Abnormal Psychology 1

Abnormal Psychology
The scientific study of abnormal behavior in an effort to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning
Norms
A society’s stated an unstated rules for proper conduct
Culture
A people’s common history, values, institutions, habits, skills, technology, and art
Trepihination
An ancient operation in which a stone instrument was used to cut away a circular section of the skull, perhaps to treat abnormal behavior
Humors
According to the Geeks and Romans, bodily chemicals that influence mental and physical functioning
Asylum
A type of institution that first became popular in the sixteenth century to provide care for persons with mental disorders; most became virtual prisons
Moral Treatment
A nineteenth-century approach to treating people with mental dysfunction that emphasized moral guidance and humane and respectful treatment
State Hospitals
State-run public mental institutions in the United States
Somatogenic Perspective
The view that abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes
Psychogenic Perspective
The view that the chief causes of abnormal functioning are psychological
Psychoanalysis
Either the theory or the treatment of abnormal mental functioning that emphasizes unconscious psychological forces as the cause of psychopathology
Psychotropic Medications
Drugs that mainly affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning
Deinstitutionalization
The practice, begun in the 1960’s, of releasing hundreds of thousands of patients from public mental hospitals
Private Psychotherapy
An arrangement in which a person directly pays a therapist for counseling purposes
Prevention
Interventions aimed at deterring mental disorders before they can develop
Positive Psychology
The study and enhancement of positive feelings, traits, and abilities
Multicultural Psychology
The field of psychology that examines the impact of culture, race, ethnicity, gender, and similar factors on our behaviors and thoughts and focuses on how such factors may influence the origin, nature, and treatment of abnormal behavior
Managed Care Program
A system of health care coverage in which the insurance company largely controls the nature, scope, and cost of medical or psychological services
Nomathetic Understanding
A general understanding of the nature, causes, and treatments of abnormal psychological functioning in the form of laws or principles
Scientific Method
The process of systematically gathering and evaluating information through careful observations to gain an understanding of a phenomenon
Hypothesis
A hunch or prediction that certain variables are related in certain ways
Case Study
A detailed account of a person’s life and psychological problems
Internal Validity
The accuracy with which a study can pinpoint one of various possible factors as the cause of a phenomenon
External Validity
The degree to which the results of a study may be generalized beyond that study
Correlation
The degree to which events or characteristics vary along with each other
Correlational Method
A research procedure used to determine how much events or characteristics vary along with each other
Epidemiological Study
A study that measures the incidence and prevalence of a disorder in a given population
Incidence
The number of new causes of a disorder occurring in a population over a specific period of time
Prevalence
The total number of cases of a disorder occurring in a population over a specific period of time
Longitudinal Study
A study that observes the same participants on many occasions over a long period of time
Experiment
A research procedure in which a variable is manipulated and the effect of the manipulation is observed
Independent Variable
The variable in an experiment that is manipulated to determine whether it has an effect on another variable
Dependent Variable
The variable in an experiment that is expected to change as the independent variable is manipulated
Confound
In an experiment, a variable other than the independent variable that is also acting on the dependent variable
Control Group
In an experiment, a group of participants who are not exposed to the independent variable
Experimental Group
In an experiment, the participants who are exposed to the independent variable under investigation
Random Assignment
A selection procedure that ensures that participants are randomly placed either in the control group or in the experimental group
Blind Design
An experiment in which participants do not know whether they are in the experiment or the control condition
Placebo Therapy
A sham treatment that the participant in an experiment believes to be genuine
Double-Blind Design
Experimental procedure in which neither the participant nor the experimenter know whether the participant has received the experimental treatment or a placebo
Quasi-Experiment
An experiment in which investigators make use of control and experimental groups that already exist in the world at large; also called a mixed design
Natural Experiment
An experiment in which nature, rather than an experiment, manipulates an independent variable
Analogue Experiment
A research method in which the experimenter produces abnormal-like behavior in laboratory participants and then conducts experiments on the participants
Single-Subject Experimental Design
A research method in which a single participant is observed and measured both before and after the manipulation of an independent variable
Model
A set of assumptions and concepts that help scientists explain and interpret observations; also called a paradigm
Neuron
A nerve cell
Synapse
The tiny space between the nerve ending of one neuron and the dendrite of another
Neurotransmitter
A chemical that, released by one neuron, crosses the synoptic space to be received at receptors on the dendrites of neighboring neurons
Receptor
A site on a neuron that receives a neurotransmitter
Hormones
The chemical released by endocrine glands into the bloodstream
Gene
Chromosome segments that control the characteristics and traits we inherit
Psychotropic Medication
Drugs that primarily affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning
Antianxiety Drugs
Psychotropic drugs that help reduce tension and anxiety; also called minor tranquilizers or anxiolytics
Antidepresant Drugs
Psychotropic drugs that improve the moods of people with depression
Antibipolar drugs
Psychotropic drugs that help stabilize the moods of people suffering from a bipolar mood disorder; also called mood stabilizers
Antipsychotic Drugs
Psychotropic drugs that help correct the confusion, hallucinations, and delusions found in psychotic disorders
Electroconvulsice Therapy (ECT)
A form of biological treatment, used primarily on depressed patients, in which a brain seizure is triggered as an electric current passes through electrodes attached to the patient’s forehead
Neurosurgery
Brain surgery for mental disorders; also called psychosurgery
Id
According to Freud, the psychological force that produces instinctual needs, drives, and impulses
Ego
According to Freud, the psychological force that employs reason and operates in accordance with the reality principle
Ego Defensive Mechanisms
According to psychoanalytic theory, strategies developed by the ego to control unacceptable id impulses and to avoid or reduce the anxiety they arouse
Superego
