1.2

What is DNA?
Deoxyribonucleic acid, which is basically the blueprint of a person

How do scientists isolate DNA in order to study it?
Scientists extract DNA using a lysis buffer and ethanol.

How does DNA differ from person to person?
99.9% of DNA is the same, it’s the remaining .1% that determines characteristics such as sex.

How can tools of molecular biology be used to compare the DNA of two individuals?
Microbiologists will extract DNA and then examine it to see if the structure if identical or not. They can also use DNA amplification.

What are restriction enzymes?
They are enzymes that cut a DNA molecule at a certain place.

What are restriction fragment length polymorphisms?
The difference in a homologous DNA sequence can be detected by the presence of fragments of different lengths

What is gel electrophoresis and how can the result of this technique be interpreted?
It is used to separate mixtures of DNA, RNA, or proteins according to molecular size, it can be used to tell if two samples are the same.

Adenine
The base that pairs with Thymine in DNA

Chromosome
Bodies within the nucleus made in DNA and proteins called the histones

Cytosine
The base that pairs with Guanine in DNA

DNA
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell’s proteins.

Gel electrophoresis
Procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel

Gene
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait

Guanine
A nucleotide that bonds with cytosine; a purine

Helix
A shape like a coiled spring, used to describe the structue of DNA molecules.

Model
A pattern, plan, representation, or description designed to show the structure or workings of an object, system, or concept

Nucleotide
A building block of DNA, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.

Restriction enzyme
Enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides

Restriction fragment length polymorphisms
the length of a restriction fragment, A DNA segment that results from the cutting of DNA by a restriction enzyme.

Thymine
Adenine always pairs with