
T F Persuasion is a psychological process in which listeners engage in a mental dialogue with the speaker.
T
T F Research indicates that audiences often engage in a mental give-and-take with the speaker as they listen to a persuasive speech.
T
T F When speaking to persuade, you need to think of your speech as a kind of mental dialogue with your audience.
T
T F Audience analysis and adaptation are usually more demanding in persuasive speaking than in speaking to inform.
T
T F What many teachers refer to as source credibility was called ethos by Aristotle.
T
T F Competence and character are the most important factors affecting a speaker’s credibility.
T
T F Education and status are the most important factors affecting a speaker’s credibility.
F
T F The more favorably listeners view a speaker’s competence and character, the more likely they are to accept what the speaker says.
T
T F Credibility is the audience’s perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic.
T
T F The credibility of a speaker before she or he starts to speak is called derived credibility.
F
T F The credibility of a speaker before she or he starts to speak is called initial credibility.
T
T F Derived credibility refers to the credibility of the speaker produced by everything she or he says and does during the speech itself.
T
T F Terminal credibility is the credibility of the speaker at the start of the speech.
F
T F Terminal credibility is the credibility of the speaker at the end of the speech.
T
T F A speaker can have high credibility for one audience and low credibility for another audience.
T
T F A speaker’s credibility can change during the course of her or his speech.
T
T F A speaker could begin a speech with high credibility but end the speech with low credibility.
T
T F A speaker’s credibility is affected by everything she or he says and does during the speech.
T
T F The primary purpose of a special occasion speech is to convey information to an audience.
F
T F A graduation address and a toast at a wedding are both examples of speeches for special occasions.
T
T F The purpose of a speech of introduction is to introduce a person receiving an award or an honor.
F
T F The purpose of a speech of introduction is to introduce the main speaker to the audience.
T
T F One major purpose of a speech of introduction is to focus attention on the person making the introduction.
F
T F One major purpose of a speech of introduction is to build enthusiasm for the upcoming speaker.
T
T F As your textbook explains, speeches of introduction usually should be two to three minutes long.
T
T F As your textbook explains, speeches of introduction usually should be 8 to 10 minutes long.
F
T F When giving a speech of introduction, you should be sure to praise the speaking skills of the main speaker.
F
T F One major purpose of a speech of introduction is to establish a welcoming climate that will boost the credibility of the main speaker.
T
T F If you are introducing the same speaker to an audience of college students for a morning presentation and to the city chamber of commerce for an afternoon presentation, you should use the same speech for each occasion.
F
T F When giving a speech of introduction, you should state the name of the main speaker as soon as possible to avoid confusion among members of the audience.
F
T F When giving a speech of introduction, you should usually save the name of the main speaker until the final moment, even when the audience already knows who he or she is.
T
T F A speech of introduction should usually be read from a manuscript.
F
T F As defined in your textbook, a speech of presentation is a speech that presents someone a gift, an award, or some other form of public recognition.
T
T F There is a great deal of research to show that if members of a small group work well together, they can almost always resolve a problem better than a single person can.
T
T F Most experts set the maximum number of members for a small group at seven or eight.
T
T F One of the defining traits of a small group is that its members assemble for a specific purpose.
T
T F According to your textbook, a small group is a collection of three to twelve people who find themselves discussing a particular topic.
F
T F An important feature of a small group is that all participants potentially function as speakers and listeners.
T
T F To function effectively, a small group needs capable leadership.
T
T F To function effectively, a small group needs a specific leader.
F
T F The newest or least experienced member of a small group is usually referred to as the implied leader.
F
T F A person who by ability, force of personality, or simply by talking the most, takes on a leadership role in a small group is called an emergent leader.
T
T F A small group that meets for only one session should almost always have a designated leader.
T
T F Each member of a small group should be prepared to assume a leadership role when necessary.
T
T F The procedural needs of a small group revolve around interpersonal relations among the group’s members.
F
T F The procedural needs of a small group include such matters as deciding when the group will meet, taking notes during the meeting, and summarizing the group’s progress at the end of the meeting.
T
T F The procedural needs of a small group include such matters as whether members get along with each other and feel good about their roles in the group.
F
T F Helping the group reach consensus on its final decision is an example of a procedural need in a small group.
F
Communication based on a person’s voice and body, rather than on the use of words, is called _______________ communication.
nonverbal
A speech delivered with little or no immediate preparation is called a(n) _______________ speech.
impromptu
A speech that is fully prepared in advance but delivered from a brief set of notes or a speaking outline is called a(n) _______________ speech.
extemporaneous
The relative highness or lowness of speech sounds is called _______________ .
pitch
Mark Twain said, “The right word might be effective, but no word was ever as effective as a rightly timed _______________ .”
pause
A _______________ occurs when a speaker fills the silence between words with sounds such as “um,” “er,” and “uh.”
vocalized pause
Changes in a speaker’s pitch, rate, and volume are referred to as _______________ .
vocal variety
_______________ refers to the speed at which a person speaks.
Rate
How we use eye contact, body movement, gestures, and other physical motions to communicate is the subject of an area of study known as _______________ .
