6th Grade Science Final Exam Study Guide

Ocean current
a continuous, directed movement of seawater generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as breaking waves, wind, the Coriolis effect, cabbeling, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.

Surface currents
The water at the ocean surface is moved primarily by winds that blow in certain patterns because of the Earth’s spin and the Coriolis Effect. Winds are able to move the top 400 meters of the ocean creating surface ocean currents.

Coriolis Effect
an effect whereby a mass moving in a rotating system experiences a force (the Coriolis force ) acting perpendicular to the direction of motion and to the axis of rotation. On the earth, the effect tends to deflect moving objects to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern and is important in the formation of cyclonic weather systems.

Deep Current
currents that are driven by density and temperature gradients.

a rising of seawater, magma, or other liquid.

El Nino
an irregularly occurring and complex series of climatic changes affecting the equatorial Pacific region and beyond every few years, characterized by the appearance of unusually warm, nutrient-poor water off northern Peru and Ecuador, typically in late December.

La Nina
a cooling of the water in the equatorial Pacific that occurs at irregular intervals and is associated with widespread changes in weather patterns complementary to those of El Niño , but less extensive and damaging in their effects.

the state of the atmosphere at a place and time as regards heat, dryness, sunshine, wind, rain, etc.

atmospheric moisture

Relative humidity
the amount of water vapor present in air expressed as a percentage of the amount needed for saturation at the same temperature.

water that collects as droplets on a cold surface when humid air is in contact with it.

a visible mass of condensed water vapor floating in the atmosphere, typically high above the ground.

rain, snow, sleet, or hail that falls to the ground.

Air mass
a body of air with horizontally uniform temperature, humidity, and pressure.

Front (Weather)
a boundary separating two masses of air of different densities, and is the principal cause of meteorological phenomena

a system of winds rotating inward to an area of low atmospheric pressure, with a counterclockwise (northern hemisphere) or clockwise (southern hemisphere) circulation; a depression.

Anti cyclone
a weather system with high atmospheric pressure at its center, around which air slowly circulates in a clockwise (northern hemisphere) or counterclockwise (southern hemisphere) direction. Anticyclones are associated with calm, fine weather.

an instrument for measuring and indicating temperature, typically one consisting of a narrow, hermetically sealed glass tube marked with graduations and having at one end a bulb containing mercury or alcohol that expands and contracts in the tube with heating and cooling.

a scientific instrument used in meteorology to measure atmospheric pressure.

an instrument for measuring the speed of the wind, or of any current of gas.

The strength and vitality required for sustained physical or mental activity.

Kinetic energy
energy that a body possesses by virtue of being in motion.

Potential energy
energy that a body possesses by virtue of its position

Mechanical energy
power that an object gets from its position and motion.

Energy conversion
is the process of changing one form of energy to one other.

the resistance to motion of one object moving relative to another.

Law of conservation of energy
states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but only changed from one form into another or transferred from one object to another.

Non-renewable resource
a resources use is not sustainable because their formation takes billions of years.

Fossil fuels
a natural fuel such as coal or gas, formed in the geological past from the remains of living organisms.

Renewable resource
an organic natural resource which can replenish to overcome usage and consumption, either through biological reproduction or other naturally recurring processes.

Electric current
a flow of electric charge

A measure of the difference in electric potential between two points in space, a material, or an electric circuit, expressed in volts.

a measurement of the difficulty encountered by a power source in forcing electric current through an electrical circuit,

Cell (electricity)
a device that is used to generate electricity, or one that is used to make chemical reactions possible by applying electricity.

a sensor used to measure temperature

Electric power
the rate at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit

Series circuit
a closed circuit in which the current follows one path

Parallel circuit
the circuit is divided into two or more paths.

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