acs biochem exam study
net reaction for glycolysis
2x Pyruvate + 2x ATP + 2x NADH per glucose molecule
what step produces 2x NADH in glycolysis?
G3P -> 1,3 BPG
What enzyme/pathway does ATP inhibit?
A high level of ATP inhibits the enzyme PFK-1 by decreasing its affinity for fructose 6-phosphate. AMP diminishes and citrate enhances the inhibitory effect of ATP.
The NADPH produced by HMP is used for
reductive biosynthesis (anabolic)
how do competitive inhibitors affect Km and Vmax?
increases Km, doesn’t change Vmax
how do noncompetitive inhibitors affect Km and Vmax?
Km doesn’t change, Vmax lowerse
Type of chromatography used to separate proteins based on mass. SDS binds to the proteins, giving them a negative charge cancelling the effect of charges from the individual amino acids. Lighter proteins travel faster than heavier ones.
polymerase chain reaction- DNA is copied multiple times to produce many copies of the original molecules helpful when there’s only a small DNA sample
Positively charged R groups (pKa=12.5)
Aspartic Acid (pka)
Negatively charged R groups (pKa=3.9)
Polar, uncharged R groups (pKa=8.3)
Glutamic Acid (pka)
Negatively charged R groups (pKa=4.3)
Positively charged R groups (pKa=6.0)
Positively charged R groups (pKa=10.5)
Positively charged R groups (pKa=10.1)
How many net ATP are produced in the Kreb’s Cycle and what step is it produced?
2x ATP, Succinyl-CoA -> Succinate
what is the net reaction for kreb’s cycle?
2x ATP’s, 8x NADH’s, and 2x FADH2 per glucose molecule
what is gluconeogenesis is catalyzed by?
what is gluconeogenesis is stimulated / inhibited by?
Acetyl-CoA / ADP
Whats the differences between bacterial and eukaryotic DNA replication?
Prokaryotic DNA is arranged in a circular shape, and there is only one replication origin when replication starts. By contrast, eukaryotic DNA is linear; it does not connect end to end to form a circle. When it is replicated, there are as many as 1000 replication origins. Despite these differences, however, the underlying process of replication is the same for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA.
What is a promoter?
The promoter identifies the start of a gene, which strand is to be copied, and the direction that it is to be copied.
what is translation?
Translation is the process where ribosomes synthesize proteins using the mature mRNA transcript produced during transcription.
what are the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex enzymes?
1: Pyruvate dehydrogenase
2: Dihydrolipoyl transacetylase
3: Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase
end products of krebs cycle ONLY
CoA-SH + 3 NADH + 3 H+ + QH2 + GTP + 2 CO2
what is a thioester bond?
compounds with the functional group C-S-CO-C. They are the product of esterification between a carboxylic acid and a thiol. Thioesters are widespread in biochemistry, the best known derivative being acetyl-CoA.
A metabolic pathway that consumes energy to synthesize a complex molecule from simpler compounds.
A metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds.
what factors favor the T-state in hemoglobin?
low pH, high CO2 and high 2,3 BPG at the level of the tissues favor the taut form, which has low oxygen affinity and releases oxygen in the tissues
what factors favor the R-state in hemoglobin?
high pH, low CO2, or low 2,3 BPG favors the relaxed form which can better bind oxygen.
how does oxygen bind in hemoglobin?
oxygen binds to the heme component of the protein hemoglobin in red blood cells
what are lipids with glycosidic linkage?
glycerolipids, where one or more sugar residues are attached to glycerol via a glycosidic linkage