2nd Semester Study Notes Marine Science

Fish which are harvested in a fishery, but which are not sold or kept for personal use, and includes economic discards and regulatory discards. Such term does not include fish released alive under a recreational catch and release fishery management program

One or more stocks of fish which can be treated as a unit for purposes of conservation and management and which are identified on the basis of geographical, scientific, technical, recreational, and economic characteristics

Finfish, mollusks, crustaceans, and all other forms of marine animal and plant life other than marine mammals and birds

Norway and Japan
Two countries that have limited permits to currently catch whales for scientific purposes

Keystone predator
One that exerts an important regulating effect on other organisms in the community. Removing a keystone predator will result in a decrease in species diversity

Relationship between overfishing, killer whales, sea otters, and kelp forests
The more overfishing there is, the more killer whales there will be. The more killer whales there are, the less sea otter there will be. The absence of sea otters would create a problem with the kelp forests

Coral polyp
Tiny, soft-bodied organisms related to sea anemones and jellyfish. At their base is a hard, protective limestone skeleton called a calicle, which forms the structure of coral reefs. Reefs begin when a polyp attaches itself to a rock on the sea floor, then divides, or buds, into thousands of clones

What causes waves?
The winds cause waves on the surface of the ocean (and on lakes). The wind transfers some of its energy to the water, through friction between the air molecules and the water molecules. Stronger winds (like storm surges) cause larger waves

What do reefs need in order to grow?
Warm temperatures, constant salinity, and plenty of sunshine

Coral reefs are primarily found where?
Between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn

The symbiosis between the zooxanthellae and the coral polyp is known as what kind of relationship?

Two reptiles that may be found on the Great Barrier are?
Sea snakes and sea turtles

Reef flat
Beds of seagrasses, sharks, and rays

Reef slope
Horizontal corals, gorgonian corals, and sea fans

Submarine terrace
Strong currents, stout fire corals, surgeon and parrot fish

Flat outter reef, encrusting coralline algae, and garden of corals

Algae ridge/Reef crest
Highest point of reef, stouting branching coral

Coral reefs are important because?
They provide homes to a large variety of organisms

What is a natural threat to coral reefs?
Crown of thorn starfish

What are ways divers impact coral reefs?
They walk on reefs, drop anchors, and they break them and take them home

How are fishermen harming coral reefs?
By using explosives, feeding fish, poison, and discarding dead fish

The organism that actually builds the coral reef is what?

The algae that has a symbiotic relationship with the reef builders is the?

Which of the following is not a way that the study of Antarctica is important for identifying how Earth has changed over thousands of years?
Trapped animals show DNA

Which of the following is not a seal commonly found in the Antarctic?
Harp seal

What country owns the Prince Edward Islands?
South Africa

Which of the following is not a reason people want to travel to Antarctica?
Catch penguins

What is the name of the island we visited off the coast of Africa?

Characterized by decreased tradewind strength (air pressure in Darwin, Australia is higher than at Tahiti).
El Nino

The eastern thermocline allows the winds to pull up nutrient rich water from below.
Normal pattern

Strong upwelling off South America resulting in cooler water to extend further westward.
La Nina

Sea surface temperature higher in Western Pacific than the waters off South America by about 14 degrees Fahrenheit
Normal pattern

Western Pacific becomes relatively dry while rainfall tends to increase over Central Pacific
El Nino

Warm phase of ENSO, sea surface temperature increases to greater than normal in the Eastern Pacific
El Nino

Which of the following is NOT a natural disaster caused by El Nino?

All of the following regions of the world is likely to experience prolonged dry periods resulting in drought conditions and possible fires EXCEPT:
Peru and Ecuador

Based on the information you read, during an El Nino, the Atlantic Ocean is more likely to have a high number of hurricanes. True or false?

If you lived in the Pacific Northwestern part of the US during an El Nino, would you expect to use your umbrella more frequently or less frequently than normal?

The El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomenon provides good opportunities to study:
Effects of climate variability on human health

Which condition is believed to be caused by El Niño and effectively weakens hurricanes in the Atlantic ocean?
high wind shear

We only see hurricanes in the summer months because
the water is warmer in the summer.

