10 Infancy & Childhood

Developmental Psychology
the field in which psychologists study how people grow and change throughout the life span-from conception, through infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and until death.
Maturation
the autonomic and sequential process of development that results from genetic signals.
Arnold Gesell
proposed that maturation played the most important role in development. He focused on many areas of development, including physical and social development.
John Watson
Behaviorist who believed that nurture plays more of a role in development.
John Locke
philosopher who believed that the mind is like tabula rasa, a blank slate.
Jean Piaget
One of the most famous stage theorists. His studies led him to conclude that everyone develops in the same way, through four stages.
Erik Erickson
Well known stage theorist who focused on the role of social relationships in the development of personality.
J.H. Flavell
argued that cognitive development is a gradual and continuous process.
childhood
the period from two years old to adolescence
infancy
the period from birth to the age of two years
reflex
an involuntary reaction or response, such as swallowing.
rooting
reflex in which babies turn toward the stimuli that touch their cheeks or the corners of their mouths
gross motor development
refers to babies’ progress in coordinating major muscle groups, such as the arms, and the legs and the trunk.
visual cliff
a special structure, portion of which has a surface that looks like a checkerboard. Another portion is a sheet of glass with a checkerboard pattern and a few feet below it.
attachment
the emotional ties that form between people
stranger anxiety
happens around eight months when infants develop a fear of strangers
separation anxiety
cause infants to cry or behave in other ways that indicate distress if their mothers leave them.
Harry F. Harlow
observed that infant monkeys without mothers or companions became attached to pieces of cloth in their cages.
contact comfort
the instinctual need to be touched by something soft, such as skin or fur.
Imprinting
the process by which some animals form immediate attachments during a critical period.
Autism
a developmental disorder that prevents children form forming proper attachments with others.
Authoritative
parents who combine warmth with age appropriate rules and responsibilities.
Authoritarian
parents who believe in obedience for its own sake.
physical, social,and cognitive
type of development that developmental psychologists study
two months
the age at which babies prefer pictures of a human face to any other picture
Secure infants are more likely to mature into happier, friendlier children
An advantage of developing a secure attachment between infant and caregiver
Critical period
point in development during which a person is best suited to learn a particular skill or behavior problem
warm and strict
parenting style is the opposite of a cold and permissive parenting style
It is one-dimensional
A child cannot understand the law of conservation, what does that indicate about his or her thinking?
Turns from stomach to side
what motor development stage comes first?
egocentrism
the inability to see another person’s point of view
gross motor development
learning to crawl is an example of
cross-sectional
along with the longitudinal method developmental psychologists also use
False
Harry F. Harlow’s experiments with infant monkeys proved that infants become attached to those who feed them. Is this true or false?
False
Studies have generally shown that nonparental day care in itself has a strong, clearly definable impact on child development. Is this true or false?
True
Behaviors that are biologically “programmed” to develop are linked to heredity. Is this true or false?
False
Behaviorists believe that heredity is the primary influence on a newborn’s development. Is this true or false?
Moro reflex
A behavior in which babies pull up their legs and arch their backs in response to sudden sounds
environment
according to behaviorists, the strongest influence on human development
preoperational stage
stage of cognitive development when children begin to use words and symbols to represent objects
assimilation
process by which new information is placed in categories that already exist
postconventional moral reasoning
level of moral development in which moral judgements reflect one’s personal values
sensorimotor stage
stage of cognitive development when children learn to coordinate vision with touch
conventional moral reasoning
level of moral development in which moral judgements reflect common standards of society
concrete-operational stage
stage of cognitive development when children begin to show signs of adult thinking