200 ways to pass The Chem Regents

Cations
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– positive (+) ions and form when a neutral atom loses electrons. They are smaller then their parent atom.
What makes oxygen special?
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What makes nitrogen special?
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Protons
positively charged nuclear particle.
mass= 1
Neutron
a neutrl nuclear particle.
mass= 1
charge= 0
Electrons
small and negatively charged (-)
Nucleons
protons and electrons in the atoms nucleus
Electrons location?
electrons are found in clouds (orbitals) around and atoms nucleus.
mass =
the number of protons plus the number of neutrons
atomic number=
the number protons in anatoms nucleus
isotopes
atoms with equal numbers of protons, but differ the the number of neutrons
number of neutrons =
Mass number-atomic number
Anions
negative ions and form when a neutral atom gains electrons. They are larger then the parent atom.
Ernest Rutherford’s Experiment
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showed that the atom is mostly empty space with a small, dense, positively charged nucleus.
J.J. Thompson
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discovered the electron and developed the plum pudding model of the atom with positive and negative charges spread throughout entire atom
Creator of the model of the atom that was uniform throughout?
Dalton
Bohr Model
placed electrons in planetary-like orbits around the nucleus of the atom
Wave- Mechanical Model
the current model of the atom with electrons in “clouds” (orbitals) around the nuclueus
STP
standard Temperature Pressure
(273 Kelvin and 1 atm)
How do electrons emit energy as light?
Electrons emit energy as light when they jump from higher energy levels back down to lower (ground state) energy levels. Bright line spectra are produced.
Element
pure substance made up of only one kind of atom and can not be broken down
binary compund
substance made up of only two kinds of atoms (Ex: NH3, H2O, CO2)
Diatomic Molecules
elements that form two atom molecules in their natural form at STP. Mr. BrINClHOF) Br2, I2,N2,Cl2, H2, O2, F2
Liquid at room temperature?
Mercury and Bromine
All noble gases are…
gases at room temperature.
Boyles’s Law
P1V1=P2V2
Charles Law
V1/T1=V2/T2
Gay- Lussac’s Law
P1/T1=P2/T2
Combined Gas Law
P1*V1/T1 = P2*V2/T2
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure
P1 + P2 + P3 +P4 = 1 atm
Significant Figures
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If the decimal point is present, start counting digits from the Pacific (left) side,
starting with the first non-zero digit.
1 2 3
0.00310 (3 sig. figs.)
If the decimal point is absent, start counting digits from the Atlantic (right) side,
starting with the first non-zero digit.
3 2 1
31,400 (3 sig. figs.)
Solution
a homogeneous mixture whose particle are really small. (Air, salt water, etc.)
Heterogeneous Mixtures
mixtures that has discernable components and are not uniform
throughout. (Chocolate-chip cookies, vegetable soup, soil, muddy water, etc.
-solute
-solvent
-the substance being dissolved
-the substance that dissolves the solute
(Water is the solvent in Kool-Aid, while sugar is the solute.)
Writing isotopes
Isotopes are written in a number of ways: C-14 is also Carbon-14, and is also
mass number 14C
atomic number 6
electron configuration
The distribution of electrons in an atom
Electron configurations are written in the bottom center of an element’s box on the
periodic table in your reference tables.
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