Kinesics
If the object you want to use as a visual aid is not available to you, the next best option ideally is a _______________ .
model
If you wanted to illustrate the increase in the number of people in the U.S. who have earned college degrees since 1970, the best kind of visual aid would probably be a(n) _______________.
graph
While a _______________ graph is best for illustrating simple distribution patterns, a _______________ graph is best for showing comparisons between two or more items.
pie; bar
If you wanted to summarize the events that led to the outbreak of World War I, the best kind of visual aid would probably be a _______________ .
chart
If you wanted to list the steps of a process to help your audience remember them better, the best kind of visual aid to use would probably be a _______________ .
Chart
A(n) _______________ is a systematic series of actions that leads to a specific result or product.
process
“To inform my audience how to arrange flowers like a professional florist” is a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n) _______________ .
process
“To inform my audience about the different sections of a medieval cathedral” is a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n) _____________ , while “To inform my audience about the beliefs of major Christian sects during the middle ages” is a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n) ______________ .
object; concept
“To inform my audience how to prepare for a triathlon” is a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n) _______________ . “To inform my audience about the history of Hawaii’s Iron Man World Championship Triathlon” is a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n) _______________ .
process; event
If you were giving an informative speech about the major stages in building the Great Wall of China, you would probably organize your speech in _______________ order.
chronological
There are many ways to organize informative speeches about events. If your goal is to recount the history of an event, you would most likely arrange the speech in _______________ order.
chronological
If you were giving an informative speech describing the different regions of Ireland, you would probably arrange the speech in _______________ order.
Spatial
“To persuade my audience that there is convincing evidence of intelligent life in other parts of the solar system” is a specific purpose statement for a persuasive speech on a question of _______________ .
fact
“To persuade my audience that the use of torture is never ethically justifiable” is a specific purpose statement for a persuasive speech on a question of
value
“To persuade my audience that public officials should act now to upgrade the 911 emergency phone system” is a specific purpose statement for a persuasive speech on a question of _______________ .
policy
Persuasive speeches on questions of _______________ argue for or against particular courses of action.
policy
The following main points for a persuasive speech on a question of policy are arranged in _______________ order.
I. The shortage of nurses has become a serious national problem.
II. The problem can be solved by offering nurses better salaries and working conditions.
problem-solution
As your textbook explains, you must deal with three basic issues whenever you discuss a question of policy. Those issues are need, plan, and _______________ .
Practicality
What modern scholars of persuasion refer to as credibility, Aristotle referred to as _______________ .
ethos
_______________ was the name used by Aristotle for the logical appeal of a speaker.
Logos
_______________ was the name used by Aristotle for the emotional appeal of the speaker.
Pathos
When used in a persuasive speech, supporting materials such as examples, statistics, and testimony are referred to as _______________ .
evidence
_______________ is a process of drawing a conclusion based on evidence.
Reasoning
According to your textbook, reasoning from _______________ moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion.
principle
According to your textbook, _______________ reasoning seeks to establish the relationship between causes and effects.
causal
According to your textbook, _______________ reasoning compares two similar cases and suggests that what is true of the one case is also true of the other.
analogical
According to your textbook, an error in reasoning is called a _______________ .
Fallacy
A speech presenting the main speaker to the audience is called a speech of _______________ .
introduction
A speech announcing the winner of an award and giving the award to the recipient is called a speech of _______________ .
presentation
A speech that gives thanks for a gift or an award is called a(n) _______________ speech.
acceptance
A speech paying tribute to a person, idea, or institution is called a(n) _______________ speech.
commemorative
A Memorial Day speech honoring U.S. soldiers who have died in defense of their country is an example of a(n) _______________ speech.
commemorative
Bill Clinton’s speech dedicating the Monument to the Struggle against World Terrorism at the site of the 9/11 attack in New York City is an example of a(n) _______________ speech.
Commemorative
A(n) _______________ leader of a small group is appointed or elected when the group is formed.
designated
A group member to whom other members defer because of her or his rank or expertise is known as a(n) _______________ leader.
implied
A(n) _______________ leader is someone who takes on a leadership role through her or his ability, force of personality, or simply by talking the most during group meetings.
emergent
The _______________ leadership needs of a problem-solving small group include such “housekeeping” requirements as deciding when and where the group is to meet, reserving a room, and taking notes during the meeting.
procedural
The _______________ leadership needs of a problem-solving small group include actions necessary to help the group complete its work. Such actions include analyzing the issues facing the group, keeping the group on track, and formulating criteria for the most effective solution.
task
The _______________ leadership needs of a problem-solving small group include such matters as how well members get along with each other and whether members feel good about their roles in the group.
maintenance
When one member of a small group has a personal goal that conflicts with the goals of the group as a whole, he or she is said to have a(n) _______________ agenda.
hidden
The first step in the reflective-thinking method for discussion in problem-solving groups is to _______________ .
define the problem

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