2nd Semester Study Notes Marine Science

Bycatch
Fish which are harvested in a fishery, but which are not sold or kept for personal use, and includes economic discards and regulatory discards. Such term does not include fish released alive under a recreational catch and release fishery management program
Fishery
One or more stocks of fish which can be treated as a unit for purposes of conservation and management and which are identified on the basis of geographical, scientific, technical, recreational, and economic characteristics
Fish
Finfish, mollusks, crustaceans, and all other forms of marine animal and plant life other than marine mammals and birds
Norway and Japan
Two countries that have limited permits to currently catch whales for scientific purposes
Keystone predator
One that exerts an important regulating effect on other organisms in the community. Removing a keystone predator will result in a decrease in species diversity
Relationship between overfishing, killer whales, sea otters, and kelp forests
The more overfishing there is, the more killer whales there will be. The more killer whales there are, the less sea otter there will be. The absence of sea otters would create a problem with the kelp forests
Coral polyp
Tiny, soft-bodied organisms related to sea anemones and jellyfish. At their base is a hard, protective limestone skeleton called a calicle, which forms the structure of coral reefs. Reefs begin when a polyp attaches itself to a rock on the sea floor, then divides, or buds, into thousands of clones
What causes waves?
The winds cause waves on the surface of the ocean (and on lakes). The wind transfers some of its energy to the water, through friction between the air molecules and the water molecules. Stronger winds (like storm surges) cause larger waves
What do reefs need in order to grow?
Warm temperatures, constant salinity, and plenty of sunshine
Coral reefs are primarily found where?
Between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn
The symbiosis between the zooxanthellae and the coral polyp is known as what kind of relationship?
Mutualism
Two reptiles that may be found on the Great Barrier are?
Sea snakes and sea turtles
Reef flat
Beds of seagrasses, sharks, and rays
Reef slope
Horizontal corals, gorgonian corals, and sea fans
Submarine terrace
Strong currents, stout fire corals, surgeon and parrot fish
Terrace
Flat outter reef, encrusting coralline algae, and garden of corals
Algae ridge/Reef crest
Highest point of reef, stouting branching coral
Coral reefs are important because?
They provide homes to a large variety of organisms
What is a natural threat to coral reefs?
Crown of thorn starfish
What are ways divers impact coral reefs?
They walk on reefs, drop anchors, and they break them and take them home
How are fishermen harming coral reefs?
By using explosives, feeding fish, poison, and discarding dead fish
The organism that actually builds the coral reef is what?
Polyp
The algae that has a symbiotic relationship with the reef builders is the?
Zooxanthellae
Which of the following is not a way that the study of Antarctica is important for identifying how Earth has changed over thousands of years?
Trapped animals show DNA
Which of the following is not a seal commonly found in the Antarctic?
Harp seal
What country owns the Prince Edward Islands?
South Africa
Which of the following is not a reason people want to travel to Antarctica?
Catch penguins
What is the name of the island we visited off the coast of Africa?
Madagascar
Characterized by decreased tradewind strength (air pressure in Darwin, Australia is higher than at Tahiti).
El Nino
The eastern thermocline allows the winds to pull up nutrient rich water from below.
Normal pattern
Strong upwelling off South America resulting in cooler water to extend further westward.
La Nina
Sea surface temperature higher in Western Pacific than the waters off South America by about 14 degrees Fahrenheit
Normal pattern
Western Pacific becomes relatively dry while rainfall tends to increase over Central Pacific
El Nino
Warm phase of ENSO, sea surface temperature increases to greater than normal in the Eastern Pacific
El Nino
Which of the following is NOT a natural disaster caused by El Nino?
Malaria
All of the following regions of the world is likely to experience prolonged dry periods resulting in drought conditions and possible fires EXCEPT:
Peru and Ecuador
Based on the information you read, during an El Nino, the Atlantic Ocean is more likely to have a high number of hurricanes. True or false?
False
If you lived in the Pacific Northwestern part of the US during an El Nino, would you expect to use your umbrella more frequently or less frequently than normal?
Less
The El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomenon provides good opportunities to study:
Effects of climate variability on human health
Which condition is believed to be caused by El Niño and effectively weakens hurricanes in the Atlantic ocean?
high wind shear
We only see hurricanes in the summer months because
the water is warmer in the summer.
