3. Primary and Secondary Data

Define Primary Research (field research)
“data originated by the researcher for the specific purpose of addressing the research problem”
Define Secondary Research (desk research)
“data collected for some purpose other than the problem at hand”
Identify the research process
1. Identify the purpose of the research
2. Secondary data (design and collect the data
3. primary research
4. Analyse research
5. report the findings
Identify the features of secondary research (7)
1. Already exists somewhere.

2. Usually the easiest and least expensive.

3.No specific scientific method or technique

4. Qualitative or quantitative

5.For exploratory or descriptive research

6.Raw data or published summaries

7.Access varies

Identify the internal secondary sources
Sales reports
Account records
Production reports
Internal research reports
Previously bought-in research reports
Customer databases
Employee records
Payroll details
Copies of correspondence
Minutes of meetings
Identify the external sources
Government statistics and data (eg ONS)
Unofficial statistics (eg CBI, IGD, tourism)
Media & audience data (eg TGI)

Published commercial research (eg Mintel)
Other published information (eg by banks, management consultants, property companies, research agencies)

Books & academic journals
Reports of conference proceedings

Trade associations (eg SMMT)
Trade directories and yearbooks
Company directories (eg Kompass)
Company credit research (eg Dun & Bradstreet)
Company websites (eg Britvic)

Company literature, press packs, advertising
Company accounts & reports (Tesco)

Newspapers (eg Times, FT, Sunday Times)
Trade press (eg Retail Week)
Marketing press (eg Marketing Week)
Management press, (eg Economist)
Financial press (eg Investors Chronicle)

Online databases (eg ABI, Emerald)
Search engines (eg Google)
Other Internet sources

Identify international secondar sources
Government and supra-government data European Union; United Nations;
World Bank; OECD

Published commercial research Euromonitor

Market research organisations ESOMAR

Embassies and trade bodies Trade bodies

What is the difference between primary and secondary research?
1. Purpose: Primary -For the problem at hand. Secondary – for other purposes

2. Process: Primary: very involved. Secondary: rapid and easy

3. cost: Primary: high. Secondary: Relatively Low.

4. Time: Primary: Long. Scondary: short

What are the advantages of secondary research
A considerable amount available
Helpful in designing primary research
Can be higher quality
Can provide longitudinal data
Is open to scrutiny by others
What are the disadvantages of secondary research
Not exactly what you want
Wrong fit
Aggregations and definitions
Quality control
Why is it important to evaluate secondary data?
“Secondary data started life as primary, so to evaluate their quality and suitability you need to know all about their previous life” The infromation could be bias as well.
How can we evaluate secondary data?
Cross validation
Research design
Data collection method
Research instruments
Sampling and sample size

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