Hurricanes in the Northern hemisphere always rotate

Check the boxes below that indicate possible damaging effects directly caused by a hurricane
low pressure, calm winds, and higher water levels

Which of the following lists the four steps of hurricane development in the proper order?
area of low pressure, tropical depression, tropical storm, hurricane

The pebbles the Adelie penguins collect are used to
to build a nest

The primary food for Adelie penguins is

Groups of Adelie penguins are called

What two animals below are common predators of Adelie chicks or eggs?
skuas and giant petrels

Emperor penguins incubate their eggs during what Antarctic season?

Emperor penguins feed primarily on
squid and fish

In Emperor penguins which sex incubates the egg?

All of the following are ways penguins stay warm except
swimming fast

Penguins sometimes get too hot. All of the following are ways the penguins cool off except
swim really fast

All of the following may be predators of adult penguins except

Krill plays a major role in the Antarctic food web. Which of the following organisms would not be affected in a decrease of krill?

Which of the following statements about sea surface temperature is evidence of an El Nino year?
greater than normal in the Eastern Pacific

All of the following cause surface currents except
animal movement

All of the factors below play a role in creating ocean currents. Which factor has the greatest influence on weather patterns?
heat capacity

Ice that forms and then melts seasonally around the coast of Antarctica is best described as
sea ice

Of the six species of seals found in Antarctica, four of them breed on the actual ice in the spring months. Which species of seal prefers to spend time on land?

In the Madagascan forests, you will find all of the following creepy crawlies except
bird eating spiders

The animals and plants on the island of Madagascar are small but dangerous. Why aren’t there large animals like lions, zebras, etc found on the island?
they were cut off from the island when the island moved away from the mainland

After leaving the insects of Madagascar behind, we head to the island known for a famous devil. Where are we?

After leaving the island with the famous devil, we headed north along the coast of Australia to what large city with the famous opera house?

For our research we will anchor along what natural structure?
Great Barrier Reef

According to the two sites in the assignment, what is an estuary?
an area where fresh water meets the ocean

Which of the following IS NOT a reason why estuaries are important?
they are the least polluted areas of the ocean.

Which of the following IS NOT a reason why organisms in an estuary have special adaptations?
are exposed to intense sunlight during the majority of the day.

How do estuaries compare in terms of production compared to other areas?
Estuaries are the most productive of all marine ecosystems.

What is the main source of “production” in an estuary?

What is a mangrove forest?
forest comprised of hardy salt tolerant trees

Mangrove trees withstand all of the following conditions except
dry arid soil

Specialized structures that allow mangroves to get oxygen in soil that is usually anaerobic are called

Mangroves excrete salt by
all of the above

Mangroves from the family Rhizophoraceae reproduce using a specialized process of germinating seeds on the parent tree and then producing a seedling ready to go. What is that seedling called?

Red mangroves are easily identified by their specialized roots called
prop roots

In the mangroves of Australia, what large reptile may be found hunting for large crabs, birds and mammals.
Salt water crocodile

The mangroves are the only home to a very interesting fish which buries in the mud at high tide and climbs trees and feeds on crabs. What is the name of this fish?

Crabs are a very common part of the mangrove ecosystem with over 60 species found. One very recognizable species has a large claw that it waves around to attract mates. What crab is this?
fiddler crab

Mangroves are important ecosystems because
all of the above

Coral reefs are usually found near the equator between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. Which of the following best describes why this is an ideal location for coral?
warm water temperatures

Certain corals have been found in extremely deep water. These coral lack the zooxanthellae that are found in tropical coral reefs because zooxanthellae require sunlight to go through photosynthesis and there is no sunlight available at these depths. These deep-water coral often are built upwards instead of across the bottom. Why do the polyps build the coral this way?
They are filter feeders.

Coral reefs face many threats. The crown-of-thorns starfish is an example of a ______ threat?

Which of the following is an example of a mollusk in class gastropoda?

