Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Terrorism Study Guide BY apatite’s The Surge was when, in January 2007, President Bush announced a controversial plan to temporarily increase the number of US troops in Iraq by more than 20,000. Despite heavy casualties initially, the drop in violence that occurred as the year drew on was a source of encouragement, and a number of the additional troops were subsequently withdrawn. The 1979 Islamic Revolution happened when the shah of Iran fled due to mass protests against him.
Ayatollah Shoeing came back to Iran, and a huge reform occurred, putting the country under Islamic law, and making a amount based on the Quern and the Shari. The ABA Grain Is a prison In Iraq, west of Baghdad. It’s a facility notorious for brutality under the Bath regime. There were also photographs taken of US soldiers abusing Iraqis here, which further damaged world opinion of the United States. AH Qaeda is a terrorist group that caused the September 1 lath attacks. They were loosely organized, radical Islamic groups led by Osama bal Laden. It had bases In Afghanistan and in about 60 other countries.
They fought with the Munched, wanting to rid Afghanistan of Russian communist influences. Near Sad was the Egyptian president after Answers death in 1970. He took steps to open Egypt to foreign Investment and private business. In foreign affairs, he moved away from the Soviets and closer to the US. In 1979, he became the first Arab leader to make peace with Israel. He promised that peace would have economic benefits, and it brought American aid, but it didn’t really improve daily life. He was assassinated by Muslim extremists In 1981. Mum Shillings, meaning “Supreme Truth” Is a religious cult that wants to control Japan.
In 1995. Cult members released saris, a deadly nerve gas, in subway stations in Tokyo. Twelve people were killed and more than 5,700 were injured. This attack brought global attention to the threat of biological and chemical agents as terrorist weapons. The Ayatollah Aurorally Chameleon was the leader of the shahs foes In Iran in the sass, even though he was exiled. He condemned western influences and accused the shah of violating Islamic law. As he returned to Iran after the shah fled, his supporters set up an Islamic republic based on the Quern and Shari.
Revolutionaries replaced secular courts with religious ones, abolished women’s rights, and banned western books, music, and movies. At first, they allowed some open discussion, but they were eventually just as repressive as the shah. He died in 1989. All Chainmen was a former president of Iran who was appointed Grand Ayatollah for life in June 1989 after Shoeing died. He succeeded Shoeing as Iran’s supreme leader and head of the Guardian Council. He successfully put down a wave of reformers and continues as the country’s highest religious authority to this day. The Bath Party ruled in Iraq under Sad Hussein.
They managed to retain power by harshly suppressing uprisings of the country’s minority Kurds and Its majority Shiite Arabs. In central Iraq, units of the Republican Guard were deployed to defend the capital. They ended up being defeated by the US and we took control of Bighead’s international airport on April 4. Following the collapse of the Battista regime, Iraq’s major cities erupted in a wave of looting that ‘OFF were severe outbreaks of violence. After 35 years of Battista rule that included 3 major wars and a dozen years of economic sanctions, the economy was in shambles. Biological Weapons are used by some terrorist groups.
They have an equivalent power to chemical weapons in generating great fear among the public. It involves the lease of bacteria into the atmosphere. This is worrisome because biochemical agents are fairly easy to acquire. Labs all over the world use bacteria and viruses in the development of new drugs. The use of chemical weapons has been popular among terrorist groups. This is when poisonous gas is released into the atmosphere, and it causes as much fear as biological weapons. This is worrisome because the raw materials needed to make some deadly chemical agents can be purchased in many stores.
The US CIA or Central Intelligence Agency financed, armed, and trained the munching under the administrations of Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan. Ironically, they trained Osama bin Laden. Subdirectories is a recent development. This involves politically motivated attacks on information systems, such as hacking into computer networks or spreading computer viruses. Experts suggest that as more governments and businesses switch to computers to store date and run operations, the threat of subdirectories will increase. The Department of Homeland Security was created in 2002 to coordinate national efforts against terrorism.
Antiterrorism measures included a search for terrorists in the United States and the passage of antiterrorism laws. This was formed because the federal government warned Americans that additional terrorist attacks were likely, and they took action to prevent them. In 2002, the new US president George W. Bush argued that the vulnerability of the United States following the 9/1 1 attacks of 2001, combined with Iraq’s alleged continued possession and manufacture of Winds and its support for terrorist groups – which, according to the Bush administration, included al-Qaeda – made disarming Iraq a renewed priority.