Hurricanes in the Northern hemisphere always rotate
counter-clockwise
Check the boxes below that indicate possible damaging effects directly caused by a hurricane
low pressure, calm winds, and higher water levels
Which of the following lists the four steps of hurricane development in the proper order?
area of low pressure, tropical depression, tropical storm, hurricane
The pebbles the Adelie penguins collect are used to
to build a nest
The primary food for Adelie penguins is
krill
Groups of Adelie penguins are called
rookeries
What two animals below are common predators of Adelie chicks or eggs?
skuas and giant petrels
Emperor penguins incubate their eggs during what Antarctic season?
winter
Emperor penguins feed primarily on
squid and fish
In Emperor penguins which sex incubates the egg?
males
All of the following are ways penguins stay warm except
swimming fast
Penguins sometimes get too hot. All of the following are ways the penguins cool off except
swim really fast
All of the following may be predators of adult penguins except
squid
Krill plays a major role in the Antarctic food web. Which of the following organisms would not be affected in a decrease of krill?
zooplankton
Which of the following statements about sea surface temperature is evidence of an El Nino year?
greater than normal in the Eastern Pacific
All of the following cause surface currents except
animal movement
All of the factors below play a role in creating ocean currents. Which factor has the greatest influence on weather patterns?
heat capacity
Ice that forms and then melts seasonally around the coast of Antarctica is best described as
sea ice
Of the six species of seals found in Antarctica, four of them breed on the actual ice in the spring months. Which species of seal prefers to spend time on land?
fur,elephant
In the Madagascan forests, you will find all of the following creepy crawlies except
bird eating spiders
The animals and plants on the island of Madagascar are small but dangerous. Why aren’t there large animals like lions, zebras, etc found on the island?
they were cut off from the island when the island moved away from the mainland
After leaving the insects of Madagascar behind, we head to the island known for a famous devil. Where are we?
Tasmania
After leaving the island with the famous devil, we headed north along the coast of Australia to what large city with the famous opera house?
Sydney
For our research we will anchor along what natural structure?
Great Barrier Reef
According to the two sites in the assignment, what is an estuary?
an area where fresh water meets the ocean
Which of the following IS NOT a reason why estuaries are important?
they are the least polluted areas of the ocean.
Which of the following IS NOT a reason why organisms in an estuary have special adaptations?
are exposed to intense sunlight during the majority of the day.
How do estuaries compare in terms of production compared to other areas?
Estuaries are the most productive of all marine ecosystems.
What is the main source of “production” in an estuary?
detritus
What is a mangrove forest?
forest comprised of hardy salt tolerant trees
Mangrove trees withstand all of the following conditions except
dry arid soil
Specialized structures that allow mangroves to get oxygen in soil that is usually anaerobic are called
pneumatophores
Mangroves excrete salt by
all of the above
Mangroves from the family Rhizophoraceae reproduce using a specialized process of germinating seeds on the parent tree and then producing a seedling ready to go. What is that seedling called?
propogule
Red mangroves are easily identified by their specialized roots called
prop roots
In the mangroves of Australia, what large reptile may be found hunting for large crabs, birds and mammals.
Salt water crocodile
The mangroves are the only home to a very interesting fish which buries in the mud at high tide and climbs trees and feeds on crabs. What is the name of this fish?
mudskipper
Crabs are a very common part of the mangrove ecosystem with over 60 species found. One very recognizable species has a large claw that it waves around to attract mates. What crab is this?
fiddler crab
Mangroves are important ecosystems because
all of the above
Coral reefs are usually found near the equator between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. Which of the following best describes why this is an ideal location for coral?
warm water temperatures
Certain corals have been found in extremely deep water. These coral lack the zooxanthellae that are found in tropical coral reefs because zooxanthellae require sunlight to go through photosynthesis and there is no sunlight available at these depths. These deep-water coral often are built upwards instead of across the bottom. Why do the polyps build the coral this way?
They are filter feeders.
Coral reefs face many threats. The crown-of-thorns starfish is an example of a ______ threat?
natural
Which of the following is an example of a mollusk in class gastropoda?
conch
Which of the following best describes an estuary?
partly enclosed area with brackish water
Which of the following could explain a decrease in the salinity of water in an estuary?
low tide moves salt water out of an estuary
Our first stop on this leg of our voyage is at the deepest spot in the ocean called the
Challenger Deep
The deepest spot is
10924 meters deep
While visiting the island of Kauai, where would we go for some excellent hiking?