Which of the following best describes an estuary?
partly enclosed area with brackish water

Which of the following could explain a decrease in the salinity of water in an estuary?
low tide moves salt water out of an estuary

Our first stop on this leg of our voyage is at the deepest spot in the ocean called the
Challenger Deep

The deepest spot is
10924 meters deep

While visiting the island of Kauai, where would we go for some excellent hiking?
Napali Coast

The main reason for so many species in Hawaii being listed as endangered is
human development destroys habitat

New life got to and still gets to the Hawaiian Islands by
all of the above

Why do deep-water waves sometimes break instead of just getting bigger?
The waves can’t grow any more in size because the energy from the winds is equal to the energy lost by the waves breaking and then leaving the fetch zone

Which of the following things DOES NOT determine the size of a wind generated wave?
wind direction

If you were standing at the end of a pier with a stopwatch in hand, how would you measure the average WAVE PERIOD of the waves that pass by?
Determine a fixed point on the pier and note the time between a crest and the next crest that reaches that point

Why do successive (one after the other) waves that arrive at the beach have different heights?
They have received different amounts of energy in the fetch.

What is the difference between a sea and a swell?
Irregular patterns of waves with peaks in the same area of the wind wave formation are called sea. Swell are waves that move past the area of influence of the generating winds

How large a wave would be generated from a 50 mph wind, with a 1420 mile fetch, over a 69 hour period be?

Look closely at the three diagrams of the Sun, moon, and Earth system. In order to see all three planetary bodies AS THEY MOVE IN THE SAME PLANE, where is your “vantage point” with respect to Earth?
In space over the North or South pole, looking down at the Earth.

Tidal range is the distance between high and low water levels in a tide zone. Which type of planetary alignment would you expect to show the HIGHEST tidal range?
Sun, moon and Earth aligned with the Sun and Moon on the same side.

Tidal range explains the difference in the height of the water level between a high and low tide. Which of the following correctly explains the difference in tidal ranges of a spring and neap tide:
The tidal range is the greatest for spring tides and the smallest for neap tides.

Which of the following best expresses the differences between a semi-diurnal and diurnal tide?
A diurnal tide is a single high and low tide in a 25 hour period and a semi-diurnal tide is two high tides and two low tides in a single day

Which of the following is correct about tidal currents?
An Ebb tide occurs when the water is flowing out and a Flood Tide occurs when the water is flowing in

What type of coloration do the Stonefish, and Oscellated Frogfish have?

What type of coloration do the triggerfish have?

What type of coloration do the sharks ON PAGE ONE have?
counter shading

Click on PAGE TWO at the bottom of the shark page. What type of coloration do the last three sharks have?

Why do you think they use a different coloration pattern than the first group? (you’ll need to read some of the descriptions for a clue)
They are usually found along the bottom hiding or resting.

Which of the three types of coloration do you think most schooling fish (that aren’t predators) have?

Kelp forests are usually found at what depths?
18-90 feet

Kelp are able to hold to the substrate using what structures?

The part of the kelp that helps to keep the leaves and plant upright are
gas bladders

Kelp grows best in an area where all of the following are except
soft sandy bottom

During what season does the kelp renew itself and new growth takes place?

What invertebrate feeds heavily on kelp and can end up destroying the forest?
sea urchin

giant kelp fish

brittle stars
around holdfasts

jeweled top snail
along frond blades

along bottom

What is the deepest part of the ocean called?
Challenger deep

You are a marine biologist exploring some of the deepest parts of the ocean. You come across a new organism that has some interesting adaptations. One of those adaptations is that is the organism has no eyes. What is the most logical purpose for this adaptation?
relies on other adaptations due to darkness

What is the lowest part of a wave called?

Spring tides are stronger than average tides. This means that they have a higher than average high tide and a lower than average low tide. Which type of planetary alignment would you expect to result in a spring tide?
sun, moon and Earth aligned with the Sun and Moon on the same side

While fishing you reel in a fish that you’ve never seen before. It has a interesting patterns and markings and is brightly colored. What type of coloration does this fish demonstrate?

Fish that have a fusiform shape are streamlined and are often found swimming in the open ocean. What is a benefit of this body shape?
fast swimming

Sharks, skates and rays belong to which class of fish?