Adolescent Psychology (Chapters 4-7)

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self-understanding
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individual’s cognitive representation of the self
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differentiation in self-understanding
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take note of contextual or situational variations when describing self
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true vs. false self
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present false self to impress others, and try out new roles
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self-esteem vs. self-concept
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*global* evaluative dimension versus *domain-specific* evaluations of the self
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changes in self-esteem
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self-esteem decreases in transition from elementary to middle school
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emotional discomfort of low-esteem is
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temporary
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emotional competence
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-awareness of how expression of emotions are important in relationships -effectively coping with negative emotions (self-regulation) -understanding that internal emotional states don’t have to correspond externally -discerning others’ emotions
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emotions in adolescence
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frequent mood swings
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3 temperament types
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easy child difficult child slow-to-warm- up child
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easy child
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positive mood, regular routines, adapts readily
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difficult child
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reacts negatively, slow to accept new experiences
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slow-to-warm-up child
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low activity level, somewhat negative, low intensity of mood
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What 2 factors determine the four statuses of identity?
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crisis and commitment
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The Four Statuses of identity
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-identity diffusion -identity foreclosure -identity moratorium -identity achievement
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goodness of fit
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match between temperament style and environmental demands faced by individual
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Big 5 Factors (OCEAN)
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Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism
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gender
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sociocultural & psychological dimensions of being male or female
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Freud & Erikson’s view on anatomy and gender
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genitals influence gender; anatomy is destiny
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Freud’s view on anatomy and gender
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human behavior is directly related to reproductive processes; gender and sexual behavior are instinctual
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Erikson’s view on anatomy and gender
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due to genital structure, males are intrusive, and women are inclusive & passive
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social cognitive theory of gender
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gender development is influenced by observation & limitation others’ gender behavior, and rewards/punishments for gender-appropriate/inappropriate behavior
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gender schema
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attention and behavior guided by internal motivation to conform to gender-based sociocultural standards and stereotypes
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school biases against males
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-large number of teachers are female -boys are more likely to have learning problems -criticized more than girls -ignored when academic problems occur -boy behavior seen as problematic
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school biases against females
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-teachers spend more time with boys -boys get more instruction -girls are less likely to believe that they will be successful in college
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gender differences in mathematical ability
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there has been no differences found in adolescent boys and girls
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relational aggression
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inflicting harm through manipulation of relationships
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androgyny
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presence of high degree of masculine and feminine characteristics in one person
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undifferentiated
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presence of low feminine and masculine characteristics in one person
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boy code (Pollak)
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learned in various context; sandboxes, playgrounds, camps, and taught by parents, coaches, peers
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Having irrational, negative feelings against individuals who have same-sex attractions is called
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homophobia
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Gender development is influenced by
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social, biological, and cognitive factors
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Research shows that by age 20, what percentage of U.S. youth have engaged in sexual intercourse?
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77%
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The language of establishing connections and negotiating relationships is known as ______________ and _______________ engage in this type of talk more frequently.
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rapport, females
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Tyler is in the fifth grade and attends an elementary school. His brother, Jake, is in the sixth grade and is in his first year of middle school. Research on self-esteem in adolescents would indicate who has higher self-esteem?
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Tyler
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The theorist who developed a major stage theory of moral development is
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Kohlberg
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____talk is talk that gives information,______are more likely to engage in this kind of talk
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report, males
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gender intensification hypothesis
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psychological & behavioral differences between boys and girls *increase* in adolescence
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socioemotional: aggression
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boys – physically aggressive girls – relationally aggressive
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boys and groups
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engage in larger groups
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girls and groups
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engage in smaller, intimate groups
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Why is it difficult to obtain information about adolescent sexuality through research?
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-teens may give socially desirable answers -teens with liberal sexual attitudes more like to answer than those with conservative sexual attitudes
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sexual script
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stereotyped pattern of role prescriptions for how people should behave in sexual contexts
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When was being attracted to someone of the same sex removed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders?
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70’s (1973)
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What are the three domains of moral development studied in adolescents?
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-how do adolescents think about rules for ethical conduct -how do adolescents actually behave in moral circumstances -how do students feel about moral matters
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altruism
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unselfish interest in helping another person
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care perspective (Gilligan)
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moral perspective that views people in terms of their connections with others, and concerns for others
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parental disciplines
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love withdrawal power assertion induction
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love withdrawal
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parent removes attention or love from adolescent
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power assertion
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parent attempts to gain control over adolescent or their resources
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induction
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parent uses reason and explanation of consequences on other people due to adolescent’s actions
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service learning goal
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for adolescents to become less self-centered and more motivated to help others
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preconventional reasoning
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lowest level in moral development (punishment and obedience)
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conventional reasoning
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*where most adolescents reason* internalization is intermediate
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postconventional reasoning
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morality is more internal and not based on others’ standards
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What reasons were discussed for adolescent pregnancy rates being higher in the US than in other countries?
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-childbearing regarded as an adult activity -clearer messages about sexual behavior -access to family planning services
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consequences of adolescent pregnancy
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-health risks for mother and baby -mothers drop out of school -infants more likely to have low birth weight
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Reducing adolescent pregnancy (Conger)
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-sex education/family planning -access to contraceptive -life options approach -broad community involvement & support
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STIs caused by viruses
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AIDs, genital herpes, genital warts
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quid pro quo sexual harassment
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school employee bases educational decision on student’s submission to unwanted sexual conduct
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hostile environment sexual harassment
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students subjected to unwelcome sexual conduct that is severe and persistent; limits students’ ability to benefit from education
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What do we know is not related to sexual minority behavior?
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-being raised by gay or lesbian parents -having a dominant mother and weak father -choosing male role models
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self devaluation (passing)
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hiding one’s real social identity
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Who are sexual minority adolescents most likely to disclose their sexual identity to first?
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Friends Siblings Mother Father

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