10 Infancy & Childhood

Developmental Psychology
the field in which psychologists study how people grow and change throughout the life span-from conception, through infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and until death.

the autonomic and sequential process of development that results from genetic signals.

Arnold Gesell
proposed that maturation played the most important role in development. He focused on many areas of development, including physical and social development.

John Watson
Behaviorist who believed that nurture plays more of a role in development.

John Locke
philosopher who believed that the mind is like tabula rasa, a blank slate.

Jean Piaget
One of the most famous stage theorists. His studies led him to conclude that everyone develops in the same way, through four stages.

Erik Erickson
Well known stage theorist who focused on the role of

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social relationships in the development of personality.

J.H. Flavell
argued that cognitive development is a gradual and continuous process.

the period from two years old to adolescence

the period from birth to the age of two years

an involuntary reaction or response, such as swallowing.

reflex in which babies turn toward the stimuli that touch their cheeks or the corners of their mouths

gross motor development
refers to babies’ progress in coordinating major muscle groups, such as the arms, and the legs and the trunk.

visual cliff
a special structure, portion of which has a surface that looks like a checkerboard. Another portion is a sheet of glass with a checkerboard pattern and a few feet below it.

the emotional ties that form between people

stranger anxiety
happens around eight months when infants develop a fear of strangers

separation anxiety
cause infants to cry or behave in other ways that indicate distress if their mothers leave them.

Harry F. Harlow
observed that infant monkeys without mothers or companions became attached to pieces of cloth in their cages.

contact comfort
the instinctual need to be touched by something soft, such as skin or fur.

the process by which some animals form immediate attachments during a critical period.

a developmental disorder that prevents children form forming proper attachments with others.

parents who combine warmth with age appropriate rules and responsibilities.

parents who believe in obedience for its own sake.

physical, social,and cognitive
type of development that developmental psychologists study

two months
the age at which babies prefer pictures of a human face to any other picture

Secure infants are more likely to mature into happier, friendlier children
An advantage of developing a secure attachment between infant and caregiver

Critical period
point in development during which a person is best suited to learn a particular skill or behavior problem

warm and strict
parenting style is the opposite of a cold and permissive parenting style

It is one-dimensional
A child cannot understand the law of conservation, what does that indicate about his or her thinking?

Turns from stomach to side
what motor development stage comes first?

the inability to see another person’s point of view

gross motor development
learning to crawl is an example of

along with the longitudinal method developmental psychologists also use

Harry F. Harlow’s experiments with infant monkeys proved that infants become attached to those who feed them. Is this true or false?

Studies have generally shown that nonparental day care in itself has a strong, clearly definable impact on child development. Is this true or false?

Behaviors that are biologically “programmed” to develop are linked to heredity. Is this true or false?

Behaviorists believe that heredity is the primary influence on a newborn’s development. Is this true or false?

Moro reflex
A behavior in which babies pull up their legs and arch their backs in response to sudden sounds

according to behaviorists, the strongest influence on human development

preoperational stage
stage of cognitive development when children begin to use words and symbols to represent objects

process by which new information is placed in categories that already exist

postconventional moral reasoning
level of moral development in which moral judgements reflect one’s personal values

sensorimotor stage
stage of cognitive development when children learn to coordinate vision with touch

conventional moral reasoning
level of moral development in which moral judgements reflect common standards of society

concrete-operational stage
stage of cognitive development when children begin to show signs of adult thinking

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