On March 17th, 2002, seeking no further UN resolutions and deeming further diplomatic efforts futile, he declared an end to diplomacy and issued an ultimatum to Hussein, giving the Iraqi president 48 hours to leave Iraq. When he refused to leave, US and allied forces launched an attack on the morning of March 20th. However, the Bush administration’s main rationales for going to war failed, causing the public to lose faith in him. Hams is a radical Palestinian terrorist group. After the PLOP renounced terrorism, they continued their terrorist attacks.
They gained loyal supporters by providing schools and hospitals to the poor and rejecting westernizes, which they claimed was hostile to Islam. Humid Kari was the leader of the interim government in Afghanistan. He was an influential Afghan official, selected to rule by the United States. They held national elections on September 18, 2005. He was officially elected president of the new Afghan government by about 55% of the vote. The 2009 election, which he won, was characterized by a lack of security, low voter turnout, and widespread electoral fraud.
He wasn’t eligible to run in 2014 due to term limits. The High Swan Dam was built by Egyptian president Gamma Abide Masses in the sass, with Soviet help. This created a huge reservoir, Lake Masses, as well as more than 2 million acres of new farmland. It controlled Nile lodestars and made year-round irrigation possible, but, it increased the salt content of the Nile, destroyed fish hatcheries in the eastern Mediterranean, and assassinated in 1981. He reaffirmed the peace with Israel and mended fences with his Arab neighbors. Under Embark, Egypt continued to push for peace.
At home, he faced serious issues. Industry and farm output expanded, but the economy couldn’t keep up with population growth. Islamic reformers denounced the government’s failure to solve economic and social ills. SIS (Pakistani Intelligence)????? I know what this is Just not necessarily in context. The US CIA trained Munching forces under the administration of President Jimmy Carter. For decades, Turkey tried to force its Kurdish citizens to abandon their identity. Kurds were forbidden to speak, publish, or broadcast in their own language. Revolts were fiercely suppressed.
Although the Turkish government slowly agreed to abolish laws against Kurdish culture, Kurdish nationalists continued to press for autonomy. Kuwait is an oil-rich nation in the Middle East. It was invaded by Iraq in 1990. Control of Kuwait wouldn’t only give Iraq one of the world’s largest oil-producing areas, but also access to the Persian Gulf. Bush organized a coalition of American, European, and Arab powers to drive Iraq out of Kuwait. In the 1991 Gulf War, under the UN banner, coalition forces pushed across the desert to liberate Kuwait, and hundreds of Kuwaiti oil wells were blown up by Iraqi troops.
Mahout Maidenhead was elected president of Iran in 2005. His hard- line politics and tough foreign policy made him popular with the lower classes. He spoke out fiercely against the US and Israel, and refused to say that his country won’t build nuclear weapons. He may have been among the revolutionaries who seized the US embassy in Tehran. He’s a Holocaust denier. Under his administration, Iran has declared its intent to build nuclear reactors, defied the I.E., enriched uranium, and bragged about being ready to start producing nuclear fuel on an industrial scale.
Mohammad Chatham served as Iran’s president from August 1997 to August 2005. He won thanks to women and young people, who voted because he promised to improve their status and education. He pushed for reforms and better relations with the West, but was opposed by the Supreme Council. Muhammad Massaged led nationalists in Iran’s parliament to vote to nationalize the oil industry. This set Off long crisis involving the shah, Massaged, Britain, and the US. In 1953, the US helped the shah oust Massaged, a move that outraged many Iranians.
The US wanted the anti- Communist shah as an ally, and for the next 25 years, American weapons and experts helped the shah stay in power. Shah Muhammad Raze Papilla had western backing but faced many opponents at home by 1945. Iranian nationalists wanted to end British control of Iran’s oil wealth and limit the shah’s dictatorial powers. He pushed for modernization, using oil wealth to build roads and industries, redistributed land, and gave women rights. He separated religion and government. Many lower class people didn’t approve of this, and he got more repressive. Massive unrest forced him to flee in 1979.
Munching is an Arabic word meaning “one who struggles” and was used to describe the fighters opposing the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan from 1979 to 1989. Munching were the various loosely-aligned Afghan opposition groups that fought against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan during the sass and then fought against each other in the subsequent Afghan Civil War. They were financed, armed, and trained by the CIA during the administrations of President Jimmy Carter ND Ronald Reagan. Narcissism’s, or terrorism linked to drug trafficking, is a major the country’s narcotics trade have frequently turned to violence.
The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (AFAR) is a left-wing guerrilla group that has links with these drug traffickers. The AFAR has attacked Colombian political, military, and economic targets, as well as those with American ties. NATO is an alliance with the US and other European countries, such as Britain, Canada, Turkey, France, and Germany along with others. US and NATO forces are still fighting in Afghanistan today, but they have plans to leave at the end of 2014. The Northern Alliance were Afghan rebel troops Joined by small units of US troops and CIA advisers, who Joined and supplied them.
