Abnormal Psychology 1

Abnormal Psychology
The scientific study of abnormal behavior in an effort to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning

Norms
A society’s stated an unstated rules for proper conduct

Culture
A people’s common history, values, institutions, habits, skills, technology, and art

Trepihination
An ancient operation in which a stone instrument was used to cut away a circular section of the skull, perhaps to treat abnormal behavior

Humors
According to the Geeks and Romans, bodily chemicals that influence mental and physical functioning

Asylum
A type of institution that first became popular in the sixteenth century to provide care for persons with mental disorders; most became virtual prisons

Moral Treatment
A nineteenth-century approach to treating people with mental dysfunction that emphasized moral guidance and humane and respectful treatment

State Hospitals
State-run public mental institutions in the United States

Somatogenic Perspective
The view that abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes

Psychogenic Perspective
The view that the chief causes of abnormal functioning are psychological

Psychoanalysis
Either the theory or the treatment of abnormal mental functioning that emphasizes unconscious psychological forces as the cause of psychopathology

Psychotropic Medications
Drugs that mainly affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning

Deinstitutionalization
The practice, begun in the 1960’s, of releasing hundreds of thousands of patients from public mental hospitals

Private Psychotherapy
An arrangement in which a person directly pays a therapist for counseling purposes

Prevention
Interventions aimed at deterring mental disorders before they can develop

Positive Psychology
The study and enhancement of positive feelings, traits, and abilities

Multicultural Psychology
The field of psychology that examines the impact of culture, race, ethnicity, gender, and similar factors on our behaviors and thoughts and focuses on how such factors may influence the origin, nature, and treatment of abnormal behavior

Managed Care Program
A system of health care coverage in which the insurance company largely controls the nature, scope, and cost of medical or psychological services

Nomathetic Understanding
A general understanding of the nature, causes, and treatments of abnormal psychological functioning in the form of laws or principles

Scientific Method
The process of systematically gathering and evaluating information through careful observations to gain an understanding of a phenomenon

Hypothesis
A hunch or prediction that certain variables are related in certain ways

Case Study
A detailed account of a person’s life and psychological problems

Internal Validity
The accuracy with which a study can pinpoint one of various possible factors as the cause of a phenomenon

External Validity
The degree to which the results of a study may be generalized beyond that study

Correlation
The degree to which events or characteristics vary along with each other

Correlational Method
A research procedure used to determine how much events or characteristics vary along with each other

Epidemiological Study
A study that measures the incidence and prevalence of a disorder in a given population

Incidence
The number of new causes of a disorder occurring in a population over a specific period of time

Prevalence
The total number of cases of a disorder occurring in a population over a specific period of time

Longitudinal Study
A study that observes the same participants on many occasions over a long period of time

Experiment
A research procedure in which a variable is manipulated and the effect of the manipulation is observed

Independent Variable
The variable in an experiment that is manipulated to determine whether it has an effect on another variable

Dependent Variable
The variable in an experiment that is expected to change as the independent variable is manipulated

Confound
In an experiment, a variable other than the independent variable that is also acting on the dependent variable

Control Group
In an experiment, a group of participants who are not exposed to the independent variable

Experimental Group
In an experiment, the participants who are exposed to the independent variable under investigation

Random Assignment
A selection procedure that ensures that participants are randomly placed either in the control group or in the experimental group

Blind Design
An experiment in which participants do not know whether they are in the experiment or the control condition

Placebo Therapy
A sham treatment that the participant in an experiment believes to be genuine

Double-Blind Design
Experimental procedure in which neither the participant nor the experimenter know whether the participant has received the experimental treatment or a placebo

Quasi-Experiment
An experiment in which investigators make use of control and experimental groups that already exist in the world at large; also called a mixed design

Natural Experiment
An experiment in which nature, rather than an experiment, manipulates an independent variable

Analogue Experiment
A research method in which the experimenter produces abnormal-like behavior in laboratory participants and then conducts experiments on the participants

Single-Subject Experimental Design
A research method in which a single participant is observed and measured both before and after the manipulation of an independent variable

Model
A set of assumptions and concepts that help scientists explain and interpret observations; also called a paradigm

Neuron
A nerve cell

Synapse
The tiny space between the nerve ending of one neuron and the dendrite of another

Neurotransmitter
A chemical that, released by one neuron, crosses the synoptic space to be received at receptors on the dendrites of neighboring neurons

Receptor
A site on a neuron that receives a neurotransmitter

Hormones
The chemical released by endocrine glands into the bloodstream

Gene
Chromosome segments that control the characteristics and traits we inherit

Psychotropic Medication
Drugs that primarily affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning

Antianxiety Drugs
Psychotropic drugs that help reduce tension and anxiety; also called minor tranquilizers or anxiolytics

Antidepresant Drugs
Psychotropic drugs that improve the moods of people with depression

Antibipolar drugs
Psychotropic drugs that help stabilize the moods of people suffering from a bipolar mood disorder; also called mood stabilizers

Antipsychotic Drugs
Psychotropic drugs that help correct the confusion, hallucinations, and delusions found in psychotic disorders

Electroconvulsice Therapy (ECT)
A form of biological treatment, used primarily on depressed patients, in which a brain seizure is triggered as an electric current passes through electrodes attached to the patient’s forehead

Neurosurgery
Brain surgery for mental disorders; also called psychosurgery

Id
According to Freud, the psychological force that produces instinctual needs, drives, and impulses

Ego
According to Freud, the psychological force that employs reason and operates in accordance with the reality principle

Ego Defensive Mechanisms
According to psychoanalytic theory, strategies developed by the ego to control unacceptable id impulses and to avoid or reduce the anxiety they arouse

