8th Grade Social Studies Final Exam Study Guide

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Jamestown
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1607; first successful colony in North America
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Declaration of Independence
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1776; document stating that the 13 colonies were a free and independent nation
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Constitutional Convention (Philidelphia Convention)
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1787; gathering of state representatives to revise the Articles of Confederation
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Northwest Ordinance
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1787; article that set up a government for the Northwest Territory, guaranteed basic rights to settlers, and outlawed slavery there
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Louisiana Purchase
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1803; vast territory between the Mississippi River and Rocky Mountains, purchased from France in 1803
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Civil War
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1861-1865; war between the North and South
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French and Indian War
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1754-1763; a war that took place between England and France, both aided by Native American Allies, that led to the end of French power in North America
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Treaty of Paris
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1763; agreement between England and France that ended the French and Indian War
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Articles of Confederation
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1777; first American constitution that created a loose alliance of 13 independent states
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Battle of Bunker Hill
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1775; first major battle of the Revolution
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Battle of Lexington and Concord
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1775; conflicts between Massachusetts colonists and British soldiers that started the Revolutionary War \”shot heard ’round the world\”
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Battle of Saratoga
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1777; the first major American victory in the Revolution
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Battle of Yorktown
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1781; final battle in the Revolution
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Washington’s Farewell Address
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1796; announced he would not seek a third term and gave his views on the best policies for the United States
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War of 1812
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1812; war between the U.S. and England
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Missouri Compromise
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1819; agreement proposed by Henry Clay to keep the number of slave and free states equal; allows slavery in some western territories
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Indian Removal Act
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1830; forced removal of Native Americans to land west of the Mississippi
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Nullification Crisis
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1832; caused by act passed by South Carolina that declared the 1832 tariff illegal
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Trail of Tears
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1838; forced journey of the Cherokee Indians from Georgia to a region west of the Mississippi
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Mexican War
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1846; war over disputed territory between the Rio Grande and the Nueces River
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Mexican Cession
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1848; Mexican territory of California and New Mexico given to the U.S. under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
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Compromise of 1850
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1850; agreement on slavery by which California joined the Union as a free state and a strict fugitive slave law was passed
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Kansas-Nebraska Act
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1854; law that established the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, giving popular sovereignty to decide on the issue of slavery
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Lincoln’s first inaugural address
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1861; Lincoln expresses ideas about union and government
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Fort Sumter
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1861; first shots of the Civil War fired there
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Battle of Gettysburg
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1863; major Civil War battle; the Confederates never invaded the North again
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Gettysburg Address
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1863; speech written and delivered by Lincoln after the Battle of Gettysburg
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Battle Of Vicksburg
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1863; Union victory which geographically split the Confederacy in two
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Emancipation Proclamation
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1863; President Lincoln’s declaration freeing slaves in the Confederacy
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Lincoln’s second inaugural address
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1865; Lincoln expresses ideas about liberty, equality, union, and government
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Appomattox Court House
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1865; Virginia town that was the site of the Confederate surrender
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Assassination of Lincoln
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1865; Lincoln shot and killed by John Wilkes Booth five days after Confederate surrender
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Christopher Columbus
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Explorer whose voyage in 1492 from Spain to North America opened the Atlantic World
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John Smith
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Leader of Jamestown colony
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Pocohontas
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Native American who married Jamestown Englishman John Rolfe
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Samuel Adams
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Bostonian who led the Boston Tea Party
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Benjamin Franklin
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Colonial inventor, printer, writer, statesman; contributed to the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution
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King George III
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King of England during the American Revolution
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Thomas Jefferson
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Third President of the United States; wrote Declaration of Independence; supported minimal government and spoils system
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Marquis de Lafayette
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French officer who assisted the Americans during the Revolution
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Thomas Paine
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Political philosopher and author of \”Common Sense\” which urged colonists to declare their immediate independence from Great Britain
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George Washington
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First President of the United States, commander of Continental Army during Revolution, president of the Philidelphia or Constitutional Convention; wanted United States to maintain neutral foreign policy
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Alexander Hamilton
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Co-author of Federalist Papers with James Madison and John Jay, developed economic policies to help strengthen American economy, including establishment of the Bank of the United States
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Patrick Henry
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Member of Virginia state convention who opposed ratification of the Constitution; instrumental in causing adoption of first 10 amendments to the Constitution
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John Adams
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Second President of the United States, in office during the XYZ Affair; wanted to keep United States neutral; supported the Alien and Sedition Acts