According to Freud, the psychological force that represents a person’s values and ideals
Fixation
According to Freud, a condition in which the id, ego, and superego do not mature properly and are frozen at an early stage of development
Ego Theory
The psychodynamic theory that emphasizes the role of the ego and considers it an independent force
Self theory
The psychodynamic theory that emphasizes the role of the self – our unified personality
Object Relations Theory
The psychodynamic theory that views the desire for relationships as the key motivating force in human behavior
Free Association
A psychodynamic technique in which the patient describes any thought, feeling, or image that comes to mind, even if it seems unimportant
Resistance
An unconscious refusal to participate fully in therapy
Transference
According to psychodynamic theorists, the redirection toward the psychotherapist of feelings associated with important figures in a patient’s life, now or in the past
Dream
A series of ideas and images that form during sleep
Catharsis
The reliving of past repressed feelings in order to settle internal conflicts and overcome problems
Working Through
The psychoanalytic process of focusing conflicts, reinterpreting feelings, and overcoming one’s problems
Relational Psychoanalytic Therapy
A form of psychodynamic therapy that considers therapists active participants in the formation of patients feelings and reactions, and therefor calls for therapists to disclose their own experiences and feelings in discussions with patients
Conditioning
A simple form of learning
Operant Conditioning
A process of learning in which behavior that leads to satisfying consequences is likely to be repeated
Modeling
A process of learning in which an individual acquires responses by observing and imitating others
Classical Conditioning
A process of learning by temporal association in which two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become fused in a person’s mind and produce the same response
Systematic Desensitization
A behavioral treatment in which clients with phobias learn to react calmly instead of with intense fear to the objects or situations they dread
Self-Efficacy
The belief that one can master and perform needed behaviors whenever necessary
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies
Therapy approaches that seek to help clients change both counterproductive behaviors and dysfunctional ways of thinking
Cognitive Therapy
A therapy developed by Aaron Beck that helps people recognize and change their faulty thinking processes
Self-Actualization
The humanistic process by which people fulfill their potential for goodness and growth
Client-Centered Therapy
The humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers in which clinicians try to help clients by conveying acceptance, accurate empathy, and genuineness
Gestalt Therapy
The humanistic therapy developed by Fritz Perls in which clinicians actively move clients toward self-recognition and self-acceptance by using techniques such as role playing and self-discovery exercises
Existential Therapy
A therapy that encourages clients to accept responsibility for their lives and to live with greater meaning and values
Family Systems Theory
A theory that views the family as a system of interacting parts whose interactions exhibit consistent patterns and unstated rules
Group Therapy
A therapy format in which a group of people with similar problems meet together with a therapist to work on those problems
Self-Help Group
A group made up of people with similar problems who help and support one another without the direct leadership of a clinician; also called a mutual help group
Family Therapy
A therapy format in which the therapist meets with all members of a family and helps them to change in therapeutic ways
Couple Therapy
A therapy format in which the therapist works with two people who share a long-term relationship; also called marital therapy
Community Mental Health Treatment
A treatment approach that emphasizes community care
Multicultural Perspective
The view that each culture within a larger society has a particular set of values and beliefs, as well as special external pressures, that help account for the behavior and functioning of its members; also called culturally diverse perspective
Culture-Sensitive Therapies
Approaches that seek to address the unique issues faced by members of minority groups
Gender-Sensitive Therapies
Approaches geared to the pressure of being a woman in Western society; also called feminist therapies
Biopsychosocial Theories
Explanations that attribute the cause of abnormality to an interaction of genetic, biological, developmental, emotional, behavioral, cognitive, social, and societal influences
Idiographic Understanding
An understanding of the behavior of a particular individual
Assessment
The process of collecting and interpreting relevant information about a client or research participant
Standardization
The process in which a test is administered tp a large group of people whose performance then serves as a standard or norm against which any individual’s score can be measured
Reliability
A measure of the consistency of test or research results
Validity
The accuracy of a test’s or study’s result; that is, the extent to which the test or study actually measured or shows what it claims
Mental Status Exam
A set of interview questions and observations designed to reveal the degree and nature of a client’s abnormal functioning
Test
A device for gathering information about a few aspects of a person’s psychological functioning from which broader information about the person can be inferred
Projective Test
A test consisting of ambiguous material that people interpret or respond to
Personality Inventory
A test designed to measure broad personality characteristics, consisting of statements about behaviors, beliefs, and feelings that people evaluate as either characteristic or uncharacteristic of them
Response Inventories
Tests designed to measure a person’s responses in one specific area of functioning, such as affect, social skills, or cognitive processes
Psychophysiological Test
A test that measures physical responses (such as heart rate and muscle tension) as possible indicators of psychological problems
Neurological Test
A test that directly measures brain structure or activity
Neuroimaging Techniques
Neurological tests that provide images of brain structure or activity, such as a CT scans, PET scans, and MRIs
Neuropsychological Test
A test that detects brain impairment by measuring a person’s cognitive, perceptual, and motor performances
Intelligence Tests
A test designed to measure a person’s intellectual ability
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
A score derived from intelligence tests that is considered to represent a person’s overall level of intelligence
Diagnosis
A determination that a person’s problems reflect a particular disorder
Syndrome
A cluster of symptoms that usually occur together
Classification System
A list of disorders, along with descriptions of symptoms and guidelines for making appropriate diagnosis
Rapprochement Movement
An effort to identify a set of common strategies that run through the work of all affective therapists
Psychopharmacologist
A psychiatrist who primarily prescribes medications; also known as a pharmacotherapist