Napali Coast
The main reason for so many species in Hawaii being listed as endangered is
human development destroys habitat
New life got to and still gets to the Hawaiian Islands by
all of the above
Why do deep-water waves sometimes break instead of just getting bigger?
The waves can’t grow any more in size because the energy from the winds is equal to the energy lost by the waves breaking and then leaving the fetch zone
Which of the following things DOES NOT determine the size of a wind generated wave?
wind direction
If you were standing at the end of a pier with a stopwatch in hand, how would you measure the average WAVE PERIOD of the waves that pass by?
Determine a fixed point on the pier and note the time between a crest and the next crest that reaches that point
Why do successive (one after the other) waves that arrive at the beach have different heights?
They have received different amounts of energy in the fetch.
What is the difference between a sea and a swell?
Irregular patterns of waves with peaks in the same area of the wind wave formation are called sea. Swell are waves that move past the area of influence of the generating winds
How large a wave would be generated from a 50 mph wind, with a 1420 mile fetch, over a 69 hour period be?
97
Look closely at the three diagrams of the Sun, moon, and Earth system. In order to see all three planetary bodies AS THEY MOVE IN THE SAME PLANE, where is your “vantage point” with respect to Earth?
In space over the North or South pole, looking down at the Earth.
Tidal range is the distance between high and low water levels in a tide zone. Which type of planetary alignment would you expect to show the HIGHEST tidal range?
Sun, moon and Earth aligned with the Sun and Moon on the same side.
Tidal range explains the difference in the height of the water level between a high and low tide. Which of the following correctly explains the difference in tidal ranges of a spring and neap tide:
The tidal range is the greatest for spring tides and the smallest for neap tides.
Which of the following best expresses the differences between a semi-diurnal and diurnal tide?
A diurnal tide is a single high and low tide in a 25 hour period and a semi-diurnal tide is two high tides and two low tides in a single day
Which of the following is correct about tidal currents?
An Ebb tide occurs when the water is flowing out and a Flood Tide occurs when the water is flowing in
What type of coloration do the Stonefish, and Oscellated Frogfish have?
cryptic
What type of coloration do the triggerfish have?
disruptive
What type of coloration do the sharks ON PAGE ONE have?
counter shading
Click on PAGE TWO at the bottom of the shark page. What type of coloration do the last three sharks have?
cryptic
Why do you think they use a different coloration pattern than the first group? (you’ll need to read some of the descriptions for a clue)
They are usually found along the bottom hiding or resting.
Which of the three types of coloration do you think most schooling fish (that aren’t predators) have?
disruptive
Kelp forests are usually found at what depths?
18-90 feet
Kelp are able to hold to the substrate using what structures?
holdfasts
The part of the kelp that helps to keep the leaves and plant upright are
gas bladders
Kelp grows best in an area where all of the following are except
soft sandy bottom
During what season does the kelp renew itself and new growth takes place?
spring
What invertebrate feeds heavily on kelp and can end up destroying the forest?
sea urchin
giant kelp fish
canopy
brittle stars
around holdfasts
jeweled top snail
along frond blades
abalone
along bottom
What is the deepest part of the ocean called?
Challenger deep
You are a marine biologist exploring some of the deepest parts of the ocean. You come across a new organism that has some interesting adaptations. One of those adaptations is that is the organism has no eyes. What is the most logical purpose for this adaptation?
relies on other adaptations due to darkness
What is the lowest part of a wave called?
trough
Spring tides are stronger than average tides. This means that they have a higher than average high tide and a lower than average low tide. Which type of planetary alignment would you expect to result in a spring tide?
sun, moon and Earth aligned with the Sun and Moon on the same side
While fishing you reel in a fish that you’ve never seen before. It has a interesting patterns and markings and is brightly colored. What type of coloration does this fish demonstrate?
disruptive
Fish that have a fusiform shape are streamlined and are often found swimming in the open ocean. What is a benefit of this body shape?
fast swimming
Sharks, skates and rays belong to which class of fish?
Chondrichthyes
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