Superego
According to Freud, the psychological force that represents a person’s values and ideals

Fixation
According to Freud, a condition in which the id, ego, and superego do not mature properly and are frozen at an early stage of development

Ego Theory
The psychodynamic theory that emphasizes the role of the ego and considers it an independent force

Self theory
The psychodynamic theory that emphasizes the role of the self – our unified personality

Object Relations Theory
The psychodynamic theory that views the desire for relationships as the key motivating force in human behavior

Free Association
A psychodynamic technique in which the patient describes any thought, feeling, or image that comes to mind, even if it seems unimportant

Resistance
An unconscious refusal to participate fully in therapy

Transference
According to psychodynamic theorists, the redirection toward the psychotherapist of feelings associated with important figures in a patient’s life, now or in the past

Dream
A series of ideas and images that form during sleep

Catharsis
The reliving of past repressed feelings in order to settle internal conflicts and overcome problems

Working Through
The psychoanalytic process of focusing conflicts, reinterpreting feelings, and overcoming one’s problems

Relational Psychoanalytic Therapy
A form of psychodynamic therapy that considers therapists active participants in the formation of patients feelings and reactions, and therefor calls for therapists to disclose their own experiences and feelings in discussions with patients

Conditioning
A simple form of learning

Operant Conditioning
A process of learning in which behavior that leads to satisfying consequences is likely to be repeated

Modeling
A process of learning in which an individual acquires responses by observing and imitating others

Classical Conditioning
A process of learning by temporal association in which two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become fused in a person’s mind and produce the same response

Systematic Desensitization
A behavioral treatment in which clients with phobias learn to react calmly instead of with intense fear to the objects or situations they dread

Self-Efficacy
The belief that one can master and perform needed behaviors whenever necessary

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies
Therapy approaches that seek to help clients change both counterproductive behaviors and dysfunctional ways of thinking

Cognitive Therapy
A therapy developed by Aaron Beck that helps people recognize and change their faulty thinking processes

Self-Actualization
The humanistic process by which people fulfill their potential for goodness and growth

Client-Centered Therapy
The humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers in which clinicians try to help clients by conveying acceptance, accurate empathy, and genuineness

Gestalt Therapy
The humanistic therapy developed by Fritz Perls in which clinicians actively move clients toward self-recognition and self-acceptance by using techniques such as role playing and self-discovery exercises

Existential Therapy
A therapy that encourages clients to accept responsibility for their lives and to live with greater meaning and values

Family Systems Theory
A theory that views the family as a system of interacting parts whose interactions exhibit consistent patterns and unstated rules

Group Therapy
A therapy format in which a group of people with similar problems meet together with a therapist to work on those problems

Self-Help Group
A group made up of people with similar problems who help and support one another without the direct leadership of a clinician; also called a mutual help group

Family Therapy
A therapy format in which the therapist meets with all members of a family and helps them to change in therapeutic ways

Couple Therapy
A therapy format in which the therapist works with two people who share a long-term relationship; also called marital therapy

Community Mental Health Treatment
A treatment approach that emphasizes community care

Multicultural Perspective
The view that each culture within a larger society has a particular set of values and beliefs, as well as special external pressures, that help account for the behavior and functioning of its members; also called culturally diverse perspective

Culture-Sensitive Therapies
Approaches that seek to address the unique issues faced by members of minority groups

Gender-Sensitive Therapies
Approaches geared to the pressure of being a woman in Western society; also called feminist therapies

Biopsychosocial Theories
Explanations that attribute the cause of abnormality to an interaction of genetic, biological, developmental, emotional, behavioral, cognitive, social, and societal influences

Idiographic Understanding
An understanding of the behavior of a particular individual

Assessment
The process of collecting and interpreting relevant information about a client or research participant

Standardization
The process in which a test is administered tp a large group of people whose performance then serves as a standard or norm against which any individual’s score can be measured

Reliability
A measure of the consistency of test or research results

Validity
The accuracy of a test’s or study’s result; that is, the extent to which the test or study actually measured or shows what it claims

Mental Status Exam
A set of interview questions and observations designed to reveal the degree and nature of a client’s abnormal functioning

Test
A device for gathering information about a few aspects of a person’s psychological functioning from which broader information about the person can be inferred

Projective Test
A test consisting of ambiguous material that people interpret or respond to

Personality Inventory
A test designed to measure broad personality characteristics, consisting of statements about behaviors, beliefs, and feelings that people evaluate as either characteristic or uncharacteristic of them

Response Inventories
Tests designed to measure a person’s responses in one specific area of functioning, such as affect, social skills, or cognitive processes

Psychophysiological Test
A test that measures physical responses (such as heart rate and muscle tension) as possible indicators of psychological problems

Neurological Test
A test that directly measures brain structure or activity

Neuroimaging Techniques
Neurological tests that provide images of brain structure or activity, such as a CT scans, PET scans, and MRIs

Neuropsychological Test
A test that detects brain impairment by measuring a person’s cognitive, perceptual, and motor performances

Intelligence Tests
A test designed to measure a person’s intellectual ability

Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
A score derived from intelligence tests that is considered to represent a person’s overall level of intelligence

Diagnosis
A determination that a person’s problems reflect a particular disorder

Syndrome
A cluster of symptoms that usually occur together

Classification System
A list of disorders, along with descriptions of symptoms and guidelines for making appropriate diagnosis

Rapprochement Movement
An effort to identify a set of common strategies that run through the work of all affective therapists

Psychopharmacologist
A psychiatrist who primarily prescribes medications; also known as a pharmacotherapist