The first significant US combat troops arrived on November 25th. Nearly 1000 marines were ferried in by helicopters to a base in the desert south of Kandahar. By the end of December, as many as 2,000 soldiers were fighting in Afghanistan. The US established no-fly zones over parts of Iraq during the 2nd Persian Gulf War, in order to establish a “safe haven” in northern Iraq’s predominantly Kurdish regions. They made sure that no Iraqi aircraft flew over the rear Operation Enduring Freedom is the name of the US operation in Afghanistan that is trying to fight the Taliban and set up a stable democratic government in Afghanistan.
Opium comes from the sap of the poppy plant. It’s used to create a wide range of drugs, some of them legal like codeine and morphine. Most of the opium crop in Afghanistan is used to produce heroin, an illegal and addictive drug that is sold on the streets of cities and towns throughout the world. The Taliban uses its opium and heroin business to fund its insurgency, buying weapons and supplies for its fighters with the profits. It’s the number one cash crop in Afghanistan. Osama bin Laden was born in Saudi Arabia too wealthy family. He left Saudi Arabia in 1979 to fight against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
He received security training from the CIA. While in Afghanistan, he recruited fighters from around the world and imported equipment to aid the Afghan resistance against the Soviet army. He was the leader of AH Qaeda and he masterminded the September 1 lath attacks. Palestinian Authority????? The PLOP is the Palestine Liberation Organization. It was led by Hasty Arafat. Its stated goal was the destruction of Israel which the PLOP claimed had no right to exist on the land called Palestine. For years, they waged guerrilla warfare against Israelis at home and abroad.
They massacred Israeli athletes at the 1972 Olympics in Munich. In the sass and in 2000, they had initiated, or civil disobedience acts and stoning troops. The US CIA trained Munching forces under the administration of Ronald Reagan. Sad Hussein was an Iraqi dictator. In 1980, he seized a disputed border region from Iran, thus beginning the Iran-Iraq war, which ended in a stalemate. In 1990, he made his troops invade Kuwait, because he said that the region was historically a part of Iraq. Even though he was defeated, he remained in power. He brutally suppressed critics and persecuted Kurds and Shiites.
He was uncooperative with UN rules, so Bush gave him an ultimatum to leave Iraq. When he didn’t, the 2nd Persian Gulf War began, and he was killed on December 30, 2006. Sectarian Violence was the term President Bush used to describe the civil war during our occupation of Iraq. Restoring law and order was one of the most arduous tasks for the occupying forces, one that was exacerbated by continued attacks against occupying troops that soon They believe that religious leaders and political leaders should be the same people. The Ayatollahs of Iran are Shiite leaders.
Sunnis Muslims believe that religious leaders and political leaders should be different people. Osama bin Laden was a Sunnis Muslim. The Taliban get their name from the Pashas word for student. Their original founders and leaders were Islamic scholars, and their members were recruited through Islamic schools called madras. From September 1996 to December 2001, the Taliban government ruled over Afghanistan, which they now called the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. While in power, they enforced their strict interpretation of Islamic law (Shari) which was heavily criticized by Muslim clerics around the world.
Once common forms of entertainment, like music and sports were banned. During their rule, they massacred Afghan civilians, denied UN food supplies to starving civilians, and conducted a policy of scorched earth. Terrorism is the use of violence against people or property to force changes in society or government, and it strikes fear in the hearts of people everywhere. Since the late sass, over 14,000 terrorist attacks have occurred worldwide. International terrorist groups have carried out increasingly destructive, high-profile attacks to call attention to their goals and to main major media coverage.
Many countries also face domestic terrorists who oppose their governments’ policies or have special interests to promote. The USA Patriot Act was signed into law by President Bush. It allowed the government to detain foreigners suspected of terrorism for seven days without charging them with a crime, tap all phones used by suspects and monitor their e-mail and internet usage, make search warrants valid across states, order US banks to investigate sources of large foreign accounts, and prosecute terrorist crimes without any time limits or restrictions.
Again, critics warned that these measures allowed the government to infringe on people’s civil rights. Yak’s Arafat was the leader of the PLOP. In 1993, he talked with Israeli Prime Minister Hiawatha Rabin and they signed the Oslo Accords, based on secret discussions held earlier in Oslo, Norway. They gave Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank limited self-rule under an independent Palestinian Authority headed by Arafat. Later agreements negotiated by Bill Clinton further extended Palestinian self-rule and arranged timetables for Israeli withdrawal from disputed lands.