2015 chem – Chemistry Flashcard

Solid
rigid, geometric, crystal, strong intermolecular forces, low entropy, (s)
definite volume and shape
Liquid
takes the shape of container, definite volume
(l)
Gas
uniformly fills container, (g), weak intermolecular forces, high entropy, random straightline motion
proton
+1, 1 amu, nucleus
atomic number
neutron
0, 1 amu, nucleus
nucleon
protons and neutrons
nucleus
positive charge equal to # of protons
dense core of atom
electron
-1, almost 0 mass, orbitals, energy levels
atomic spectra
lines of light,
each element unique spectra
produced when e- go from excited state down to lower state releasing extra Energy as light
significant digits
leading zeroes never count,
all other zeroes count if there is a decimal point
Rutherford
alpha scattering gold foil experiemnt
* atoms are mostly empty space
*atoms have tiny dense + nucleus
IXDY
independent variable on the X axis
dependent variable on the Y axis
Dalton
Atomic Theory of Matter
each type of atom is its own element
Thomson
electrons
Plum Pudding model
Solar System Model
nucleus is like the Sun,
electrons like planets orbiting the nucleus
matter
made of atoms
has mass and volume
elements
cannot be decomposed
compounds
fixed ratio of elements like H2O
can be decomposed
pure substances
elements and compouds

NOT mixtures

mixtures
NOT pure
homogeneous and heterogeneous
heterogeneous
mixtures not uniform throughout
homogeneous
mixtures that are uniform throughout
distillation
separating liquids etc by differing boilling points
filtering
separating l and s usually
separates by size
sink float method
separates by density
accuracy
how close your data is to the true value
precision
how close your data trials are to each other

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