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Sacagawea
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Shoshone woman who accompanied Lewis and Clark’s expedition as a translator
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James Madison
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Fourth President of the United States, co-author of the Virginia Plan, the Federalist Papers, and the Bill of Rights; asked Congress to declare war on Britain in 1812
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George Mason
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A strong supporter of the Bill of Rights, refused to sign the Constitution in 1787
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Andrew Jackson
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Seventh President of the United States; his election reflected a growing spirit of democracy and the spread of political power to the \”common\” people; the modern Democratic party traces its roots to this time
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Frederick Douglass
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Escaped slave, abolitionist, speaker, and writer; author, \”Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass\”
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John Paul Jones
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American Navy captain who fought and defeated the British in 1779, the greatest sea victory for the Americans during the Revolution
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James Monroe
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Fifth President of the United States; issued the Monroe Doctrine
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Elizabeth Cady Stanton
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American woman suffrage leader and co-organizer of the first woman’s rights convention at Seneca Falls, NY
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John C. Calhoun
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Vice President under Jackson and later Senator from South Carolina, supporter of states’ rights, argued in favor of nullification
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Henry Clay
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Senator who suggested Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850
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Daniel Webster
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Senator who opposed nullification but supported the Compromise of 1850
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Jefferson Davis
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Elected President of the Confederate States of America in 1861
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Ulysses S. Grant
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Commander of the Union forces during the Civil War who ordered his generals to fight a total war
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Robert E. Lee
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Confederate General who surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, ending the Civil War
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Abraham Lincoln
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16th President of the United States; President during the Civil War; gave Emancipation Proclamation and Gettysburg Adress; assassinated five days after Lee’s surrender
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Five Themes (Geography)
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1. Location 2. Place 3. Interaction 4. Movement 5. Regions
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Using Cartographer’s Tools
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Compass- identifies directions and relative locations Scale- estimates distance Latitude and longitude- grid to determine exact location Key or legend- directory of map symbols and colors
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Using Special Purpose Maps
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Used to analyze and interpret maps of: Natural features, such as elevation and climate Features made by people, such as land use, roads, countries, population density, and battles
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Mercantilism
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Theory that a nation’s economic strength came from protecting and increasing its home economy by keeping strict control over its colonial trade
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Protective tariff
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A tax on imported goods to protect a country’s industry from foreign competition by making the foreign goods more expensive
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Taxation
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Government system to raise money by seeking payment from citizens; British government sought to raise money to pay for the French and Indian War by imposing the Sugar and Stamp Acts on American colonists
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Banking System
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Alexander Hamilton asked Congress to set up a national bank; Congress created the Bank of the United States in 1791
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Plantation System
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Agricultural system in the South which relied on slave labor to work the large farms and estates
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Slave trade
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The first African slaves arrived in Virginia in 1619; by 1700 the Southern colonies had begun to rely on slave labor and the transatlantic slave trade developed and grew
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19th Century Industrialization
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Rapid growth was a result of the Industrial Revolution- the process by which machines replaced hand tools and steam and other new sources of power replaced human and animal power
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19th Century Urbanization
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Process of a population’s shifting from farms to cities, especially as a result of the Industrial Revolution during the 19th century
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Free Enterprise
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System in which the government plays a limited role in the economy
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Abolitionist movement
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Movement to end slavery in the United States and its territories
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Reform movements
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Public education- schools and educational systems supported by public taxes Temperance movements- campaign against alcohol consumptions Women’s rights movements- organized campaign to win property, education, and other rights for women Prison reform- movement to improve conditions for people being held in prisons Care of the disabled- in 1817 Thomas Gallaudet set up a school for the deaf and Samuel Gridley Howe founded the first American school for the blind in 1832
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Steamboat
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Robert Fulton and John Fitch used the steam engine to power boats; revolutionized travel in the West; carried passengers and gave farmers and merchants an inexpensive way to transport goods
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Cotton Gin
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Invented by Eli Whitney to speed the process of cleaning cotton seeds from the fiber; a single worker using the gin could do the work of 50 doing it by hand
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Bessemer Process
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Method developed in the 1850s for making stronger steel at a lower cost
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Transportation systems
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It was thought a better transportation system with roads, bridges, and canals, would make it easier and cheaper for farmers in the West and the South to ship goods to city markets; Henry Clay’s American System
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Magna Carta
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1215; A British document that contains two basic ideas: monarchs themselves have to obey laws, and citizens have basic rights
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Virginia House of Burgesses
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1619; Representative assembly in colonial Virginia
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Mayflower Compact
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1620; Agreement for governing the Plymouth colony, signed by the Pilgrims before they landed at Plymouth
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Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
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1639; A plan of government in the Puritan colony in Conneticut; expanded the idea of representative government in the English colonies
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English Bill of Rights
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1689; Signed by monarchs William and Mary of England; document guaranteeing the rights of English citizens

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