A. EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY in Modules – Ninth Edition – Module 1

The two early schools of psychology were
structuralism and functionalism

structuralism
early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchener

structuralism used
introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind

functionalism
early school of thought promoted by James and influenced by Darwin

functionalism explored
how mental and behavioral processes function – how the enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish

What is behaviorism?
the view that psychology (1)should be an objective science that (2)studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not (2)

What is humanistic psychology?
Historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people

What is cognitive neuroscience
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).

What is psychology?
The science of behavior and mental processes

What is the Nature-Nurture issue
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today’s psychological science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture

What is natural selection?
The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.

What is levels of analysis?
The differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.

What is the biopsychosocial approach?
An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.

What is basic research?
Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.

What is applied research?
Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.

What is counseling psychology?
A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or relationships) and in achieving greater well-being.

What is clinical psychology?
A branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.

What is psychiatry?
A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practice by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drugs) treatments as well as psychological therapy.

What is positive psychology?
The scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities thrive.

What is the testing effect?
Enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning.

What is SQ3R?
A study method incorporating five steps: Survey, Question, Read, Retrieve, Review.